Zaolzie is the Polish name for an area now in the Czech Republic, disputed between interwar Poland and Czechoslovakia. The name means "lands beyond the Olza River". Equivalent terms in other languages include Zaolší in Olsa-Gebiet in German; the Zaolzie region was created in 1920, when Cieszyn Silesia was divided between Czechoslovakia and Poland. Zaolzie forms the eastern part of the Czech portion of Cieszyn Silesia; the division did not satisfy any side, persisting conflict over the region led to its annexation by Poland in October 1938, following the Munich Agreement. After the invasion of Poland in 1939, the area became a part of Nazi Germany until 1945. After the war, the 1920 borders were restored; the largest specified ethnic group inhabiting this area were Poles. Under Austrian rule, Cieszyn Silesia was divided into three, into four districts. One of them, Frýdek, had a Czech population, the other three were inhabited by Poles. During the 19th century the number of ethnic Germans grew. After declining at the end of the 19th century, at the beginning of the 20th century and from 1920 to 1938 the Czech population grew and Poles became a minority, which they are to this day.
Another significant ethnic group were the Jews, but the entire Jewish population was murdered during World War II by Nazi Germany. In addition to the Polish and German national orientations there was another group living in the area, the Ślązakowcy, who claimed a distinct Silesian national identity; this group enjoyed popular support throughout the whole of Cieszyn Silesia although its strongest supporters were among the Protestants in eastern part of the Cieszyn Silesia and not in Zaolzie itself. The term Zaolzie is used predominantly in Poland and commonly by the Polish minority living in the territory. In Czech it is referred to as České Těšínsko/Českotěšínsko, or as Těšínsko or Těšínské Slezsko; the Czech equivalent of Zaolzie is used. The term of Zaolzie is used by some foreign scholars, e.g. American ethnolinguist Kevin Hannan; the term Zaolzie denotes the territory of the former districts of Český Těšín and Fryštát, in which the Polish population formed a majority according to the 1910 Austrian census.
It makes up the eastern part of the Czech portion of Cieszyn Silesia. However, Polish historian Józef Szymeczek notes that the term is mistakenly used for the whole Czech part of Cieszyn Silesia. Since the 1960 reform of administrative divisions of Czechoslovakia, Zaolzie has consisted of Karviná District and the eastern part of Frýdek-Místek District. After the Migration Period the area was settled by West Slavs, which were organized into the Golensizi tribe; the tribe had a important gord situated in contemporary Chotěbuz. In the 880s or the early 890s the gord was raided and burned, most by an army of Svatopluk I of Moravia, afterwards the area could have been subjugated by Great Moravia, however questioned by historians like Zdeněk Klanica, Idzi Panic, Stanisław Szczur. After the fall of Great Moravia in 907 the area could have been under the influence of Bohemian rulers. In the late 10th century Poland, ruled by Bolesław I Chrobry, began to contend for the region, crossed by important international routes.
From 950 to 1060 it was under the rule of the Duchy of Bohemia, from 1060 it was part of Poland. The written history explicitly about the region begins on 23 April 1155 when Cieszyn/Těšín was first mentioned in a written document, a letter from Pope Adrian IV issued for Walter, Bishop of Wrocław, where it was listed amongst other centres of castellanies; the castellany was a part of Duchy of Silesia. In 1172 it became a part of Duchy of Racibórz, from 1202 of Duchy of Opole and Racibórz. In the first half of the 13th century the Moravian settlement organised by Arnold von Hückeswagen from Starý Jičín castle and accelerated by Bruno von Schauenburg, Bishop of Olomouc, began to press close to Silesian settlements; this prompted signing of a special treaty between Duke Władysław of Opole and King Ottokar II of Bohemia on December 1261 which regulated a local border between their states along the Ostravice River. In order to strengthen the border Władysław of Opole decided to found Orlová monastery in 1268.
