Hip-hop dance refers to street dance styles performed to hip-hop music or that have evolved as part of hip-hop culture. It includes a wide range of styles breaking, created in the 1970s and made popular by dance crews in the United States; the television show Soul Train and the 1980s films Breakin', Beat Street, Wild Style showcased these crews and dance styles in their early stages. The dance industry responded with a commercial, studio-based version of hip-hop—sometimes called "new style"—and a hip-hop influenced style of jazz dance called "jazz-funk". Classically trained dancers developed these studio styles in order to create choreography from the hip-hop dances that were performed on the street; because of this development, hip-hop dance is practiced in outdoor spaces. The commercialization of hip-hop dance continued into the 1990s and 2000s with the production of several television shows and movies such as The Grind, Planet B-Boy, StreetDance 3D, America's Best Dance Crew, Saigon Electric, the Step Up film series, The LXD, a web series.
Though the dance is established in entertainment, including mild representation in theater, it maintains a strong presence in urban neighborhoods which has led to the creation of street dance derivatives Memphis jookin, jerkin', krump. 1980s films, television shows, the Internet have contributed to introducing hip-hop dance outside the United States. Since being exposed, educational opportunities and dance competitions have helped maintain its presence worldwide. Europe hosts several international hip-hop dance competitions such as the UK B-Boy Championships, Juste Debout, EuroBattle. Australia hosts a team-based competition called World Supremacy Battlegrounds and Japan hosts a two-on-two competition called World Dance Colosseum. What distinguishes hip-hop from other forms of dance is that it is "freestyle" in nature and hip-hop dance crews engage in freestyle dance competitions—colloquially referred to as "battles". Crews and battles are identifiers of this style. Hip-hop dance can be a form of a hobby.
It can be a way to stay active in competitive dance and a way to make a living by dancing professionally. Hip-hop dance is a broad category; the older dance styles that were created in the 1970s include uprock and the funk styles. Breaking was created in New York in the early 1970s. In its earliest form, it began as elaborations on James Brown's "Good Foot" dance which debuted in 1972. Breaking at this period was not floor-oriented as seen today. An influence on toprock was uprock, created in Brooklyn, New York. Uprock looks similar to toprock. Uprock is performed with partners, but in toprock—and in breaking in general—each person takes turns dancing. In 1973, DJ Kool Herc invented. A break beat is a rhythmic, musical interlude of a song, looped over and over again to extend that instrumental solo. Kool Herc did this to provide a means for dancers who attended his parties to demonstrate their skills. B-boy and b-girl stands for "break-boy" and "break-girl". Further influenced by martial arts and gymnastics, breaking went from being a purely upright dance style—toprock only—to becoming more floor-oriented.
At the same time that breaking was developing in New York, other styles were being created in California. The funk styles refer to several street dance styles created in California in the 1970s such as roboting, hitting, bustin', electric boogaloo, sac-ing, dime-stopping. Out of all of these dances, boogaloo is one of the oldest, it started out as a 1960s fad dance and was the subject of several songs released during that time such as "Do the Boogaloo" and "My Baby Likes to Boogaloo". From being a fad, it developed into a dance style called electric boogaloo and a music genre called Latin boogaloo; the most popular and practiced of the funk styles are locking and popping. The television show. Both The Lockers and The Electric Boogaloos—dance crews responsible for the spread of locking and popping—performed on this show, it is inaccurate to say that the funk styles were always considered hip-hop. In an interview with Racked, Moncell Durden, assistant dance professor at the University of Southern California, is quoted as saying "Hip-hop dance involves two dances: breaking and social dances.
