A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
The Zagros Mountains are a long mountain range in Iran and southeastern Turkey. This mountain range has a total length of 1,600 km; the Zagros mountain range begins in northwestern Iran and follows Iran's western border, while covering much of southeastern Turkey and northeastern Iraq. From this border region, the range follows Iran's coast on the Persian Gulf, it spans the whole length of the western and southwestern Iranian plateau, ending at the Strait of Hormuz. The highest point is Mount Dena, at 4,409 metres; the Zagros fold and thrust belt was formed by the collision of two tectonic plates, the Eurasian Plate and the Arabian Plate. This collision happened during the Miocene and folded the entire rocks, deposited from the Carboniferous to the Miocene in the geosyncline in front of the Iranian Plate; the process of collision continues to the present and as the Arabian Plate is being pushed against the Eurasian Plate, the Zagros Mountains and the Iranian Plateau are getting higher and higher.
Recent GPS measurements in Iran have shown that this collision is still active and the resulting deformation is distributed non-uniformly in the country taken up in the major mountain belts like Alborz and Zagros. A dense GPS network which covered the Iranian Zagros proves a high rate of deformation within the Zagros; the GPS results show that the current rate of shortening in the southeast Zagros is ~10 mm/a, dropping to ~5 mm/a in the northwest Zagros. The north-south Kazerun strike-slip fault divides the Zagros into two distinct zones of deformation; the GPS results show different shortening directions along the belt, normal shortening in the southeast and oblique shortening in the northwest Zagros. The Zagros mountains were created around the time of the second ice age, which caused the tectonic collision, leading to its uniqueness; the sedimentary cover in the SE Zagros is deforming above a layer of rock salt, whereas in the NW Zagros the salt layer is missing or is thin. This different basal friction is responsible for the different topographies on either side of the Kazerun fault.
Higher topography and narrower zone of deformation in the NW Zagros is observed whereas in the SE, deformation was spread more and a wider zone of deformation with lower topography was formed. Stresses induced in the Earth's crust by the collision caused extensive folding of the preexisting layered sedimentary rocks. Subsequent erosion removed softer rocks, such as mudstone and siltstone while leaving harder rocks, such as limestone and dolomite; this differential erosion formed the linear ridges of the Zagros Mountains. The depositional environment and tectonic history of the rocks were conducive to the formation and trapping of petroleum, the Zagros region is an important area for oil production. Salt domes and salt glaciers are a common feature of the Zagros Mountains. Salt domes are an important target for petroleum exploration, as the impermeable salt traps petroleum beneath other rock layers. There is much water-soluble gypsum in the region; the mountains have a sedimentary origin and are made of limestone.
In the Elevated Zagros or the Higher Zagros, the Paleozoic rocks could be found in the upper and higher sections of the peaks of the Zagros Mountains along the Zagros main fault. On both sides of this fault, there are Mesozoic rocks, a combination of Triassic and Jurassic rocks that are surrounded by Cretaceous rocks on both sides; the Folded Zagros is formed of Tertiary rocks, with the Paleogene rocks south of the Cretaceous rocks and the Neogene rocks south of the Paleogene rocks. The mountains are divided into many parallel sub-ranges, orogenically have the same age as the Alps. Iran's main oilfields lie in the western central foothills of the Zagros mountain range; the southern ranges of the Fars Province have somewhat lower summits. They contain some limestone rocks showing abundant marine fossils. Signs of early agriculture date back as far as 9000 BC to the foothills of the mountains. There were settlements that grew into cities named Anshan and Susa. Jarmo is one archaeological site in this area.