In the continued process of feudal fragmentation of Poland the Castellany of Cieszyn was transformed in 1290 into the Duchy of Cieszyn, which in 1327 became an autonomic fiefdom of the Bohemian crown. Upon the death of Elizabeth Lucretia, its last ruler from the Polish Piast dynasty in 1653, it passed directly to the Czech kings from the Habsburg dynasty; when most of Silesia was conquered by Prussian king Frederick the Great in 1742, the Cieszyn region was part of the small southern portion, retained by the Habsburg monarchy. Up to the mid-19th century members of the local Slav population did not identify themselves as members of larger ethnolinguistic entities. In Cieszyn Silesia various territorial identities pre-dated national identity. Consciousness of membership within a greater Polish or Czech nation spread in Silesia. From 1848 to the end of the 19th century, local Polish and Czech people co-operated, united against the Germanizing tendencies of the Austrian Empire and of Austria-Hungary.
At the end of the century, ethnic tensions arose as the are
Human penises vary in size on a number of measures, including length and circumference when flaccid and erect. Besides the natural variability of human penises in general, there are factors that lead to minor variations in a particular male, such as the level of arousal, time of day, room temperature, frequency of sexual activity. Compared to other primates, including large examples such as the gorilla, the human penis is thickest, both in absolute terms and relative to the rest of the body. Measurements vary, with studies that rely on self-measurement reporting a higher average than those with a health professional measuring; as of 2015, a systematic review of 15,521 men, the best research to date on the topic, as the subjects were measured by health professionals, rather than self-measured, has concluded that the average length of an erect human penis is 13.12 cm long, while the average circumference of an erect human penis is 11.66 cm. Flaccid penis length can sometimes be a poor predictor of erect length.
Most human penis growth occurs between infancy and the age of five, between about one year after the onset of puberty and, at latest 17 years of age. A statistically significant correlation between penis size and the size of other body parts has not been found in research; some environmental factors in addition to genetics, such as the presence of endocrine disruptors, can affect penis growth. An adult penis with an erect length of less than 7 cm, but otherwise formed is referred to in medicine as a micropenis. While results vary across reputable studies, the consensus is that the mean human penis, when erect, is in the range 12.9–15 cm in length. A 2015 systematic review published by Veale et al. of medical research on the topic over the previous 30 years published in BJU International showed similar results, giving mean flaccid, stretched non-erect, erect lengths of 9.16 cm, 13.24 cm, 13.12 cm and mean flaccid and erect circumferences of 9.31 cm and 11.66 cm respectively. Erect lengths in the included studies were measured by pushing the pre-pubic fat pad to the bone, flaccid or erect girth was measured at the base or mid-shaft of the penis.
One study found the mean flaccid penis length to be 3.5 inches. A review of several studies found average flaccid length to be 9–10 cm. Length of the flaccid penis does not correspond to length of the erect penis; the penis and scrotum can contract involuntarily in reaction to cold temperatures or nervousness, referred to by the slang term "shrinkage", due to action by the cremaster muscle. The same phenomenon affects cyclists and exercise bike users, with prolonged pressure on the perineum from the bicycle saddle and the straining of the exercise causing the penis and scrotum to contract involuntarily. An incorrect saddle may cause erectile dysfunction. Neither age nor size of the flaccid penis predicted erectile length. Stretched length has correlated with erect length in some cases. However, studies have shown drastic differences between stretched and erect length; the 2015 study of 15,521 men, found that the average length of a stretched flaccid penis was 13.24 cm long, near identical to the average length of an erect human penis, 13.12 cm long.
An Italian study of about 3,300 men published in European Urology concluded that flaccid stretched length was measured on average to about 12.5 cm. In addition, they checked for correlations in a random subset of the sample consisting of 325 men, they found a few statistically significant Spearman's correlations: between flaccid length and height of 0.208, −0.140 with weight, −0.238 with BMI, flaccid circumference and height 0.156, stretched length and height 0.221, weight −0.136, BMI −0.169. They reported a few non-significant correlations. Scientific studies have been performed on the erect length of the adult penis. Studies that have relied on self-measurement, including those from Internet surveys reported a higher average length than those that used medical or scientific methods to obtain measurements; the following staff-measured studies are composed of different subgroups of the human population that could cause a sample bias. In a study of 80 healthy males published in the September 1996 Journal of Urology an average erect penis length of 12.9 cm was measured.