That's it. Nothing else is hip-hop." The funk styles were adopted into hip-hop in large part due to the media. The media identified these styles as "breakdance", they were created on the west coast independent from breaking and were danced to funk music, rather than hip-hop music. As breaking and popping gained popularity in the 1980's, hip-hop social dancing started to develop. Novelty and fad dances such as the Roger Rabbit, the Cabbage Patch, the Worm appeared in the 1980s followed by the Humpty dance and the Running Man in the 1990s; the music of the day was the driving force in the development of these dances. For example, the 1980s rap group Gucci Crew II had a song called "The Cabbage Patch" that the dance of the same name was based on. 2000s era social dances include the Cha Cha Slide, the Cat Daddy, the Dougie. The mentioned dances are a sample of the many that have appeared since hip-hop developed into a distinct dance style. Like hip-hop music, hip-hop soc
Circle dance, or chain dance, is a style of dance done in a circle or semicircle to musical accompaniment, such as rhythm instruments and singing. Circle dancing is the oldest known dance formation and was part of community life from when people first started to dance. Dancing in a circle is an ancient tradition common to many cultures for marking special occasions, strengthening community and encouraging togetherness; the dance can be enjoyed as an uplifting group experience or as part of a meditation. Circle dances are choreographed to many different styles of music and rhythms. Unlike line dancing, circle dancers are in physical contact with each other, it is a type of dance. The participants follow a leader around the dance floor while holding the hand of the dancers beside them; the dance can be energetic. Modern circle dance mixes traditional folk dances from European or Near Eastern sources, with choreographed ones to a variety of music both ancient and modern. There is a growing repertoire of new circle dances to classical music and contemporary songs.
Modern circle dancing is found in many cultures, including Arabic, Assyrian, Turkish, Azerbaijani and South Eastern European. Despite its immense reputation in the Middle East and southeast Europe, circle dancing has a historical prominence in Brittany and Ireland to the west of Europe, in South America and with Native Americans, it is used, in its more meditative form, in worship within various religious traditions including, the Church of England and the Islamic Haḍra dances. Thousands of medieval tombstones called "Stećci" were found in Bosnia and Hercegovina and neighboring areas, they dated from the end of the 12th century to the 16th century. They bear inscription and figures. Men and women are portrayed dancing together holding hands at shoulder level but the groups consist of only one sex. In Macedonia, near the town of Zletovo, the murals on the monastery of Lesnovo, which date from the 14th century, show a group of young men linking arms in a round dance. A chronicle from 1344 urges the people of the city of Zadar to sing and dance circle dances for a festival.
However, a reference comes from Bulgaria, in a manuscript of a 14th-century sermon, which calls chain dances "devilish and damned." The circle dance of Germany was called "Reigen", which dates from the 10th century, may have originated from devotional dances at early Christian festivals. Dancing around the church or a fire was denounced by church authorities which only underscores how popular it was. One of the frescos in Tyrol, at Runkelstein Castle, depicts Elisabeth of Poland, Queen of Hungary leading a chain dance. Circle dances were found in Czech Republic, dating to the 15th century. Dancing was done around trees on the village green. In Poland as well the earliest village dances were in circles or lines accompanied by the singing or clapping of the participants. In the 14th century Giovanni Boccaccio describes men and women circle dancing to their own singing or accompanied by musicians. One of the frescos in Siena by Ambrogio Lorenzetti painted in 1338-40 show a group of women doing a "bridge" figure while accompanied by another woman playing the tambourine.
There are the accounts of two western European travelers to Constantinople, the capital of the Ottoman Empire. In 1577, Salomon Schweigger describes the events at a Greek wedding: "then they joined arms one upon the other, made a circle, went round the circle, with their feet stepping hard and stamping. Another traveler, the German pharmacist Reinhold Lubenau, was in Constantinople in November 1588 and reports on a Greek wedding in these terms: "a company of Greeks of ten or more persons, stepped forth to the open place, took each other by the hand, made a round circle, now stepped backward, now forward, sometimes went around, singing in Greek the while, sometimes stamped on the ground with their feet." In Denmark, old ballads mention a closed circle dance. A fresco in Ørslev church in Zealand from about 1400 shows nine people and women, dancing in a line; the leader and some others in the chain carry bouquets of flowers. In the case of women's dances, there may have been a man. In Sweden, medieval songs mentioned dancing.
