Mexico–United States border
The Mexico–United States border is an international border separating Mexico and the United States, extending from the Pacific Ocean in the west to the Gulf of Mexico in the east. The border traverses a variety of terrains; the Mexico–US border is the most crossed border in the world, with 350 million documented crossings annually. The total length of the continental border is 3,145 kilometers. From the Gulf of Mexico, it follows the course of the Rio Grande to the border crossing at Ciudad Juárez, El Paso, Texas. Westward from El Paso–Juárez, it crosses vast tracts of the Chihuahuan and Sonoran deserts to the Colorado River Delta and San Diego–Tijuana, before reaching the Pacific Ocean; the Mexico–United States border extends 3,145 kilometers, in addition to the maritime boundaries of 29 kilometers in the Pacific Ocean and 19 kilometers in the Gulf of Mexico. According to the International Boundary and Water Commission, the continental border follows the middle of the Rio Grande—according to the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo between the two nations, "along the deepest channel" —from its mouth on the Gulf of Mexico a distance of 2,020 kilometers to a point just upstream of El Paso and Ciudad Juárez.
It follows an alignment westward overland and it is marked by monuments for a distance of 859 kilometers to the Colorado River, when it reaches its highest elevation at the intersection with the Continental Divide. It follows the middle of that river toward the north with a distance of 39 kilometers, follows an alignment overland toward the west and marked by monuments with a distance of 227 kilometers to the Pacific Ocean. Per the La Paz Agreement, the official "border area" extends 100 kilometers "on either side of the inland and maritime boundaries" from the Gulf of Mexico west into the Pacific Ocean. There is a 100-mile border zone; the Rio Grande meanders along the Texas–Mexico border. As a result, the United States and Mexico have a treaty by which the Rio Grande is maintained as the border, with new cut-offs and islands being transferred to the other nation as necessary; the Boundary Treaty of 1970 between Mexico and the United States settled all outstanding boundary disputes and uncertainties related to the Rio Grande border.
The region is characterized by deserts, rugged hills, abundant sunshine, two major rivers—the Colorado and the Rio Grande. The U. S. states along the border, from west to east, are California, New Mexico, Texas. The Mexican states along the border are Baja California, Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas. Among the U. S. states, Texas has the longest stretch of the border with Mexico, while California has the shortest. Among the states in Mexico, Chihuahua has the longest border with the United States, while Nuevo León has the shortest. Texas borders four Mexican states—Tamaulipas, Nuevo León, Chihuahua—the most of any U. S. states. New Mexico and Arizona each borders two Mexican states. California borders only Baja California. Three Mexican states border two U. S. states each: Baja California borders California and Arizona. Tamaulipas, Nuevo León, Coahuila each borders only one U. S. state: Texas. Along the border are 23 U. S. counties and 39 Mexican municipalities. The border separating Mexico and the United States is the most crossed international boundary in the world, with 350 million legal crossings taking place annually.
There are 48 U. S.–Mexico border crossings, with 330 ports of entry. At these points of entry, people trying to get into the U. S. are required to open their bags for inspection. Border crossings take place by roads, pedestrian walkways and ferries. From west to east, below is a list of the border city "twinnings"; the total population of the borderlands—defined as those counties and municipios lining the border on either side—stands at some 12 million people. The Mexico–United States border is the world's most transited border; the San Ysidro Port of Entry is located between San Ysidro and Tijuana, Baja California. 50,000 vehicles and 25,000 pedestrians use this entry daily. Due to business of this entry port, it has influenced the every day life-style of people that live in these border towns; the world's busiest border is having an impact on communities on both sides of the border. The average wait time to cross into the United States is an hour. Having thousands of vehicles transit through the border every day is causing air pollution in San Ysidro and Tijuana.
The emission of carbon monoxide and other vehicle related air contaminants have been linked to health complications such as cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, birth outcomes, premature death, obesity and other respiratory diseases. Due to the high levels of traffic collusion and the extended wait times, mental health is impacted by the border's business, affecting the person's stress levels and aggressive behavior; the San Ysidro border is militarized, separated by three walls, border patrol agents and ICE. Tijuana is the next target for San Diegan developers due to the fast-growing city, its lower cost of living, cheap prices and proximity to San Diego. While this would benefit the tourist aspect of the city, it is damaging to low-income residents that will no longer be able to
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Oklahoma is a state in the South Central region of the United States, bordered by Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, Texas on the south, New Mexico on the west, Colorado on the northwest. It is the 28th-most populous of the fifty United States; the state's name is derived from the Choctaw words okla and humma, meaning "red people". It is known informally by its nickname, "The Sooner State", in reference to the non-Native settlers who staked their claims on land before the official opening date of lands in the western Oklahoma Territory or before the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889, which increased European-American settlement in the eastern Indian Territory. Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged into the State of Oklahoma when it became the 46th state to enter the union on November 16, 1907, its residents are known as Oklahomans, its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City. A major producer of natural gas and agricultural products, Oklahoma relies on an economic base of aviation, telecommunications, biotechnology.
