The term romance has a centuries-long history. Applied to narrative ballads in Spain, it came to be used by the 18th century for simple lyrical pieces not only for voice, but for instruments alone; the Oxford Dictionary of Music states that "generally it implies a specially personal or tender quality". A Classical piece or movement called a "Romance" is in triple rhythm, with three beats in the bar Beethoven: two violin romances for violin and orchestra, No. 1 G major, Op. 40. 20, second movement Joseph Haydn: "Romance: Allegretto" from Symphony No. 85 in B♭, "La Reine," the second movement Camille Saint-Saëns: Romance in D for violoncello and orchestra, Op. 51 Clara Schumann: Drei Romanzen for violin and piano, Op. 22 Robert Schumann: Drei Romanzen, Op. 28 Robert Schumann: Drei Romanzen, Op. 94 Dmitri Shostakovich: Romance from The Gadfly Suite Jean Sibelius: Romances for piano Op 24, No. 9, Op. 78, No. 2 Johan Svendsen: Romance for violin and orchestra, Op. 26 Ralph Vaughan Williams: Romanza, in his Concerto in F minor for bass tuba, No. 2 Anonymous: "Romance/Romanza" for the classical guitar, known variously as Spanish Romance, Romance D'Amour, etc.
Mozart subtitled the second movement of his piano concerto no. 20 in D minor "Romanze" and his Horn Concerto has a Romance and Rondo. Robert Schumann was fond of the title for lyrical piano pieces. Georges Bizet's "Je crois entendre encore" from The Pearl Fishers is labelled a romance in the score. Giuseppe Verdi's "Celeste Aida" from Aida is labelled romanza. Franz Lehar's "Wie einen Rosenknospe" from "The Merry Widow" is labelled "Romance". Lieder by Franz Schubert: D 114, "Romanze" for voice and piano D 144, "Romanze" for voice and piano D 222, "Lieb Minna" for voice and piano D 907, "Romanze des Richard Löwenherz" for voice and piano "Romanze", No. 3b of Schubert's Rosamunde So many composers in the French tradition wrote Romances sans paroles, "Romances without words", from the 1840s onwards that the radical poet Paul Verlaine in turn published a collection of his impressionistic poems as Romances sans paroles. During the 19th century Alexander Alyabyev, Alexander Varlamov and Alexander Gurilyov developed the French variety of the romance as a sentimental category of Russian art song.
Black Eyes is the best known example. Among other notable examples of the Russian Romance are Shine, Shine, My Star and Along the Long Road. British singer Marc Almond is the only Western artist to receive acclaim in Western Europe as well as in Russia for singing English versions of Russian romances and Russian chanson on his albums Heart on Snow and Orpheus in Exile. Henri Gougelot, La Romance française sous la Révolution et l'Empire: choix de textes musicaux Henri Gougelot, Catalogue des romances françaises parues sous la Révolution et l'Empire, les recueils de romances Russian romances on YouTube Jean-Luc Perrot plays the Romance from l’Art du facteur d’orgues, Dom Bedos de Celles on the organ François-Henri Clicquot, Souvigny Romances at The LiederNet Archive
Simferopol is a city on the Crimean Peninsula which is, since the 2014 annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, the de facto capital city of the Republic of Crimea within the Russian Federation. De jure, it remains the capital city of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea within Ukraine; the status of Crimea is disputed between Russia and Ukraine as a result of the 2014 vote to join Russia, held during Russian military intervention, the subsequent annexation. Simferopol is an important political and transport hub of the peninsula, serves as the administrative centre of both Simferopol Municipality and Simferopol District, though it does not belong to the district. Population: 332,317. Archaeological evidence in Simferopol indicates the existence of an ancient Scythian city, collectively known as the Scythian Neapolis; the location was home to a Crimean Tatar town, Aqmescit. After the annexation of the Crimean Khanate to the Russian Empire, the city's name was changed to its present Simferopol.