A long chain was formed, with the leader singing the verses and setting the time while the other dancers joined in the chorus. The hora dance originates in the Balkans but found in other countries; the dancers hold each other's hands and the circle spins counterclockwise, as each participant follows a sequence of three steps forward and one step back. The Hora is popular during wedding celebrations and festivals, is an essential part of the social entertainment in rural areas. In Bulgaria, it is not necessary to be in a circle; the kolo is a collective folk dance common in various South Slavic regions, such as Serbia, named after the circle formed by the dancers. It is performed amongst groups of people holding each other's having their hands around each other's waists. There is no movement
A line dance is a choreographed dance with a repeated sequence of steps in which a group of people dance in one or more lines or rows, all facing either each other or in the same direction, executing the steps at the same time. Unlike circle dancing, line dancers are not in physical contact with each other. Line dancing is a form of dance. Participants execute the same movements in a synchronized manner. Everyone dances alone, side by side, facing the same direction in lines or rows..... Each dance consists of a sequence of steps. Although a variety of music may be used, the major emphasis is on country-and-western music. Line dancing involves people performing dance movements together, it consists of patterned foot movements that are performed to a number of counts per sequence, the sequence is repeated. The dances are done two-wall, or four-wall. Line dancing is practiced and learned in country-western dance bars, social clubs, dance clubs and ballrooms, it is sometimes combined on dance programs with other forms of country-western dance, such as two-step, western promenade dances, as well as western-style variants of the waltz and swing.
Line dances have accompanied many popular music styles since the early 1970s including pop, swing and roll, Latin and blues and jazz. Dances like the Cha Cha Slide, Electric Slide, Cupid Shuffle are a few of the line dances that have remained part of modern American culture for years. "Line dancing is most directly descended from the 1970s disco era, when America saw a variety of new dances emerge", including the Electric Slide, "in this same era, country-and-western line dancing emerged", including the Walkin' Wazi and the Cowboy Boogie. "Some claim. Whatever its source and growth of line dancing has been inextricably tied to country-and-western music." Since its birth, "line dancing began incorporating many musical styles besides country... Country music began to appear on the pop charts, line dancing began to cross boundaries of income, race and gender... Now line dancing is considered an art form of its own, with its own terminology and standardized steps.""If you were to ask 10 people with some knowledge of when line dancing began, you'd get 10 different answers", including: "In the 1800s, European immigrants traveled west to North America, bringing with them a wealth of culture, including such native dances as the polka and waltz, whose movements joined and evolved into what was called round and square dancing.
Many believe that this style of dancing introduced the terms and steps used in country line dancing today." "Some people feel it was the cowboys on the western frontier, from the 1860s to the 1890s, that took these more traditional dance moves and assimilated them into a country-western style." "Other believe that the settlers of the western states, such as Texas and Oklahoma, should be credit with the simple footwork and the country flair that reflects the culture of their time." "In the early 1900s, schools began to include folk dancing in their physical education programs. Many believe that American servicemen returning home from war influenced the spread of line dancing after being introduced to traditional European folk dances; as large numbers of youth learned country-western dance, its popularity grew in leisure and social activities." There are those, "who believe that the real popularity of line dancing evolved from the disco era.... Line dances were performed to disco-style music." "Many say that'Achy Breaky Heart' was a major turning point in the popularity of line dance."