Both Oklahoma City and Tulsa serve as Oklahoma's primary economic anchors, with nearly two thirds of Oklahomans living within their metropolitan statistical areas. With ancient mountain ranges, prairie and eastern forests, most of Oklahoma lies in the Great Plains, Cross Timbers, the U. S. Interior Highlands, a region prone to severe weather. More than 25 Native American languages are spoken in Oklahoma, ranking third behind Alaska and California. Oklahoma is on a confluence of three major American cultural regions and served as a route for cattle drives, a destination for Southern settlers, a government-sanctioned territory for Native Americans; the name Oklahoma comes from the Choctaw phrase okla humma meaning red people. Choctaw Nation Chief Allen Wright suggested the name in 1866 during treaty negotiations with the federal government on the use of Indian Territory, in which he envisioned an all-Indian state controlled by the United States Superintendent of Indian Affairs. Equivalent to the English word Indian, okla humma was a phrase in the Choctaw language that described Native American people as a whole.
Oklahoma became the de facto name for Oklahoma Territory, it was approved in 1890, two years after the area was opened to white settlers. The name of the state is Pawnee: Uukuhuúwa, Cayuga: Gahnawiyoˀgeh. In the Chickasaw language, the state is known as Oklahomma', in Arapaho as bo'oobe'. Oklahoma is the 20th-largest state in the United States, covering an area of 69,899 square miles, with 68,595 square miles of land and 1,304 square miles of water, it lies in the Great Plains near the geographical center of the 48 contiguous states. It is bounded on the east by Arkansas and Missouri, on the north by Kansas, on the northwest by Colorado, on the far west by New Mexico, on the south and near-west by Texas. Much of its border with Texas lies along a failed continental rift; the geologic figure defines the placement of the Red River. The Oklahoma panhandle's Western edge is out of alignment with its Texas border; the Oklahoma/New Mexico border is 2.1 miles to 2.2 miles east of the Texas line. The border between Texas and New Mexico was set first as a result of a survey by Spain in 1819.
It was set along the 103rd meridian. In the 1890s, when Oklahoma was formally surveyed using more accurate surveying equipment and techniques, it was discovered the Texas line was not set along the 103rd meridian. Surveying techniques were not as accurate in 1819, the actual 103rd meridian was 2.2 miles to the east. It was much easier to leave the mistake than for Texas to cede land to New Mexico to correct the surveying error; the placement of the Oklahoma/New Mexico border represents the true 103rd meridian. Cimarron County in Oklahoma's panhandle is the only county in the United States that touches four other states: New Mexico, Texas and Kansas. Oklahoma is between the Great Plains and the Ozark Plateau in the Gulf of Mexico watershed sloping from the high plains of its western boundary to the low wetlands of its southeastern boundary, its highest and lowest points follow this trend, with its highest peak, Black Mesa, at 4,973 feet above sea level, situated near its far northwest corner in the Oklahoma Panhandle.
The state's lowest point is on the Little River near its far southeastern boundary near the town of Idabel, which dips to 289 feet above sea level. Among the most geographically diverse states, Oklahoma is one of four to harbor more than 10 distinct ecological regions, with 11 in its borders—more per square mile than in any other state, its western and eastern halves, are marked by extreme differences in geographical diversity: Eastern Oklahoma touches eight ecological regions and its western half contains three. Although having fewer ecological regions Western Oklahoma contains many relic species. Oklahoma has four primary mountain ranges: the Ouachita Mountains, the Arbuckle Mountains, the Wichita Mountains, the Ozark Mountains. Contained within the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the Ozark and Ouachita Mountains are the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachians. A portion of the Flint Hills stretches into north-central Oklahoma, near the state's eastern border, The Oklahoma Tourism & Recreation Department regards Cavanal Hill as the world's tallest hill.
The semi-arid high
Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge
The Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge is a 90,788-acre National Wildlife Refuge located in the Lower Rio Grande Valley region of southern Texas. It is along the northern banks and reaches of the Lower Rio Grande, north of the Mexico—United States international border. Only 5% of the native riparian and wetland habitats remain along the lower Rio Grande and its local tributaries. However, the diversity within these fragments adds up to a significant 1,200 species of native plants, 700 species of vertebrates, 300 species of butterflies. Eleven different biological communities exist on the National Wildlife Refuge, from the Chihuahuan Desert thorn forest to tidal wetlands. Wildlife include the rare ocelot, northern caracara, Mexican bluewing butterfly, great kiskadee, red-billed pigeon, Altamira oriole, ringed kingfisher and green jay; the refuge is designated as part of the Great Texas Coastal Birding Trail, a network of wildlife viewing sites throughout the Texas coastal regions.