The name comes from the Greek Sympheropolis. It is spelled Symferopil. In Crimean Tatar, the name of the city is Aqmescit. In English, the name was given as Akmechet or Ak-Mechet, a transliteration from Russian Акмечет, Ак-Мечеть, where Mechet is the Russian word for "mosque". Archaeological evidence in the Chokurcha cave shows the presence of ancient people living in the territory of modern Simferopol; the Scythian Neapolis, known by its Greek name, is located in the city, the remnants of an ancient capital of the Crimean Scythians who lived on the territory from the 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD. The Crimean Tatars founded the town of Aqmescit. For some time, Aqmescit served as the residence of the Qalğa-Sultan, the second most important position in the Crimean Khanate after the Khan himself; the city was renamed Simferopol in 1784 after the annexation of the Crimean Khanate to the Russian Empire by Catherine II of Russia. The name Simferopol is in Greek, Συμφερόπολις, means "the city of usefulness."
The tradition to give Greek names to places in newly acquired southern territories was carried out by Empress Catherine the Great as part of her Greek Plan. In 1802, Simferopol became the administrative centre of the Taurida Governorate. During the Crimean War of 1854–1856, the Russian Imperial Army reserves and a hospital were stationed in the city. After the war, more than 30,000 Russian soldiers were buried in the city's vicinity. In the 20th century, Simferopol was once again affected by conflicts in the region. At the end of the Russian Civil War, the headquarters of General Pyotr Wrangel, leader of the anti-Bolshevik White Army, were located there. On 13 November 1920, the Red Army captured the city and on 18 October 1921, Simferopol became the capital of the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. During World War II, Simferopol was occupied by Nazi Germany from 1 November 1941 to 13 April 1944. Retreating NKVD police shot a number of prisoners on 31 October 1941 in the NKVD building and the city's prison.
Germans perpetrated one of the largest war-time massacres in Simferopol, killing in total over 22,000 locals—mostly Jews, Russians and Gypsies. On one occasion, starting 9 December 1941, the Einsatzgruppen D under Otto Ohlendorf's command killed an estimated 14,300 Simferopol residents. In April 1944 the Red Army liberated Simferopol. On 18 May 1944 the Crimean Tatar population of the city, along with the whole Crimean Tatar nation of Crimea, was forcibly deported to Central Asia in a form of collective punishment. On 26 April 1954 Simferopol, together with the rest of the Crimean Oblast, was transferred from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic to the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic by Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev. An asteroid, discovered in 1970 by Soviet astronomer Tamara Mikhailovna Smirnova, is named after the city. Following a referendum on 20 January 1991, the Crimean Oblast was upgraded an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic on 12 February 1991 by the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR.
Simferopol became the capital of the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Simferopol became the capital of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea within newly independent Ukraine. Today, the city has a population of 340,600 most of whom are ethnic Russians, with the rest being Ukrainian and Crimean Tatar minorities. After the Crimean Tatars were allowed to return from exile in the 1990s, several new Crimean Tatar suburbs were constructed, as many more Tatars returned to the city compared to number exiled in 1944. Land ownership between the current residents and returning Crimean Tatars is a major area of conflict today with the Tatars requesting the return of lands seized after their deportation. On 16 March 2014, a referendum was held whose results showed that a majority of Crimeans voted in favour of independence of Crimea from Ukraine and joining Russia as a federal subject; the legitimacy of the referendum's results has been questioned by several nations and independent news organizations.
On 21 March, Simferopol became the capital of a new federal subject of the Russian Federation. The referendum was not recognized internationally, the event was viewed by many as an annexation of the Crimean land by the Russian Federation. On
Sergei Vasilyevich Rachmaninoff was a Russian composer, virtuoso pianist and conductor of the late Romantic period, some of whose works are among the most popular in the Romantic repertoire. Born into a musical family, Rachmaninoff took up the piano at age four, he graduated from the Moscow Conservatory in 1892 having composed several piano and orchestral pieces. In 1897, following the negative critical reaction to his Symphony No. 1, Rachmaninoff entered a four-year depression and composed little until successful therapy allowed him to complete his enthusiastically received Piano Concerto No. 2 in 1901. For the next sixteen years, Rachmaninoff conducted at the Bolshoi Theatre, relocated to Dresden and toured the United States for the first time. Following the Russian Revolution and his family left Russia. With his main source of income coming from piano and conducting performances, demanding tour schedules led to a reduction in his time for composition. 3, Symphonic Dances. By 1942, his failing health led to his relocation to California.