Shanidar, where the ancient skeletal remains of Neanderthals have been found, is another. Some of the earliest evidence of wine production has been discovered in the mountains. During early ancient times, the Zagros was the home of peoples such as the Kassites, Guti and Mitanni, who periodically invaded the Sumerian and/or Akkadian cities of Mesopotamia; the mountains create a geographic barrier between the Mesopotamian Plain, in Iraq, the Iranian Plateau. A small archive of clay tablets detailing the complex interactions of these groups in the early second millennium BC has been found at Tell Shemshara along the Little Zab. Tell Bazmusian, near Shemshara, was occupied between 800 CE, although not continuously; the mountains contain several ecosystems. Prominent among them are the forest steppe areas with a semi-arid climate; as defined by the World Wildlife Fund and used in their Wildfinder, the particular terrestrial ecoreg
Zāyandé-Rūd or Pāyanderūd spelled as Zayandeh-Rood or Zayanderood, is the largest river of the Iranian Plateau in central Iran. The Zayandeh starts in the Zard-Kuh subrange of the Zagros Mountains in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, it flows 400 kilometres eastward before ending in the Gavkhouni swamp, a seasonal salt lake, southeast of Isfahan city. The Zayandeh used to have significant flow all year long, unlike many of Iran's rivers which are seasonal, but today runs dry due to water extraction before reaching the city of Esfahan. In the early 2010s, the lower reaches of the river dried out after several years of seasonal dry-outs; the Zayandeh River basin has an area of 41,500 square kilometres, altitude from 3,974 metres to 1,466 metres, an average rain fall of 130 millimetres and a monthly average temperature of 3 °C to 29 °C. There are 2,700 square kilometres of irrigated land in the Zayandeh River basin, with water derived from the nine main hydraulic units of the Zayandeh River, wells and springs in lateral valleys.
Zayandeh River water gave life to the people of central Iran in Isfahan and Yazd provinces. Before the drying-out, water diverted per person was 240 litres per day in urban areas and 150 litres per day in villages. In the 1970s, the flow of the river was estimated at 1.2 cubic kilometres per annum, or 38 cubic metres per second. People have lived on the banks of Zayandeh River for thousands of years; the earliest evidence of human occupation along the River is found in a cave site called Qaleh Bozi near Dizicheh at SW of Isfahan. More than 40,000 years ago, groups of Paleolithic hunters used Qaleh Bozi caves as shelter for seasonal or temporary occupations and left their stone tools and bones of hunted animals. An ancient prehistoric culture, the Zayandeh River Civilization, flourished along the banks of the Zayandeh in the 6th Millennium BC. Zayandeh River crosses the city of a major cultural and economic center of Iran. In the 17th century, Shaikh Bahai and built a system of canals, to distribute Zayandeh water to Isfahan's suburbs.
Water from the Zayandeh River helped the growth of the population and the economy, helped established Isfahan as an influential center, gave a green landscape to Isfahan, a city in the middle of a desert. The Zayandeh river bed is spanned by many historical Safavid era bridges, the river used to flow through many parks. Arthur Pope and his wife Phyllis Ackerman are buried in a small tomb in pleasant surroundings in its banks. Richard Frye has requested to be buried there; until the 1960s in Isfahan Province the distribution of water followed the Tomar, a document claimed to date from the 16th Century. The Tomar divided the flow of the Zayandeh River into 33 parts which were specifically allotted to the eight major districts within the region. At the district level the water flow was divided either on a time basis, or by the use of variable weirs, so that the proportion could be maintained regardless of the height of the flow. For centuries Isfahan city had been an oasis settlement, noted for its surrounding fertile lands and prosperity.
Until the 1960s industrial demand for water was minimal, which enabled the scarce water resources to be utilized for agriculture. With a growing population within the basin, rising standards of living within the city, the pressure on water resources increased until the division of water Tomar was no longer feasible; the creation of large steel works and other new industries demanded water. The Chadegan Reservoir dam project in 1972 was a major hydroelectric project to help with stabilizing water flow and generate electricity; the dam was named Shah Abbas Dam after Shah Abbas I, the most influential king of the Safavid dynasty, but it was changed to Zayandeh Dam after the Islamic revolution in 1979. Since 1972, the Chadegan Reservoir has helped prevent seasonal flooding of the Zayandeh River. Water discharge is increased during Persian New Year to allow the river to flow through Esfahan once more during the public holiday. 80% of the Zayandeh's extracted water is used for agriculture, 10% for human consumption, 7% for industry and 3% for other uses.
