Gustav Mahler was an Austro-Bohemian late-Romantic composer, one of the leading conductors of his generation. As a composer he acted as a bridge between the 19th century Austro-German tradition and the modernism of the early 20th century. While in his lifetime his status as a conductor was established beyond question, his own music gained wide popularity only after periods of relative neglect which included a ban on its performance in much of Europe during the Nazi era. After 1945 his compositions were rediscovered by a new generation of listeners. In 2016, a BBC Music Magazine survey of 151 conductors ranked three of his symphonies in the top ten symphonies of all time. Born in Bohemia as a German-speaking Jew of humble circumstances, Mahler displayed his musical gifts at an early age. After graduating from the Vienna Conservatory in 1878, he held a succession of conducting posts of rising importance in the opera houses of Europe, culminating in his appointment in 1897 as director of the Vienna Court Opera.
During his ten years in Vienna, Mahler—who had converted to Catholicism to secure the post—experienced regular opposition and hostility from the anti-Semitic press. His innovative productions and insistence on the highest performance standards ensured his reputation as one of the greatest of opera conductors as an interpreter of the stage works of Wagner and Tchaikovsky. Late in his life he was director of New York's Metropolitan Opera and the New York Philharmonic. Mahler's œuvre is limited. Aside from early works such as a movement from a piano quartet composed when he was a student in Vienna, Mahler's works are designed for large orchestral forces, symphonic choruses and operatic soloists; these works were controversial when first performed, several were slow to receive critical and popular approval. Some of Mahler's immediate musical successors included the composers of the Second Viennese School, notably Arnold Schoenberg, Alban Berg and Anton Webern. Dmitri Shostakovich, Benjamin Britten, Leonard Bernstein and Peter Maxwell Davies are among 20th-century composers who admired and were influenced by Mahler.
The International Gustav Mahler Institute was established in 1955 to honour the composer's life and work. The Mahler family were of humble circumstances. Bohemia was part of the Austrian Empire. From this background the future composer developed early on a permanent sense of exile, "always an intruder, never welcomed."Bernhard Mahler, the pedlar's son and the composer's father, elevated himself to the ranks of the petite bourgeoisie by becoming a coachman and an innkeeper. He bought a modest house in the village of Kalischt, halfway between Prague in Bohemia and Brno in Moravia, in the geographic center of today's Czech Republic. Bernhard's wife, gave birth to the first of the couple's 14 children, a son Isidor, who died in infancy. Two years on 7 July 1860, their second son, was born. In October 1860, Bernhard Mahler moved with his wife and infant son, Gustav, to the town of Iglau, 25 km to the south-east, where he built up a distillery and tavern business; the family grew but of the 12 children born to the family in Iglau only six survived infancy.
Iglau was a thriving commercial town of 20,000 people where Gustav was introduced to music through street songs, dance tunes, folk melodies, the trumpet calls and marches of the local military band. All of these elements would contribute to his mature musical vocabulary; when he was four years old, Gustav took to it immediately. He developed his performing skills sufficiently to be considered a local Wunderkind and gave his first public performance at the town theatre when he was ten years old. Although Gustav loved making music, his school reports from the Iglau Gymnasium portrayed him as absent-minded and unreliable in academic work. In 1871, in the hope of improving the boy's results, his father sent him to the New Town Gymnasium in Prague, but Gustav was unhappy there and soon returned to Iglau. On 13 April 1875 he suffered a bitter personal loss when his younger brother Ernst died after a long illness. Mahler sought to express his feelings in music: with the help of a friend, Josef Steiner, he began work on an opera, Herzog Ernst von Schwaben as a memorial to his lost brother.
Neither the music nor the libretto of this work has survived. Bernhard Mahler supported his son's ambitions for a music career, agreed that the boy should try for a place at the Vienna Conservatory; the young Mahler was auditioned by the renowned pianist Julius Epstein, accepted for 1875–76. He made good progress in his piano studies with Epstein and won prizes at the end of each of his first two years. For his final year, 1877–78, he concentrated on composition and harmony under Robert Fuchs and Franz Krenn. Few of Mahler's student compositions have survived, he destroyed a symphonic movement prepared for an end-of-term competition, after its scornful rejection
Walter Kaufmann (philosopher)
Walter Arnold Kaufmann was a German-American philosopher and poet. A prolific author, he wrote extensively on a broad range of subjects, such as authenticity and death, moral philosophy and existentialism and atheism, Christianity and Judaism, as well as philosophy and literature, he served more than 30 years as a professor at Princeton University. He is renowned as a translator of Friedrich Nietzsche, he wrote a 1965 book on Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and published a translation of Goethe's Faust. Kaufmann was raised a Lutheran. At age 11, finding that he believed neither in the Trinity nor in the divinity of Jesus, he converted to Judaism. Kaufmann subsequently discovered. Kaufmann left Germany and emigrated to the United States in 1939 and began studying at Williams College, where he majored in philosophy and took many religion classes. Although he had the opportunity to move into his graduate studies in philosophy, despite advice not to do so by his professors, he joined the war effort against the Nazis by serving in U.