One month before his death from advanced melanoma, Rachmaninoff was granted American citizenship. In Rachmaninoff's work, early influences of Tchaikovsky, Rimsky-Korsakov, Balakirev and other Russian composers gave way to a personal style notable for its song-like melodicism and rich orchestral colors. Rachmaninoff featured the piano in his compositions, he explored the expressive possibilities of the instrument through his own skills as a pianist, he was born into a family of the Russian aristocracy in the Russian Empire. In their first known genealogy, compiled in the 1680s by Perfiliy Rakhmaninov, the family derives its own origin from the Moldovan rulers Dragoshi, who ruled Moldavia and Wallachia from 1350 to 1552 descending from Vasile, nicknamed Rachmaninov, a son of the Moldavian prince Stephen the Great. Rachmaninoff's family had strong military leanings, his paternal grandfather, Arkady Alexandrovich, was a musician who had taken lessons from Irish composer John Field. His father, Vasily Arkadyevich Rachmaninoff, was an army officer and amateur pianist who married Lyubov Petrovna Butakova, the daughter of a wealthy army general who gave her five estates as part of her dowry.
The couple had three daughters, Rachmaninoff being their fourth child. Rachmaninoff was born in the Semyonovo estate, Zhglovskoy parish, Starorussky County, Novgorod Governorate, it is unclear which of two family estates he was born on: Oneg near Veliky Novgorod, or Semyonovo near Staraya Russa. His birth was registered in a church in the latter, but he was raised in Oneg until age nine and cited it as his birthplace in his adult life, he began music lessons organised by his mother at age four. She noticed his ability to reproduce passages from memory without a wrong note. Upon hearing news of the boy's gift, Arkady suggested she hire Anna Ornatskaya, a teacher and recent graduate of the Saint Petersburg Conservatory, to live with the family and begin formal teaching. Rachmaninoff dedicated his piano composition "Spring Waters" from Op. 14 to Ornatskaya. Rachmaninoff's father had to auction off the Oneg estate in 1882 due to his financial incompetence. Rachmaninoff remained critical of his father in life, describing him as "a wastrel, a compulsive gambler, a pathological liar, a skirt chaser".
The family moved to a small flat in Saint Petersburg. In 1883, Ornatskaya arranged for Rachmaninoff, now 10, to study music at the Saint Petersburg Conservatory; that year his sister Sofia died of diphtheria and his father left the family for Moscow. His maternal grandmother stepped in to help raise the children with particular focus on their spiritual life taking Rachmaninoff to Russian Orthodox Church services where he first experienced liturgical chants and church bells, two features he would incorporate in his future compositions. In 1885, Rachmaninoff suffered further loss when his sister Yelena died at age eighteen of pernicious anemia, she was an important musical influence to Rachmaninoff who had introduced him to the works of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. As a respite, his grandmother took him to a farm retreat by the Volkhov River where Rachmaninoff developed a love for rowing. At the Conservatory, however, he had adopted a relaxed attitude and failed his general education classes, purposely altered his report cards in what composer Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov called a period of "purely Russian self-delusion and laziness".
Rachmaninoff performed at events held at the Moscow Conservatory during this time, including those attended by the Grand Duke Konstantin and other notable figures, but upon failing his spring exams Ornatskaya notified his mother that his admission to further education might be revoked. His mother consulted with Alexander Siloti, her nephew and an accomplished pianist and student of Franz Liszt, who recommended he be transferred to the Moscow Conservatory and receive lessons from his former teacher, the more strict Nikolai Zverev, which lasted until 1888. In the autumn of 1885, Rachmaninoff moved in with Zverev and stayed for four years, during which he befriended fellow pupil Alexander Scriabin. After two years of tuition, the fifteen year old Rachmaninoff was awarded a Rubinstein scholarship, graduated from the lower division of the Conservatory to become a pupil of Siloti in advanced piano, Sergei Taneyev in counterpoint, Anton Arensky in fre
Maria Lettberg is a Swedish pianist, resident in Berlin. Maria Lettberg is the daughter of a university professor of a mathematician; when she was seven, Maria's talent was fostered. She gave her graduate recital at the Conservatory in Saint Petersburg. Following that, she pursued her studies further in Stockholm, in Helsinki, her most important teachers were Tatyana Zagorovskaja, Andrei Gavrilov, Paul Badura-Skoda, Menahem Pressler, Emanuel Krasovsky, Roland Pöntinen and Matti Raekallio. Maria Lettberg's concert repertoire focuses on Brahms, Liszt and Scriabin, but Debussy, Prokofiev and Bach. Besides these composers, she regularly plays the work of less well-known ones, in particular, those of Scandinavian and Russian origin. Ms. Lettberg has worked with Deutschlandradio for many years. Maria Lettberg has been nominated for the 60th Annual Grammy Awards – category Best Classical Instrumental Solo for her performance of Zara Levina's two piano concertos with the Rundfunk-Sinfonieorchester Berlin.