Some say. This travelled across the turbulent seas to the west coast of America, on trade ships, where its popularity increased, it is not documented. The Madison was a popular line dance in the late 1950s; the 1961 "San Francisco Stomp" meets the definition of a line dance. At least five line dances that are associated with country-western music were written in the 1970s, two of which are dated to 1972: "Walkin' Wazi" and "Cowboy Boogie", five years before the disco craze created by the release of Saturday Night Fever in 1977, the same year the "Tush Push" was created; the Electric Slide was a Disco-based line dance popularized in the mid-1970s. The "L. A. Hustle" began in a small Los Angeles disco in the Summer of 1975, hit the East Coast in Spring of'76 as the "Bus Stop". Another 70s line dance is the Nutbush. Over a dozen line dances were created during the 1980s for country songs; the 1980 film Urban Cowboy reflected the blurring of lines between country music and pop, spurred renewed interest in country culture, western fashion and dance.
Many early line dances, were adaptations of disco line dances."Boot Scootin' Boogie" was choreographed by Bill Bader in October 1990 for the original Asleep at the Wheel recording of the song of the same name. The Brooks and Dunn version of the song has resulted in there being at least 16 line dances with "Boot Scootin' Boogie" in the title, including one by Tom Mattox and Skippy Blair under contract to the recording company; the Chicken Dance is an example of a line dance adopted by the Mod revival during the 1980s. Billy Ray Cyrus' 1992 hit "Achy Breaky Heart" helped catapult western line dancing into the mainstream public consciousness. In 1994 choreographer Max Perry had a worldwide dance hit with "Swamp Thang
Modern dance is a broad genre of western concert or theatrical dance arising out of Germany and the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Modern dance is considered to have emerged as a rejection of, or rebellion against, classical ballet. Socioeconomic and cultural factors contributed to its development. In the late 19th century, dance artists such as Isadora Duncan, Maud Allan, Loie Fuller were pioneering new forms and practices in what is now called aesthetic or free dance for performance; these dancers disregarded ballet's strict movement vocabulary, the particular, limited set of movements that were considered proper to ballet, stopped wearing corsets and pointe shoes in the search for greater freedom of movement. Throughout the 20th century, sociopolitical concerns, major historical events, the development of other art forms contributed to the continued development of modernist dance in the United States and Germany. Moving into the 1960s, new ideas about dance began to emerge, as a response to earlier dance forms and to social changes.
Postmodern dance artists would reject the formalism of modern dance, include elements such as performance art, contact improvisation, release technique, improvisation. American modern dance can be divided into eras. In the Early Modern period, characterized by the work of Isadora Duncan, Loie Fuller, Ruth St. Denis, Ted Shawn, Eleanor King, artistic practice changed radically, but distinct modern dance techniques had not yet emerged. In the Central Modern period, choreographers Martha Graham, Doris Humphrey, Katherine Dunham, Charles Weidman, Lester Horton sought to develop distinctively American movement styles and vocabularies, developed defined and recognizable dance training systems. In the Late Modern period, José Limón, Pearl Primus, Merce Cunningham, Talley Beatty, Erick Hawkins, Anna Sokolow, Anna Halprin, Paul Taylor introduced clear abstractionism and avant-garde movements, paved the way for postmodern dance. Modern dance has evolved with each subsequent generation of participating artists.
Artistic content has morphed and shifted from one choreographer to another, as have styles and techniques. Artists such as Graham and Horton developed techniques in the Central Modern Period that are still taught worldwide, numerous other types of modern dance exist today. Modern dance is considered to have emerged as a rejection of, or rebellion against, classical ballet, although historians have suggested that socioeconomic changes in both the United States and Europe helped to initiate shifts in the dance world. In America, increasing industrialization, the rise of a middle class, the decline of Victorian social strictures led to, among other changes, a new interest in health and physical fitness. "It was in this atmosphere that a'new dance' was emerging as much from a rejection of social structures as from a dissatisfaction with ballet." During that same period, "the champions of physical education helped to prepare the way for modern dance, gymnastic exercises served as technical starting points for young women who longed to dance."