S. intelligence. During World War II, he fought on the European front for 15 months. After the war, he completed a PhD in the philosophy of religion at Harvard in a mere two years, his dissertation was titled "Nietzsche's Theory of Values" and became a chapter in his Nietzsche: Philosopher, Antichrist. He spent his entire career thereafter, from 1947 to 1980, teaching philosophy at Princeton University, where his students included the Nietzsche scholars Frithjof Bergmann, Richard Schacht, Alexander Nehamas, Ivan Soll. Kaufmann became a naturalized citizen of the United States in 1960. In a 1959 article in Harper's Magazine, he summarily rejected all religious values and practice the liberal Protestantism of continental Europe that began with Schleiermacher and culminated in the writings of Paul Tillich and Rudolf Bultmann. In their place, he praised moralists such as the biblical prophets, the Buddha, Socrates, he argued that critical analysis and the acquisition of knowledge were liberating and empowering forces.
He forcefully criticized the fashionable liberal Protestantism of the 20th century as filled with contradictions and evasions, preferring the austerity of the book of Job and the Jewish existentialism of Martin Buber. Kaufmann discussed many of these issues in his 1958 Critique of Philosophy. Kaufmann wrote a good deal on the existentialism of Karl Jaspers. Kaufmann had great admiration for Kierkegaard's passion and his insights on freedom and individualism. Kaufmann wrote: "Nobody before Kierkegaard had seen so that the freedom to make a fateful decision that may change our character and future breeds anxiety." Although Kaufmann did not share Kierkegaard's religious outlook and was critical of his Protestant theology, Kaufmann was sympathetic and impressed with the depth of Kierkegaard's thinking: I know of no other great writer in the whole nineteenth century even in the whole of world literature, to whom I respond with less happiness and with a more profound sense that I am on trial and found wanting, unless it were Søren Kierkegaard.
Kaufmann edited the anthology Existentialism from Dostoevsky to Sartre. Kaufmann disliked Martin Heidegger's thinking, along with his unclear writing. Kaufmann is renowned for his translations and exegesis of Nietzsche, whom he saw as gravely misunderstood by English speakers, as a major early existentialist, as an unwitting precursor, in some respects, to Anglo-American analytic philosophy. Michael Tanner called Kaufmann's commentaries on Nietzsche "obtrusive, self-referential, lacking insight", but Llewellyn Jones wrote that Kaufmann's "fresh insights into... Nietzsche... can deepen the insights of every discriminating student of literature," and The New Yorker wrote that Kaufmann "has produced what may be the definitive study of Nietzsche's... thought—an informed and lustrous work."Kaufmann wrote that superficially it seems that as a philosopher represents a sharp decline... because has no'system.' Yet this argument is hardly cogent.... Not only can one defend Nietzsche on this score... but one must add that he had strong philosophic reasons for not having a system.
Kaufmann sympathized with Nietzsche's acerbic criticisms of Christianity. However, Kaufmann faulted much in Nietzsche, writing that "my disagreements with are legion." Regarding style, Kaufmann argued that Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra, for example, is in parts badly written, melodramatic, or verbose, yet concluded that the book "is not only a mine of ideas, but a major work of literature and a personal triumph."Kaufmann described his own ethic and his own philosophy of living in his books, including The Faith of a Heretic: What Can I Believe? How Should I Live? What Do I Hope? and Without Guilt and Justice: From Decidophobia to Autonomy. He advocated living in accordance with what he proposed as the four cardinal virtues: ambition/humility, love and honesty. Nietzsche: Philosopher, Antichrist From Shakespeare to Existentialism Existentialism: From Dostoevsky to Sartre Critique of Religion and Philosophy Tragedy and Philosophy Hegel: A Reinterpretation The Faith of a Heretic: What Can I Believe?