Maria Lettberg is an interpreter of Alexander Scriabin. In 2007, she recorded Scriabin's solo piano work on eight CDs; this was followed in 2012 by the recording of “Opus Posthum” – the early piano works of Alexander Scriabin which are not numbered and the compositions of Scriabin's son Julian. Inspired by Scriabin's ideas, Maria Lettberg initiated and led two projects under the title of “Mysterium”. In both productions, a synaesthetic experience of art was achieved by the linking of musical and visual aspects. In 2008 Maria Lettberg did her PhD at the Sibelius Academy; the subject of her PhD dissertation was “An Historical Overview of Tendencies in the Interpretation of Alexander Scriabin’s piano sonata Nr. 10. - a comparative pianistic analysis.”. 2007: Alexander Scriabin: The Solo Piano Works, Complete Recording 8 CD-Box + DVD „Mysterium – The Multimedia Project“ 2008: Alfred Schnittke: The Piano Concertos Nos. 1–3. Ewa Kupiec and Maria Lettberg, Rundfunk - Sinfonieorchester Berlin /Frank Strobel.
2011: Erkki Melartin: The Solo Piano Works, 2 CD-Set 2011: Alfred Schnittke: Chamber Concerto, Trio for piano and cello, Quartet for piano, violin and cello. 2012: „Opus Posthum“: Alexander und Julian Scriabin, Early Piano Works 2013: „The Enchanted Garden“: Piano transcriptions of Russian stage works, Mikhail Glinka, Nikolai Rimski-Korsakov and Igor Stravinsky. 2015: „Poème de l'extase“: Works of Alexander Scriabin, Olivier Messiaen, Franz Liszt, Manfred Kelkel and Harald Banter. 2017: Zara Levina: The Piano Concertos Nos. 1–2. Maria Lettberg, Rundfunk - Sinfonieorchester Berlin/ Ariane Matiakh. Lettberg, Maria: Alfred Schnittke's Piano Trio: Learning and Performing in: The Practice of Practising, Leuven University Press, 2011. Lettberg, Maria: Alexander Skrjabin som pianist. Tekniska aspekter och estetiska principer. Finaali, Journal of Musical Performance and Research, Sibelius Akademie, 2004. Lettberg, Maria: Tendenser inom interpretationer av Alexander Skrjabins pianosonat nr 10: En jämförande pianistisk analys.
Sibelius Akatemia, DokMus-tohtorikoulu, EST numero 20, 2012. Http://ethesis.siba.fi/showrecord.php? ID=371162; the Penguin Guide to the 1000 Finest Classical Recordings: The Must-Have CDs and DVDs, IVAN MARCH, London 2011: John Sheppard: Article „Scriabin, Alexander“, S.307. Maria Lettberg: formidable. Gramophone, BRYCE MORRISON Gruß vom Chamäleon, ganz ohne Starrummel ist die Pianistin Maria Lettberg erfolgreich. Der Spiegel, Beilage "Der Kultur Spiegel ``. Die Zeit, MIRKO WEBER Große Taten. Maria Lettberg widmet sich Skrjabins Klavierwerk, Süddeutsche Zeitung, WOLFGANG SCHREIBER Porträt: Anwältin des Besonderen - MARIA LETTBERG. Piano News, HELMUT PETERS Maria Lettbergs Klavierkonzert abseits des Wohlgefälligen. Hamburger Abendblatt, TOM SCHULZ Klangmagische Stimmungen, Maria Lettbergs Skrjabin-Abend in der Oetkerhalle. Neue Westfälische Lettbergs Spiel: wie ein zarter Windhauch, Schwedische Pianistin sorgte bei den „Mittelrhein Musik Momenten“ für eine echte Sternstunde. Rhein-Zeitung, CHRISTIANE HAUSDING „Stämningbilder“.