National Wildlife Refuges in Texas Southwest.fws.gov: Official Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge website This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
Laredo is a city in and the county seat of Webb County, United States, on the north bank of the Rio Grande in South Texas, across from Nuevo Laredo, Mexico. According to the 2010 census, the city population was 236,091, making it the tenth-most populous city in the state of Texas and third-most populated on the Mexico–United States border, after San Diego, El Paso, Texas, its metropolitan area is the 178th-largest in the U. S. and includes all of Webb County, with a population of 250,304. Laredo is part of the cross-border Laredo-Nuevo Laredo Metropolitan Area with an estimated population of 636,516; because Laredo is 95.6 percent Hispanic and Latino, it is one of the least ethnically diverse cities in the United States. When economic diversity, household diversity, social class diversity are considered, Laredo is rated the 19th least diverse city overall out of the 313 largest cities in the nation. Laredo's economy is based on international trade with Mexico. Many major transportation companies have a facility in Laredo.
The city's location on the southern end of I-35, close to the manufacturers in northern Mexico, promotes its vital role in trade between the two nations. Laredo International Airport is within the Laredo city limits, while the Quetzalcoatl International Airport is nearby in Nuevo Laredo on the Mexican side. Laredo has the distinction of flying seven flags. Founded in 1755, Laredo grew from a village to the capital of the brief Republic of the Rio Grande to the largest inland port on the Mexico–United States border. Today, it has one railway bridge. Texas A&M International University and Laredo College are in Laredo; the biggest festival, Washington's Birthday Celebration, is held during the part of January and the majority of February, attracting hundreds of thousands of tourists. The Jalapeño Festival, Border Beer Fest, Stockmen's Ball, Princess Pocahontas Pageant, Mr. South Texas Luncheon, an air show, two major parades are all held in conjunction with the Washington's birthday events; the European colonial settlement of Villa de San Agustin de Laredo was founded in 1755 by Don Tomás Sánchez while the area was part of the Nuevo Santander region in the Spanish colony of New Spain.
Villa de San Agustin de Laredo was named after Laredo, Spain and in honor of Saint Augustine of Hippo. In 1840, Laredo was the capital of the independent Republic of the Rio Grande, set up in opposition to Antonio López de Santa Anna. In 1846 during the Mexican–American War, the town was occupied by the Texas Rangers. After the war, the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo ceded the land to the United States. A referendum was taken in the town, which voted to petition the American military government in charge of the area to return the town to Mexico; when this petition was rejected, most of the population, who were Tejano and had been in the area for generations, moved across the river into Mexican territory, where they founded Nuevo Laredo. In 1849, the United States Army set up Fort McIntosh. Laredo was rechartered as a city in 1852. Laredo is one of the oldest crossing points along the Mexico–United States border, the nation's largest inland port of entry. In 2005, Laredo celebrated the 250th anniversary of its founding.
The origin of name of the original Spanish town of Laredo is unclear. Some scholars say the name stems from Glaretum which means "sandy, rocky place". Others state Laredo stems from a Basque word meaning "beautiful pastures". Laredo might stem from the Latin Larida which means gull. In 1946, the Plaza Theater opened in downtown Laredo, but it closed in 1999, when the municipal government purchased the property from United Artists. In 2001, the Laredo City Council authorized a feasibility study to determine what use the old theater might yet have. In 2003, a consultant recommended converting the Plaza into a multi-purpose performing arts center, with dance recitals, live theater, occasional films. In 2006, the city received an economic development grant for renovation of the Plaza. By 2008, renovations were made to the theater blade design. In 2011, a public-private partnership was attempted by two Laredo businessmen, Danny Lopez, Jr. and Victor Trevino, Jr. but that initiative never materialized.
In 2018, the city council authorized the solicitation of private entities and non-profit organizations to operate the theater. The council is seeking input from architects for the concept and design of renovations to the structure. In 1954, Laredo faced a devastating Rio Grande flood, when the water reached 61.35 feet, more than 10 feet higher than in the previous 1932 flood, which had caused great damage. According to Laredo historian Jerry D. Thompson of Texas A&M International University, the 1954 flood was "the largest in ninety-one years and the second largest according to archeological records in the last three hundred years." Many were left homeless for a time because of the calamity. Former Webb County administrative Judge Mercurio Martinez, Jr. recalls his father surveyed the depth of the water and advised residents to evacuate. Several downtown businesses had to remove their merchandise inventory or risk losing it to the rising waters; the flood caused the relocation of the Holding Institute.