Women's colleges began offering "aesthetic dance" courses by the end of the 1880s. Emil Rath, who wrote at length about this emerging artform at the time stated, "Music and rhythmic bodily movement are twin sisters of art, as they have come into existence simultaneously...today we see in the artistic work of Isadora Duncan, Maud Allan, others the use of a form of dancing which strives to portray in movements what the music master expresses in his compositions—interpretative dancing." 1877: Isadora Duncan was a predecessor of modern dance with her stress on the center or torso, bare feet, loose hair, free-flowing costumes, incorporation of humor into emotional expression. She was inspired by classical Greek arts, folk dances, social dances, natural forces, new American athleticism such as skipping, jumping and abrupt movements, she thought that ballet was meaningless gymnastics. Although she returned to the United States at various points in her life, her work was not well received there, she returned to Europe and died in Nice in 1927.
1891: Loie Fuller began experimenting with the effect that gas lighting had on her silk costumes. Fuller developed a form of natural movement and improvisation techniques that were used in conjunction with her revolutionary lighting equipment and translucent silk costumes, she patented her apparatus and methods of stage lighting that included the use of coloured gels and burning chemicals for luminescence, patented her voluminous silk stage costumes. 1905: Ruth St. Denis, influenced by the actress Sarah Bernhardt and Japanese dancer Sada Yacco, developed her translations of Indian culture and mythology, her performances became popular and she toured extensively while researching Oriental culture and arts. In Europe, Mary Wigman in Germany, Francois Delsarte, Émile Jaques-Dalcroze, Rudolf Laban developed theories of human movement and expression, methods of instruction that led to the development of European modern and Expressionist dance. Other pioneers included Kurt Jooss and Harald Kreutzberg.
Disturbed by the Great Depression and the rising threat of fascism in Europe, the radical dancers tried to raise consciousness by dramatizing the economic, social and political crises of their time. Hanya Holm, a student of Mary Wigman and instructor at the Wigman School in Dresden, founded the New York Wigman School of Dance in 1931 introducing Wigman technique, Laban's th
Ceremonial dance is a major category or classification of dance forms or dance styles, where the purpose is ceremonial or ritualistic. Celebration dance Festival dance Dance in ancient cultures Dance in ancient Egypt Ancient Greece Ancient Rome Indian classical dance Ritual dance, Magic/Mystic/Spiritual dance Abbots Bromley Horn Dance Some Basque dances Căluşari Circle dance Corroborree Dances of Universal Peace Long Sword dance Morris dance Rapper dance Religious dance Ritual dances of China Ritual dances of India Sema, or Whirling dervish dance Sinulog Sublî War dance Weapon dance Sacred dance Classical Indian dance at Curlie -- over 250 links to Classical Indian Dance resources
The Pampas are fertile South American lowlands that cover more than 750,000 km2 and include the Argentine provinces of Buenos Aires, La Pampa, Santa Fe, Entre Ríos and Córdoba. The vast plains are a natural region, interrupted only by the low Ventana and Tandil hills, near Bahía Blanca and Tandil, with a height of 1,300 m and 500 m, respectively; the climate is temperate, with precipitation of 600 to 1,200 mm, more or less evenly distributed through the year, making the soils appropriate for agriculture. The area is one of the distinct physiography provinces of the larger Paraná-Paraguay Plain division; the climate of the Pampas is temperate giving away to a more subtropical climate in the north and to a semiarid climate on the western fringes. Summer temperatures are more uniform than winter temperatures ranging from 28 to 33 °C during the day. However, most cities in the Pampas have high temperatures that push 38 °C, as occurs when a warm, northerly wind blows from southern Brazil. Autumn arrives in March, peaks in April and May.