There have been a number of tunnel projects to redirect water to the Zayandeh. These have helped provide water for the growing population and new industries in both Isfahan and Yazd provinces. While the drying-out of the lower reaches of the Zayandeh River has been attributed to drought, the main reasons are man-made. Poor planning and populist politics have led to years of mismanagement and overuse which resulted in seasonal dry-outs and caused the river to dry out before reaching Isfahan. There are several old bridges over the Zayandeh River; the oldest, built in the 5th century AD, is still in use as a pedestrian crossing in Sharestan village. Bridges on Zayandeh River in City of Esfahan: In the section of the Zayandeh River crossing Esfahan, parks, paddle boats and traditional cafes and restaurants amongst the rest of Esfahan rich cultural heritage, are major to
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form and alignment that have arisen from the same cause an orogeny. Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain ranges are segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not have the same geologic structure or petrology, they may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, volcanic landforms resulting in a variety of rock types. Most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earth's land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt.
The Pacific Ring of Fire includes the Andes of South America, extends through the North American Cordillera along the Pacific Coast, the Aleutian Range, on through Kamchatka, Taiwan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, to New Zealand. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the world's longest mountain system; the Alpide belt includes Indonesia and Southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, Caucasus Mountains, Balkan Mountains fold mountain range, the Alps, ends in the Spanish mountains and the Atlas Mountains. The belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges; the Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, 8,848 metres high and traverses the border between China and Nepal. Mountain ranges outside these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Great Dividing Range, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains. If the definition of a mountain range is stretched to include underwater mountains the Ocean Ridges form the longest continuous mountain system on Earth, with a length of 65,000 kilometres.
The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, where mountain ranges can contain sub-ranges. The sub-range relationship is expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains. Equivalently, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians; the parent-child expression extends to the sub-ranges themselves: the Sandwich Range and the Presidential Range are children of the White Mountains, while the Presidential Range is parent to the Northern Presidential Range and Southern Presidential Range. The position of mountains influences climate, such as snow; when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the leeward side, it warms again and is drier, having been stripped of much of its moisture.
A rain shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are subjected to erosional forces which work to tear them down; the basins adjacent to an eroding mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted until the mountains are reduced to low hills and plains; the early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example. As the uplift was occurring some 10,000 feet of Mesozoic sedimentary strata were removed by erosion over the core of the mountain range and spread as sand and clays across the Great Plains to the east; this mass of rock was removed as the range was undergoing uplift. The removal of such a mass from the core of the range most caused further uplift as the region adjusted isostatically in response to the removed weight. Rivers are traditionally believed to be the principal cause of mountain range erosion, by cutting into bedrock and transporting sediment.
Computer simulation has shown that as mountain belts change from tectonically active to inactive, the rate of erosion drops because there are fewer abrasive particles in the water and fewer landslides. Mountains on other planets and natural satellites of the Solar System are isolated and formed by processes such as impacts, though there are examples of mountain ranges somewhat similar to those on Earth. Saturn's moon Titan and Pluto, in particular exhibit large mountain ranges in chains composed of ices rather than rock. Examples include the Mithrim Montes and Doom Mons on Titan, Tenzing Montes and Hillary Montes on Pluto; some terrestrial planets other than Earth exhibit rocky mountain ranges, such as Maxwell Montes on Venus taller than any on Earth and Tartarus Montes on Mars, Jupiter's moon Io has mountain ranges formed from tectonic processes including Boösaule Montes, Dorian Montes, Hi'iaka Montes and Euboea Montes. Peakbagger Ranges Home Page Bivouac.com
The Andes or Andean Mountains are the longest continental mountain range in the world, forming a continuous highland along the western edge of South America. This range is about 7,000 km long, about 200 to 700 km wide, of an average height of about 4,000 m; the Andes extend from north to south through seven South American countries: Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia and Argentina. Along their length, the Andes are split into several ranges, separated by intermediate depressions; the Andes are the location of several high plateaus – some of which host major cities such as Quito, Bogotá, Medellín, Sucre, Mérida and La Paz. The Altiplano plateau is the world's second-highest after the Tibetan plateau; these ranges are in turn grouped into three major divisions based on climate: the Tropical Andes, the Dry Andes, the Wet Andes. The Andes Mountains are the world's highest mountain range outside Asia; the highest mountain outside Asia, Argentina's Mount Aconcagua, rises to an elevation of about 6,961 m above sea level.