The purpose of the study was to "provide guidelines of penile length and circumference to assist in counseling patients considering penile augmentation." Erection was pharmacologically induced in 80 physically normal American men. It was concluded: "Neither patient age nor size of the flaccid penis predicted erectile length." A study published in the December 2000 International Journal of Impotence Research found that average erect penis length in 50 Jewish Caucasian males was 13.6 cm. The study intended "to identify clinical and engineering parameters of the flaccid penis for prediction of penile size during erection." Erection was pharmacologically induced in 50 Jewish Caucasian patients, evaluated for erectile dysfunction. Patients with penis abnormalities or whose ED could be attributed to more than one psychological origin were omitted from the study. A review published in the 2007 issue of BJU International showed the average erect penis length to be 14–16
United States Space Command is a unified combatant command of the United States Department of Defense responsible for command and control of military space operations. Space Command was created in September 1985 to coordinate the use of outer space by the United States Armed Forces, but was inactivated in 2002. Space Command was reestablished as on 29 August 2019, due to an increased focus on military space operations. U. S. Space Command's mission is to "deter aggression and conflict, defend U. S. and allied freedom of action, deliver space combat power for the Joint/Combined force, develop joint warfighters to advance U. S. and allied interests in, through the space domain." United States Space Command has two subordinate components. While CFSCC uses "space assets to provide effects to the warfighting units across the globe, JTF-SD has the responsibility to protect and defend space assets from both terrestrial and space-based threats; this includes the identification and characterization of potential threats and decisive response options to handle those threats."
Combined Force Space Component Command, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California - CFSCC is responsible for supporting military commanders around the globe by providing space-based services, including GPS navigation, space-based data, satellite communications, missile warning Combined Space Operations Center, Vandenberg AFB Missile Warning Center, Cheyenne Mountain AFS Joint Overhead Persistent Infrared Center, Buckley AFB Joint Navigation Warfare Center, Kirtland AFB Joint Task Force-Space Defense, Schriever Air Force Base, Colorado - JTF-SD is responsible for protecting military satellites from aggression National Space Defense Center - Co-located within JTF-SD, NSDC is a joint effort between the Department of Defense and the United States Intelligence Community responsible for detecting and defending against threats to military space systems those of the National Reconnaissance Office United States Space Command was established in 1985 to provide joint command and control of the Air Force and Navy's space forces.
In the aftermath of the September 11 attacks, the armed forces' focus on homeland defense and counter-terrorism was increased, which resulted in space being deemphasized. It was in this context that the unified command plan was reevaluated, resulting in U. S. Northern Command being established for the defense of the North American continent, while U. S. Space Command was merged with U. S. Strategic Command, where it became the Joint Functional Component Command for Space and Global Strike. In 2006, this would be replaced by the Joint Functional Component Command for Space, in 2017, be reorganized as the Joint Force Space Component Commander; the 2019 National Defense Authorization Act, signed into law in 2018, directed the reestablishment of U. S. Space Command as a sub-unified combatant command under U. S. Strategic Command. S. Space Command instead be reestablished as a full unified combatant command, with full responsibilities for space warfighting held under U. S. Strategic Command. On March 26, 2019, U.
S. Air Force General John W. Raymond was nominated to be Commander of the reestablished USSPACECOM, pending Senate approval. In 2019 the Air Force released that the list of finalists for the Headquarters of Space Command are: Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station, Schriever Air Force Base, Peterson Air Force Base, Buckley Air Force Base, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Redstone Arsenal; the service components were reported to be: Air Force Space Command, Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Fleet Cyber Command/Tenth Fleet, Joint Navigation and Warfare Center, Missile Warning Center, Joint Overhead Persistent Infrared Center, National Space Defense Center, Combined Space Operations Center. U. S. Space Command was reestablished on August 29, 2019 during a ceremony at the White House; the former Joint Force Space Component Commander was folded into Space Command. USSPACECOM has two subordinate commands: Combined Force Space Component Command, Joint Task Force Space Defense with commanders AF Maj. Gen. Stephen Whiting, Army BG Gen. Tom James, respectively.
CFSCC plans, integrates and assesses global space operations in order to deliver combat relevant space capabilities to Combatant Commanders, Coalition partners, the Joint Force, the Nation. JTF-SD conducts, in unified action with mission partners, space superiority operations to deter aggression, defend U. S. and allied interests, defeat adversaries throughout the continuum of conflict. Air Force: 8 Space Force: 1 Army: none Marine Corps: none Navy: none Coast Guard: none United States Space Force United States Space Command official website FAS: United States Space Command HR5515 FY1 - The John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 which reestablishes the United States Space Command