In April, highs range from 20 to 25 °C and lows from 9 to 13 °C. The first frosts arrive in mid-April in the south, in late May or early June in the north. Winters are mild, but cold waves still occur. Normal temperatures range from 12 to 19 °C during the day, from 1 to 6 °C at night. With strong northerly winds, days of over 25 °C can be recorded everywhere, during cold waves, high temperatures can be only 6 °C. Frost occurs everywhere in the Pampas, but it is much more frequent in the southwest than around the Parana and Uruguay Rivers. Temperatures under −5 °C can occur everywhere, but values of −10 °C or lower are confined to the south and west. Snow never falls in the northernmost third and is rare and light elsewhere, except for exceptional events in which depths have reached 30 cm. Springs are variable. Violent storms are more common as well as wide temperature variations: days of 35 °C can give way to nights of under 5 °C or frost, all within only a few days. Precipitation ranges from 1,200 mm in the northeast, to about 500 mm in the southern and western edges.
In the west, it is seasonal, with some places recording averages of 120 mm monthly in the summer, only 20 millimetres monthly in the winter. The eastern areas have small peaks in the fall and in the spring, with rainy summers and winters that are only drier. However, where summer rain falls as short, heavy storms, winter rain falls as cold drizzle and so the amount of rainy days is constant. Intense thunderstorms are common in the spring and summer, it has among the most frequent lightning and highest convective cloud tops in the world; the severe thunderstorms produce intense hailstorms, both floods and flash floods, as well as the most active tornado region outside the central and southeastern US. Herbivores of the pampas are the pampas deer, gray brocket, dwarf mara, plains viscacha, Brazilian guinea pig, southern mountain cavy and coypu; the biggest predator of the region is the puma followed by the maned wolf, pampas fox, geoffroy's cat, lesser grison as well as the omnivorous white-eared opossum and molinas hog-nosed skunk.
Bird species of the pampas are ruddy-headed goose, pampas meadowlark, hudsonian godwit, maguari stork, white-faced ibis, white-winged coot, southern screamer, dot-winged crake, curve-billed reedhaunter, burrowing owl and the rhea. Frequent wildfires ensure that only small plants such as grasses flourish, trees are less common; the dominant vegetation types are grassy prairie and grass steppe in which numerous species of the grass genus Stipa are conspicuous. "Pampas grass" is an iconic species of the Pampas. Vegetation includes perennial grasses and herbs. Different strata of grasses occur because of gradients of water availability; the World Wildlife Fund divides the Pampas into three distinct ecoregions. The Uruguayan Savanna lies east of the Parana River, includes all of Uruguay, most of Entre Ríos and Corrientes provinces in Argentina, the southern portion of Brazil's state of Rio Grande do Sul; the Humid Pampas include eastern Buenos Aires Province, southern Entre Ríos Province. The Semiarid Pampas includes western Buenos Aires Province and adjacent portions of Santa Fe, Córdoba, La Pampa provinces.
The Pampas are bounded by the drier Argentine espinal grasslands, which form a semicircle around the north and south of the Humid Pampas. Winters are cool to mild and summers are warm and humid. Rainfall is uniform throughout the year, but is a little heavier during the summer. Annual rainfall is heaviest near the coast and decreases further inland. Rain during the late spring and summer arrives in the form of brief heavy showers and thunderstorms. More general rainfall occurs the remainder of the year as cold fronts and storm systems move through. Although cold spells during the winter send nighttime temperatures below freezing, snow is quite rare. In most winters, a few light snowfalls occur over inland areas. Central Argentina boasts a successful agricultural business, with crops grown on the Pampas south and west of Buenos Aires. Much of the area is used for
Ballet is a type of performance dance that originated during the Italian Renaissance in the fifteenth century and developed into a concert dance form in France and Russia. It has since become a widespread technical form of dance with its own vocabulary based on French terminology, it has been globally influential and has defined the foundational techniques used in many other dance genres and cultures. Ballet has been taught in various schools around the world, which have incorporated their own cultures and as a result, the art has evolved in a number of distinct ways. See glossary of ballet. A ballet, a work, consists of the music for a ballet production. Ballets are performed by trained ballet dancers. Traditional classical ballets are performed with classical music accompaniment and use elaborate costumes and staging, whereas modern ballets, such as the neoclassical works of American choreographer George Balanchine are performed in simple costumes and without the use of elaborate sets or scenery.