How Should I Live? What Do I Hope? Without Guilt and Justice: From Decidophobia to Autonomy Cain and Other Poems Existentialism and Death: Thirteen Essays The Future of the Humanities Religions in Four Dimensions Discovering the Mind, a trilogy consisting of Goethe and Hegel Nietzsche and Buber Freud Versus Adler and Jung Man's Lot
Also sprach Zarathustra (Strauss)
Sprach Zarathustra, Op. 30 is a tone poem by Richard Strauss, composed in 1896 and inspired by Friedrich Nietzsche's philosophical novel of the same name. The composer conducted its first performance on 27 November 1896 in Frankfurt. A typical performance lasts half an hour; the initial fanfare – titled "Sunrise" in the composer's program notes – became well-known after its use in Stanley Kubrick's 1968 film 2001: A Space Odyssey. The work is orchestrated for piccolo, 3 flutes, 3 oboes, English horn, clarinet in E-flat, 2 clarinets in B-flat, bass clarinet in B-flat, 3 bassoons, contrabassoon, 6 horns in F and E, 4 trumpets in C and E, 3 trombones, 2 tubas, bass drum, triangle, bell on low E, strings: 2 harps, violins I, II, violas and double basses; the piece is divided into nine sections played with only three definite pauses. Strauss named the sections after selected chapters of Friedrich Nietzsche's novel Thus Spoke Zarathustra: Einleitung, oder Sonnenaufgang Von den Hinterweltlern Von der großen Sehnsucht Von den Freuden und Leidenschaften Das Grablied Von der Wissenschaft Der Genesende Das Tanzlied Nachtwandlerlied These selected chapters from Nietzsche's novel highlight major moments of the character Zarathustra's philosophical journey in the novel.
The general storylines and ideas in these chapters were the inspiration used to build the tone poem's structure. The piece starts with a sustained double low C on the double basses and organ; this transforms into the brass fanfare of the Introduction and introduces the "dawn" motif, common throughout the work: the motif includes three notes, in intervals of a fifth and octave, as C–G–C. On its first appearance, the motif is a part of the first five notes of the natural overtone series: octave and fifth, two octaves, two octaves and major third; the major third is changed to a minor third, the first note played in the work, not part of the overtone series."Of Those in the Background World" begins with cellos, double-basses and organ pedal before changing into a lyrical passage for the entire section. The next two sections, "Of the Great Yearning" and "Of Joys and Passions", both introduce motifs that are more chromatic in nature."Of Science" features an unusual fugue beginning at measure 201 in the double-basses and cellos, which consists of all twelve notes of the chromatic scale.
Measure 223 contains one of the few sections in the orchestral literature where the basses must play a contra B, only possible on a 5-string bass or on a 4-string bass with a low-B extension. "The Convalescent" acts as a reprise of the original motif, ends with the entire orchestra climaxing on a massive chord. "The Dance Song" features a prominent violin solo throughout the section. The end of the "Song of the Night Wanderer" leaves the piece half resolved, with high flutes and violins playing a B major chord, while the lower strings pluck a C. One of the major compositional themes of the piece is the contrast between the keys of B major, representing humanity, C major, representing the universe; because B and C are adjacent notes, these keys are tonally dissimilar: B major uses five sharps, while C major has none. There are two opinions about the World riddle theme; some sources denote the fifth/octave intervals as the World riddle motif. However, other sources refer to the two conflicting keys in the final section as representing the World riddle, with the unresolved harmonic progression being an unfinished or unsolved riddle: the melody does not conclude with a well-defined tonic note as being either C or B, hence it is unfinished.
The ending of the composition has been described: But the riddle is not solved. The tone-poem ends enigmatically in two keys, the Nature-motif plucked by the basses in its original key of C—and above the woodwinds, in the key of B major; the unsolvable end of the universe: for Strauss was not pacified by Nietzsche's solution. Neither C major nor B major is established as the tonic at the end of the composition; the first recording was made in 1935 with the Boston Symphony Orchestra. In 1944, Strauss conducted the Vienna Philharmonic in an experimental high fidelity recording of the piece, made on a German Magnetophon tape recorder; this was released on LP by Vanguard Records and on CD by various labels. Strauss's friend and colleague, Fritz Reiner, made the first stereophonic recording of the music with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra in March 1954 for RCA Victor. In 2012, the Fritz Reiner recording was added to the Library of Congress's National Recording Registry 2011 list of "culturally or aesthetically important" American sound recordings.
The recording of the opening fanfare used for the film 2001: A Space Odyssey was performed by Vienna Philharmonic and conducted by Herbert von Karajan. Elvis Presley used the opening fanfare as the opening piece in his concerts between 1971 and his death in 1977, as the introduction to several of his live albums, including Elvis: As Recorded at Madison Square Garden, Aloha from Hawaii Via Satellite, Elvis in Concert. Eumir Deodato's funk-influenced arrangement of the openi
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche was a German philosopher, cultural critic, poet and Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history. He began his career as a classical philologist before turning to philosophy, he became the youngest to hold the Chair of Classical Philology at the University of Basel in 1869 at the age of 24. Nietzsche resigned in 1879 due to health problems. In 1889 at age 44, he suffered a collapse and afterward, a complete loss of his mental faculties, he lived his remaining years in the care of his mother until her death in 1897 and with his sister Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche. Nietzsche died in 1900. Nietzsche's body of work touched a wide range of topics, including art, history, tragedy and science, his writing spans philosophical polemics, cultural criticism and fiction while displaying a fondness for aphorism and irony. His early inspiration was drawn from figures such as Arthur Schopenhauer, Richard Wagner and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.