Fono Forum, GREGOR WILLMES www.lettberg.com https://www.grammy.com/grammys/news/2018-grammy-nominations-best-classical-instrumental-solo-roundup
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
David Fyodorovich Oistrakh, PAU, was a renowned Soviet classical violinist and violist. Oistrakh collaborated with major orchestras and musicians from many parts of the world, including the Soviet Union and the United States, was the dedicatee of numerous violin works, including both of Dmitri Shostakovich's violin concerti, the violin concerto by Aram Khachaturian, he is considered one of the preeminent violinists of the 20th century. He was born in the cosmopolitan city of Ukraine into a Jewish family, his father was David Kolker and his mother was Isabella Beyle, who on married Fishl Oistrakh. At the age of five, young Oistrakh began his studies of violin and viola as a pupil of Pyotr Stolyarsky. In his studies with Stolyarsky he became good friends with Iosif Brodsky, Nathan Milstein and other great violinists with whom he collaborated numerous times after achieving fame since their beginnings as fellow students at Stolyarsky School. In 1914, at the age of six, Oistrakh performed his debut concert.
He entered the Odessa Conservatory in 1923, where he studied until his graduation in 1926. In the Conservatory he studied harmony with composer Mykola Vilinsky, his 1926 graduation concert consisted of Bach's Chaconne, Tartini's Devil's Trill Sonata, Rubinstein's Viola Sonata, Prokofiev's Violin Concerto No. 1 in D major. In 1927, Oistrakh appeared as soloist playing the Glazunov Violin Concerto under the composer's own baton in Kiev, Ukraine — a concert which earned him an invitation to play the Tchaikovsky Violin Concerto in Leningrad with the Philharmonic Orchestra under Nikolai Malko the following year. In 1927, Oistrakh relocated to Moscow, where he gave his first recital and met his future wife: pianist Tamara Rotareva, they were married a year and had one child, Igor Oistrakh, born in 1931. Igor Oistrakh would follow his father's path as a violinist, performed and recorded side-by-side with his father, including Bach's Double Concerto, which they first recorded in 1951, Mozart's Sinfonia Concertante.
In at least one of the recordings of Mozart's Sinfonia Concertante, Igor Oistrakh played violin, while David Oistrakh played viola. From 1934 onwards, David Oistrakh held a position teaching at the Moscow Conservatory, was made professor in 1939; some of his colleagues while teaching at the Moscow Conservatory included Yuri Yankelevich and Boris Goldstein. Oistrakh taught Oleg Kagan, Emmy Verhey, Oleh Krysa, Gidon Kremer, Yulia Brodskaya, Zoya Petrosyan, Victor Danchenko, Victor Pikaizen, Cyrus Forough, Olga Parhomenko, his son Igor Oistrakh. In the 1950s, David Oistrakh invited Yulia Brodskaya to be his assistant in teaching solo and chamber music and Rosa Fine as his assistant for solo students. From 1940 to 1963, Oistrakh performed extensively in a trio that included the cellist Sviatoslav Knushevitsky and the pianist Lev Oborin, it was sometimes called the'Oistrakh Trio.' Oistrakh collaborated extensively with Oborin, as well as a French violinist. During World War II, he was active in the Soviet Union, premiering new concerti by Nikolai Miaskovsky and Khachaturian as well as two sonatas by his friend Sergei Prokofiev.
He was awarded the Stalin Prize in 1942. The final years of the war saw the blossoming of a friendship with Shostakovich, which would lead to the two violin concertos and the sonata, all of which were to be premiered by and become associated with Oistrakh in the following years. Oistrakh's career was set from this point, although the Soviet Union was "protective" of its people and refused to let him perform abroad, he continued to teach in the Moscow Conservatory, but when Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union, he went to the front lines, playing for soldiers and factory workers under intensely difficult conditions. Arguably one of the most heroic acts in his life was a performance of Tchaikovsky's Violin Concerto to the end in the central music hall during the Battle of Stalingrad in the winter of 1942 while central Stalingrad was being massively bombed by the German forces. However, other sources indicate. Whether Oistrakh performed in Stalingrad is unconfirmed. Oistrakh was allowed to travel after the end of the war.