Ballet is a French word which had its origin in Italian balletto, a diminutive of ballo which comes from Latin ballo, meaning "to dance", which in turn comes from the Greek "βαλλίζω", "to dance, to jump about". The word came into English usage from the French around 1630. Ballet originated in the Italian Renaissance courts of the sixteenth centuries. Under Catherine de' Medici's influence as Queen, it spread to France, where it developed further; the dancers in these early court ballets were noble amateurs. Ornamented costumes were meant to impress viewers, but they restricted performers' freedom of movement; the ballets were performed in large chambers with viewers on three sides. The implementation of the proscenium arch from 1618 on distanced performers from audience members, who could better view and appreciate the technical feats of the professional dancers in the productions. French court ballet reached its height under the reign of King Louis XIV. Louis founded the Académie Royale de Danse in 1661 to establish standards and certify dance instructors.
In 1672, Louis XIV made Jean-Baptiste Lully the director of the Académie Royale de Musique from which the first professional ballet company, the Paris Opera Ballet, arose. Pierre Beauchamp served as Lully's ballet-master. Together their partnership would drastically influence the development of ballet, as evidenced by the credit given to them for the creation of the five major positions of the feet. By 1681, the first "ballerinas" took the stage following years of training at the Académie. Ballet started to decline in France after 1830, but it continued to develop in Denmark and Russia; the arrival in Europe of the Ballets Russes led by Sergei Diaghilev on the eve of the First World War revived interest in the ballet and started the modern era. In the twentieth century, ballet had a wide influence on other dance genres, Also in the twentieth century, ballet took a turn dividing it from classical ballet to the introduction of modern dance, leading to modernist movements in several countries. Famous dancers of the twentieth century include Anna Pavlova, Galina Ulanova, Rudolf Nureyev, Maya Plisetskaya, Margot Fonteyn, Rosella Hightower, Maria Tall Chief, Erik Bruhn, Mikhail Baryshnikov, Suzanne Farrell, Gelsey Kirkland, Natalia Makarova, Arthur Mitchell.
Stylistic variations and subgenres have evolved over time. Early, classical variations are associated with geographic origin. Examples of this are Russian ballet, French ballet, Italian ballet. Variations, such as contemporary ballet and neoclassical ballet, incorporate both classical ballet and non-traditional technique and movement; the most known and performed ballet style is late Romantic ballet. Classical ballet is based on vocabulary. Different styles have emerged in different countries, such as French ballet, Italian ballet, English ballet, Russian ballet. Several of the classical ballet styles are associated with specific training methods named after their creators; the Royal Academy of Dance method is a ballet technique and training system, founded by a diverse group of ballet dancers. They merged their respective dance methods to create a new style of ballet, unique to the organization and is recognized internationally as the English style of ballet; some examples of classical ballet productions are: the Nutcracker.
Romantic ballet was an artistic movement of classical ballet and several productions remain in the classical repertoire today. The Romantic era was marked by the emergence of pointe work, the dominance of female dancers, longer, flowy tutus that attempt to exemplify softness and a delicate aura; this movement occurred during the early to mid-nineteenth century and featured themes that emphasized intense emotion as a source of aesthetic experience. The plots of many romantic ballets revolved around spirit women who enslaved the hearts and senses of mortal men; the 1827 ballet La Sylphide is considered to be the first, the 1870 ballet Coppélia is considered to be the last. Famous ballet dancers of the Romantic era include Marie Taglioni, Fanny Elssler, Jules Perrot. Jules Perrot is known for his choreography that of Giselle considered to be the most celebrated romantic ballet. Neoclassical ballet is abstract, with no clear plot, costumes or scenery. Music choice can be diverse and will include music, neoclassical.