The peak of Chimborazo in the Ecuadorian Andes is farther from the Earth's center than any other location on the Earth's surface, due to the equatorial bulge resulting from the Earth's rotation. The world's highest volcanoes are in the Andes, including Ojos del Salado on the Chile-Argentina border, which rises to 6,893 m; the Andes are part of the American Cordillera, a chain of mountain ranges that consists of an continuous sequence of mountain ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, Central America, South America and Antarctica. The etymology of the word Andes has been debated; the majority consensus is that it derives from the Quechua word anti, which means "east" as in Antisuyu, one of the four regions of the Inca Empire. The Andes can be divided into three sections: The Southern Andes in Chile. In the northern part of the Andes, the isolated Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta range is considered to be part of the Andes; the term cordillera comes from the Spanish word "cordel", meaning "rope".
The Andes range is about 200 km wide throughout its length, except in the Bolivian flexure where it is about 640 kilometres wide. The Leeward Antilles islands Aruba and Curaçao, which lie in the Caribbean Sea off the coast of Venezuela, were thought to represent the submerged peaks of the extreme northern edge of the Andes range, but ongoing geological studies indicate that such a simplification does not do justice to the complex tectonic boundary between the South American and Caribbean plates; the Andes are a Mesozoic–Tertiary orogenic belt of mountains along the Pacific Ring of Fire, a zone of volcanic activity that encompasses the Pacific rim of the Americas as well as the Asia-Pacific region. The Andes are the result of tectonic plate processes, caused by the subduction of oceanic crust beneath the South American Plate, it is the result of a convergent plate boundary between the Nazca Plate and the South American Plate The main cause of the rise of the Andes is the compression of the western rim of the South American Plate due to the subduction of the Nazca Plate and the Antarctic Plate.
To the east, the Andes range is bounded by several sedimentary basins, such as Orinoco, Amazon Basin, Madre de Dios and Gran Chaco, that separate the Andes from the ancient cratons in eastern South America. In the south, the Andes share a long boundary with the former Patagonia Terrane. To the west, the Andes end at the Pacific Ocean, although the Peru-Chile trench can be considered their ultimate western limit. From a geographical approach, the Andes are considered to have their western boundaries marked by the appearance of coastal lowlands and a less rugged topography; the Andes Mountains contain large quantities of iron ore located in many mountains within the range. The Andean orogen has a series of oroclines; the Bolivian Orocline is a seaward concave bending in the coast of South America and the Andes Mountains at about 18° S. At this point, the orientation of the Andes turns from Northwest in Peru to South in Chile and Argentina; the Andean segment north and south of the orocline have been rotated 15° to 20° counter clockwise and clockwise respectively.
The Bolivian Orocline area overlaps with the area of maximum width of the Altiplano Plateau and according to Isacks the orocline is related to crustal shortening. The specific point at 18° S where the coastline bends is known as the "Arica Elbow". Further south lies the Maipo Orocline or Maipo Transition Zone located between 30° S and 38°S with a break in trend at 33° S. Near the southern tip of the Andes lies the Patagonian orocline; the western rim of the South American Plate has been the place of several pre-Andean orogenies since at least the late Proterozoic and early Paleozoic, when several terranes and microcontinents collided and amalgamated with the ancient cratons of eastern South America, by the South American part of Gondwana. The formation of the modern Andes began with the events of the Triassic when Pangaea began the break up that resulted in developing several rifts; the development continued through the Jurassic Period. It was during the Cretaceous Period that the Andes began to take their present form, by the uplifting and folding of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks of the ancient cratons to the east.
The rise of the Andes has not been constant, as different regions have had different degrees of tectonic stress and erosion. Tectonic forces above the subduction zone al
Grass (1925 film)
Grass: A Nation's Battle for Life is a documentary film which follows a branch of the Bakhtiari tribe of Lurs in Persia as they and their herds make their seasonal journey to better pastures. It is considered one of the earliest ethnographic documentary films; the film was made by Merian C. Cooper, Ernest Schoedsack, Marguerite Harrison, with intertitles by Richard Carver and Terry Ramsaye, it documents the caravan route from Angora to the Bakhtiari lands, of what was Persia, in what is now the western part Iran of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province and the eastern part of Khuzestan. They follow Haidar Khan as he leads 50,000 of his people and countless animals on a harrowing trek across the Karun River and over Zard Kuh, the highest peak in the Zagros Mountains, it was the first film made by the team of Cooper and Schoedsack, who went on make King Kong and many other films. Cooper was a writer doing research for the American Geographical Society. Schoedsack was a cameraman. Funding was provided by a loan of $5000 by Cooper's brother.