He traveled to the countries in the Soviet bloc and to the West. His first foreign engagement was to appear at the newly founded "Prague Spring" Festival where he was met with enormous success. In 1949 he gave his first concert in the West – in Helsinki. In 1951, he appeared at the "Maggio Musicale" Festival in Florence, in 1952 he was in East Germany for the Beethoven celebrations, France in 1953, Britain in 1954, in 1955, he was allowed to tour the United States. By 1959, he was beginning to establish a second career as a conductor, in 1960 he was awarded the coveted Lenin Prize, his Moscow conducting debut followed in 1962, by 1967 he had established a partnership with the celebrated Soviet pianist Sviatoslav Richter. 1968 saw wide celebrations for the violinist's sixtieth birthday, which included a celebratory performance in the Great Hall of Moscow Conservatory of the Tchaikovsky concerto, one of his favourite works, under the baton of Gennady Rozhdestvensky. Oistrakh was now seen as one of the great violinists of his time, among such luminaries as Romania's George Enescu and Lithuanian-born Jascha Heifetz.
Oistrakh suffered a heart attack as early as 1964. He continued to work at a furious pace, he had become one of the principal cultural ambassadors for the Soviet Union to the West in live concerts and recordings. After conducting a cycle of Brahms with the Concertgebouw Orchestra
A pianist is an individual musician who plays the piano. Since most forms of Western music can make use of the piano, pianists have a wide repertoire and a wide variety of styles to choose from, among them traditional classical music, jazz and all sorts of popular music, including rock and roll. Most pianists can, to an extent play other keyboard-related instruments such as the synthesizer, harpsichord and the organ. Modern classical pianists dedicate their careers to performing, teaching and learning new works to expand their repertoire, they do not write or transcribe music as pianists did in the 19th century. Some classical pianists might specialize in accompaniment and chamber music, while others will perform as full-time soloists. Mozart could be considered the first "concert pianist" as he performed on the piano. Composers Beethoven and Clementi from the classical era were famed for their playing, as were, from the romantic era, Brahms, Chopin and Rachmaninoff. From that era, leading performers less known as composers were Hans von Bülow.
However, as we do not have modern audio recordings of most of these pianists, we rely on written commentary to give us an account of their technique and style. Jazz pianists always perform with other musicians, their playing is more free than that of classical pianists and they create an air of spontaneity in their performances. They do not write down their compositions. Well known jazz pianists include Art Tatum, Duke Ellington, Thelonious Monk, Oscar Peterson and Bud Powell. Popular pianists might work as live performers, session musicians, arrangers most feel at home with synthesizers and other electronic keyboard instruments. Notable popular pianists include Victor Borge. A single listing of pianists in all genres would be impractical, given the multitude of musicians noted for their performances on the instrument. Below are links to lists of well-known or influential pianists divided by genres: List of classical pianists List of classical pianists List of classical piano duos List of jazz pianists List of pop and rock pianists List of blues musicians List of boogie woogie musicians List of gospel musicians List of new-age music artists Many important composers were virtuoso pianists.
The following is an incomplete list of such musicians. Franz Schubert Ludwig van Beethoven Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Johann Nepomuk Hummel Carl Maria von Weber Muzio Clementi Edvard Grieg Franz Liszt Charles-Valentin Alkan Anton Arensky Sergei Rachmaninoff Anton Rubinstein Frédéric Chopin Felix Mendelssohn Johannes Brahms Camille Saint-Saëns Isaac Albéniz Nikolai Medtner Béla Bartók George Gershwin Sergei Prokofiev Dmitri Shostakovich Some people, having received a solid piano training in their youth, decide not to continue their musical careers but choose nonmusical ones; as a result, there are prominent communities of amateur pianists all over the world that play at quite a high level and give concerts not to earn money but just for the love of music. The International Piano Competition for Outstanding Amateurs, held annually in Paris, attracts about one thousand listeners each year and is broadcast on French radio, it is notable that Jon Nakamatsu, the Gold Medal winner of the Van Cliburn International Piano Competition for professional pianists in Fort Worth, Texas was at the moment of his victory technically an amateur: he never attended a music conservatory or majored in music, worked as a high school German teacher at the time.
The German pianist Davide Martello is known for traveling around conflict zones to play his moving piano. Martello has been recognised by the European parliament for his “outstanding contribution to European cooperation and the promotion of common values”. List of films about pianists