The international bridge was destroyed when it was struck by the floating railroad bridge, hit by the debris of another bridge in Eagle Pass up the river. Photos of the flood by Teofilo Esquivel, Sr. are on the wall of a Danny's Restaurant on McPherson Avenue in Laredo. In 2016, the violent
Texas oil boom
The Texas oil boom, sometimes called the gusher age, was a period of dramatic change and economic growth in the U. S. state of Texas during the early 20th century that began with the discovery of a large petroleum reserve near Beaumont, Texas. The find was unprecedented in its size and ushered in an age of rapid regional development and industrialization that has few parallels in U. S. history. Texas became one of the leading oil producing states in the U. S. along with Oklahoma and California. By 1940 Texas had come to dominate U. S. production. Some historians define the beginning of the world's Oil Age as the beginning of this era in Texas; the major petroleum strikes that began the rapid growth in petroleum exploration and speculation occurred in Southeast Texas, but soon reserves were found across Texas and wells were constructed in North Texas, East Texas, the Permian Basin in West Texas. Although limited reserves of oil had been struck during the 19th century, the strike at Spindletop near Beaumont in 1901 gained national attention, spurring exploration and development that continued through the 1920s and beyond.
Spindletop and the Joiner strike in East Texas, at the outset of the Great Depression, were the key strikes that launched this era of change in the state. This period had a transformative effect on Texas. At the turn of the century, the state was predominantly rural with no large cities. By the end of World War II, the state was industrialized, the populations of Texas cities had broken into the top 20 nationally; the city of Houston was among the greatest beneficiaries of the boom, the Houston area became home to the largest concentration of refineries and petrochemical plants in the world. The city grew from a small commercial center in 1900 to one of the largest cities in the United States during the decades following the era; this period, changed all of Texas' commercial centers. H. Roy Cullen, H. L. Hunt, Sid W. Richardson, Clint Murchison were the four most influential businessmen during this era; these men became among the wealthiest and most politically powerful in the nation. Several events in the 19th century have been regarded as a beginning of oil-related growth in Texas, one of the earliest being the opening of the Corsicana oil field in 1894.
Most historians consider the Spindletop strike of 1901, at the time the world's most productive petroleum well found, to be the beginning point. This single discovery began a rapid pattern of change in Texas and brought worldwide attention to the state. By the 1940s, the Texas Railroad Commission, given regulatory control of the Texas oil industry, managed to stabilize American oil production and eliminate most of the wild price swings that were common during the earlier years of the boom. Many small towns, such as Wortham, which had become boomtowns during the 1920s saw their booms end in the late 1920s and early 1930s as their local economies collapsed, resulting from their dependence on limited petroleum reservoirs; as production peaked in some of these smaller fields and the Great Depression lowered demand, investors fled. In the major refining and manufacturing centers such as Beaumont and Dallas, the boom continued to varying degrees until the end of World War II. By the end of the war, the economies of the major urban areas of the state had matured.
Though Texas continued to prosper and grow, the extreme growth patterns and dramatic socioeconomic changes of the earlier years subsided as the cities settled into more sustainable patterns of growth. Localized booms in West Texas and other areas, continued to transform some small communities during the post-war period. Following the American Civil War, Texas's economy began to develop centered on cattle ranching and cotton farming, lumber. Galveston became Texas' largest commercial center. By 1890, Dallas had exceeded Galveston's population, in the early 1900s the Port of Houston began to challenge Galveston's dominance. In 1900 a massive hurricane struck Galveston; that and another storm in 1915 shifted much of the focus from investors away from Galveston and toward nearby Houston, seen as a safer location for commercial operations. Because of these events, the coming oil boom became centered on the city of Houston both as a port and a commercial center. Though Texas had notable urban areas at the turn of the century, it was still a predominantly rural state.
Texas was open range, meaning that livestock could roam throughout the state. In the 1850s, the process to distill kerosene from petroleum was invented by Abraham Gesner; the demand for the petroleum as a fuel for lighting around the world grew. Petroleum exploration developed in many parts of the world with the Russian Empire the Branobel company in Azerbaijan, taking the lead in production by the end of the 19th century. In 1859, Edwin Drake of Pennsylvania invented a drilling process to extract oil from deep within the earth. Drake's invention is credited with giving birth to the oil industry in the U. S; the first oil refiner in the United States opened in 1861 in Western Pennsylvania, during the Pennsylvanian oil rush. Standard Oil, founded by John D. Rockefeller in Ohio, became a multi-state trust and came to dominate the young petroleum industry in the U. S. Texans knew of the oil that lay beneath the ground in the state for decades, but this was seen more as a problem than a benefit because it hindered the digging of water wells.