Another $5000 was provided by Marguerite Harrison. In filming the journey, Cooper and Harrison became the first Westerners to make the migration with the Bakhtiari; the central concern in the making of Grass was to document a way of life, unknown to all those outside its realm. The film highlights the extreme hardships faced by nomadic peoples, as well as the bravery and ingenuity of the Bakhtiari on their migration in search of grass for their animals; the only earlier ethnographic documentary was Robert Flaherty's Nanook of the North released in 1922. According to Cooper, the filmmakers were unaware of Nanook until their return to New York City from filming in Persia. In some of the stretches there are photographs showing humans and cattle zig-zagging up the rocks that seem to cover several miles. Mrs. Harrison, who has gained fame as a writer and war correspondent, is the only one of the American trio seen in the film, as the two men were always busy with the camera; the journey, aside from the traveling over wind-swept plains to the meeting place of the Baktiari, took forty-eight days, the late Robert Imbrie, the American Consul, slain by fanatics at Teheran, attested to the fact that Mrs. Harrison, Mr. Shoedsack and Mr. Cooper were the only white persons to have accomplished the exhausting ordeal.
The documentary presents the filmmakers' travel as a narrative of re-enaction of an ancient culture: while they present the audience with a people on the move in the present, the trek is depicted as an age-old culture of movement, i.e. re-enacting a traditional, stable culture of the past. One of the most amazing sequences captured by then-novice filmmakers Cooper and Schoedsack, who were accompanied by female journalist Marguerite Harrison, is the fording of the icy Karun River — on inflated goat skins! The film was first shown in the United States at The Explorers Club, annual dinner held at the Hotel McAlpin in New York City on January 24, 1925, along with a lecture by Cooper; the Explorers Journal reported "it is Mr. Cooper's happy achievement to have portrayed poignantly and comprehensively the drama of a people in their primitive struggle with inexorable forces of nature.... The pictures were a fitting climax to an evening of thrilling entertainment." Grass was purchased for distribution by Paramount Pictures.
The theatrical debut was at the Criterion Theater in New York on March 30, 1925. In 1947 Merian C. Cooper decided to remake Grass, he called it a "damned half picture." What he envisioned was a film that would be about "One man and one woman, their children, will exemplify for the audience the whole of this struggle for survival which breeds a race, proud and strong, rugged individuals all, meeting bravely the moods of natural forces bent upon their destruction." Ernest Schoedsack told him to forget it. Persian friends of Ernest and his wife Ruth had kept them informed on events in the Baktiari area. A rail line now ran through the country. Much of the trek was being done with trucks. A bridge spanned the Karun river. Grass was theatrically reissued in the early 1990s. Rights to Grass had been donated to the Museum of Modern Art with Milestone Film & Video obtaining the rights in 1990. Dennis Doros of Milestone said Out of the one hundred and fifty to two hundred films we've done and Chang are among the ones I am most proud of distributing.
Chang is a national treasure in Thailand. Grass has images of culture that don't exist anymore; the journey of the Bakhtiari is so astonishing, the power of those images is like a dream, the way the're moving and climbing. Grass was issued on Video, in 2004, on DVD: "While the film is silent, it comes with a traditional Iranian score by Gholam Hosain Janati-Ataie, Kavous Shirzadian and Amir Ali Vahabzagedegan, among the most haunting and melodic created for a movie; the music beautifully captures the soul and spirit of those framed by the Cooper-Schoedsack-Harrison camera."In 1997, Grass was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant". In 2009, author Bahman Maghsoudlou published his book Grass: Untold Stories detailing background information and historical references related to the making of the movie. Grass on IMDb Grass full movie at Archive.org
The Kārūn is Iran's most effluent and only navigable river. It is 950 km long, it rises in the Zard Kuh mountains of the Bakhtiari district in the Zagros Range, receiving many tributaries, such as the Dez and the Kuhrang, before passing through the capital of the Khuzestan Province of Iran, the city of Ahvaz before emptying to its mouth into Arvand Rud. The Karun continues toward the Persian Gulf, forking into two primary branches on its delta - the Bahmanshir and the Haffar - that join Arvand Roud, emptying into the Persian Gulf; the important Island of Abadan is located between these two branches of the Karun. The port city of Khorramshahr is divided from the Island of Abadan by the Haffar branch. Juris Zarins and other scholars have identified the Karun as one of the four rivers of Eden, the others being the Tigris, the Euphrates, either the Wadi Al-Batin or the Karkheh. In early classical times, the Karun was known as the Pasitigris; the modern medieval and modern name, Karun, is a corruption of the name Kuhrang, still maintained by one of the two primary tributaries of the Karun.