Prominent elements of his philosophy include his radical critique of truth in favor of perspectivism. He developed influential concepts such as the Übermensch and the doctrine of eternal return. In his work, he became preoccupied with the creative powers of the individual to overcome social and moral contexts in pursuit of new values and aesthetic health. After his death, his sister Elisabeth became the curator and editor of Nietzsche's manuscripts, reworking his unpublished writings to fit her own German nationalist ideology while contradicting or obfuscating Nietzsche's stated opinions, which were explicitly opposed to antisemitism and nationalism. Through her published editions, Nietzsche's work became associated with Nazism. Nietzsche's thought enjoyed renewed popularity in the 1960s and his ideas have since had a profound impact on 20th and early-21st century thinkers across philosophy—especially in schools of continental philosophy such as existentialism and post-structuralism—as well as art, psychology and popular culture.
Born on 15 October 1844, Nietzsche grew up in the small town of Röcken, near Leipzig, in the Prussian Province of Saxony. He was named after King Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia, who turned 49 on the day of Nietzsche's birth. Nietzsche's Carl Ludwig Nietzsche, a Lutheran pastor and former teacher, they had two other children: a daughter, Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche, born in 1846. Nietzsche's father died from a brain ailment in 1849; the family moved to Naumburg, where they lived with Nietzsche's maternal grandmother and his father's two unmarried sisters. After the death of Nietzsche's grandmother in 1856, the family moved into their own house, now Nietzsche-Haus, a museum and Nietzsche study centre. Nietzsche attended a boys' school and a private school, where he became friends with Gustav Krug, Rudolf Wagner and Wilhelm Pinder, all of whom came from respected families. In 1854, he began to attend Domgymnasium in Naumburg; because his father had worked for the state the now-fatherless Nietzsche was offered a scholarship to study at the internationally recognized Schulpforta.
He transferred and studied there from 1858 to 1864, becoming friends with Paul Deussen and Carl von Gersdorff. He found time to work on poems and musical compositions. Nietzsche led a music and literature club, during his summers in Naumburg. At Schulpforta, Nietzsche received an important grounding in languages—Greek, Latin and French—so as to be able to read important primary sources, his end-of-semester exams in March 1864 showed a 1 in German. While at Pforta, Nietzsche had a penchant for pursuing subjects, he became acquainted with the work of the almost-unknown poet Friedrich Hölderlin, calling him "my favorite poet" and composing an essay in which he said that the mad poet raised consciousness to "the most sublime ideality." The teacher who corrected the essay gave it a good mark but commented that Nietzsche should concern himself in the future with healthier, more lucid, more "German" writers. Additionally, he became acquainted with Ernst Ortlepp, an eccentric and drunken poet, found dead in a ditch weeks after meeting the young Nietzsche but who may have introduced Nietzsche to the music and writing of Rich
Zarathustra is a progressive rock album released in 1973 by the Italian band Museo Rosenbach. It is regarded as one of the best Italian progressive rock works of all time. Controversially, the lyrics compose a concept album of Friedrich Nietzsche's philosophy Thus Spoke Zarathustra; the song titles translate into The Last Man, The King of Yesterday, Beyond Good and Evil, Übermensch, The Temple of Hourglasses, Of Man, Of Nature, Of the Eternal Return. The music has been edited by texts from external collaborator Mauro La Luce. Side A of the vinyl is occupied by the long suite Zarathustra, side B includes the remaining three songs, which relate thematically to the first part by the expression of the concept album, so dear to progressive rock groups The album was a commercial failure because of the boycott of RAI, suspicious of the group because of the themes and the bust of Mussolini pictured in the collage on the cover, work of the illustrator Caesar Monti; the singer, Stefano Galifi joined an art rock band named Il Tempio delle Clessidre, quoting the title of the track.
Side one"Zarathustra" - 19:11 "Zarathustra: L'Ultimo Uomo" – 3:55 "Zarathustra: Il Re di Ieri" – 4:40 "Zarathustra: Al di Là del Bene e del Male" – 2:39 "Zarathustra: Superuomo" – 6:25 "Zarathustra: Il Tempio delle Clessidre" – 2:52Side two"Degli Uomini" – 4:04 "Della Natura" – 8:28 "Dell'Eterno Ritorno" – 6:18 Giancarlo Golzi – drums, vocals Alberto Moreno – bass and piano Enzo Merogno – guitar, vocals Pit Corradi – mellotron, Hammond organ, Farfisa electric piano Stefano Galifi – vocals www.progreviews.com