It originates on the slopes of 4,221 m Zard-Kuh. The river flows south and west through several prominent mountain ridges, receives additional water from the Vanak on the south bank and the Bazuft on the north; these tributaries add to the catchment of the river above the Karun-4 Dam. 25 kilometres downstream, the Karun widens into the reservoir formed by the Karun-3 Dam. The Khersan flows into an arm of the reservoir from the southeast; the river passes through this reservoir and flows through a narrow canyon, now in a northwest direction, past Izeh winding into the Sussan Plain. The Karun turns north into the reservoir of Shahid Abbaspour Dam, which floods the river's defile to the southwest; the Karun flows southwest into the impoundment of Masjed Soleyman Dam turns northwest. It leaves the foothills and flows south past Shushtar and its confluence with the Dez, it bends southwest, bisecting the city of Ahvaz, south through farmland to its mouth on the Arvand Roud at Khorramshahr, where its water, together with that of the Tigris and Euphrates, turns southeast to flow to the Persian Gulf.
The largest river by discharge in Iran, the Karun River's watershed covers 65,230 square kilometres in parts of two Iranian provinces. The river has an average discharge of 575 cubic metres per second; the largest city on the river is Ahvaz, with over 1.3 million inhabitants. Other important cities include Shushtar, Masjed-Soleyman, Izeh. Much of Khuzestan's transport and resources are connected in another to the Karun. Since the British first discovered oil at Masjed-Soleyman, the Karun has been an important route for the transport of petroleum to the Persian Gulf, remains an important commercial waterway. Water from the Karun provides irrigation to over 280,000 hectares of the surrounding plain and a further 100,000 hectares are planned to receive water; the Karun River valley was once inhabited by the Elamite civilization which rose about 2,700 BC. At several points in history, Mesopotamian civilizations such as Ur and Babylon overthrew the Elamites and gained control of the Karun and its surroundings in modern Khuzestan.
However, the Elamite empire lasted until about 640 BC. The city of Susa, near the modern city of Shush between the Dez and Karkheh rivers, was one of their largest before it was destroyed by the invaders; the first known major bridge across the river was built by the Roman captives that included its emperor Valerianus in Sassanid era, whence the name of the bridge and dam Band-e Kaisar, "Caesar's dam", at Shushtar. In two of several competing theories about the origins and location of the Garden of Eden, the Karun is presumed to be the Gihon River, described in the Biblical book of Genesis; the strongest of these theories, propounded by archaeologist Juris Zarins, places the Garden of Eden at the northern tip of the Persian Gulf, fed by the four rivers Tigris, Euphrates and Pishon. The name of the river is derived from the mountain peak, that serves as its source; the famous silent film documentary, Grass: A Nation's Battle for Life, tells the story of the Bakhtiari tribe crossing this river with 50,000 people and 500,000 animals.
It was here during the Iran -- Iraq War. With its limited military stocks, Iran unveiled its "human wave" assaults which used thousands of Basij volunteers. In September 2009, three districts of Basra province in southern Iraq were declared disaster areas as a result of Iran's construction of new dams on the Karun; the new dams resulted in high levels of salinity in the Arvand Roud, which destroyed farm areas and threatened livestock. Civilians in the area were forced to evacuate. There are a number of dams on the Karun River built to generate hydroelectric power and provide flood control. Gotvand Dam, Masjed Soleyman Dam, Karun-1, Karun-3, Karun-4, most of them owned by the Iran Water and Power Resources Development Co. are all on the main stem. Karun-2 would be located in the Sussan Plain between Shahid Abbaspour and Karun-3, but the project is still under consideration because of fear of submerging archaeological sites. A Karun-5 dam upstream of Karun-4 has been proposed; the Masjed Soleyman, Shahid Abbaspour, Karun-3 dams each generate 1,000-2,000 MW of power to service t