Bojnice is a historical town in central Slovakia at the upper Nitra river, near the city of Prievidza. It has population of 4,983. Bojnice is best known for its tourist attractions: the oldest zoo in Slovakia, the most visited castle, one of the oldest spa towns in Slovakia; the town is situated below the Bojnice Castle, built on travertine rock with a natural cave. The castle has appeared in many international films and a well-known international festival of spectres takes place there every year; the town lies under the Strážov Mountains. It is close to Prievidza, sharing the public transport system. Other major cities nearby include Žilina to Trenčín to the west; the town's history is connected to that of Bojnice Castle. It was first mentioned in 1113, it has town privileges since 1966. The town is most known for its tourist attractions: the Bojnice Castle, first mentioned in 1113 and built as a wooden fort, it was over time built as a stone castle and in the 20th century in the Romantic style.
Today, it is a popular tourist attraction. The zoo was founded in 1955. In 2006 it had more than 1,800 animals, it is known for its spa. The therapeutic springs were mentioned in 1549 for the first time. Today they treat patients with disorders of the locomotor system, with rheumatic diseases, post traumatic conditions, conditions after orthopaedic disturbances of the spine of adolescents, neurological diseases and occupational diseases. According to the 2001 census, the town had 5,006 inhabitants. 97.06 % of inhabitants were 0.68 % Czechs and 0.24 % Germans. The religious make-up was 74.55% Roman Catholics, 19% people with no religious affiliation and 2% Lutherans. Karina Habšudová, tennis player Miloslav Mečíř, tennis player, Olympic winner Andrej Sekera, Edmonton Oilers defenseman Mirka Vavrinec, tennis player Zuzana Paulechová, classical pianist Antonia Liskova, Italian actress Erika Pochybova Johnson, artist Juraj Kucka, footballer Anna Záborská, Member of the European Parliament Ján Vlasko, slovak footballer Jeseník, Czech Republic Bad Krozingen, Germany Rosta, Italy List of municipalities and towns in Slovakia The records for genealogical research are available at the state archive "Statny Archiv in Nitra, Slovakia" Roman Catholic church records: 1668-1912 Official municipal website Information Center of Bojnice Bojnice Castle Bojnice Spa Bojnice photos Surnames of living people in Bojnice
The Habsburg Monarchy – Habsburg Empire, Austrian Monarchy or Danube Monarchy – is an unofficial umbrella term among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1526 and 1780 and by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918. The Monarchy was a typical composite state composed of territories within and outside the Holy Roman Empire, united only in the person of the monarch; the dynastic capital was Vienna, except from 1583 to 1611. From 1804 to 1867 the Habsburg Monarchy was formally unified as the Austrian Empire, from 1867 to 1918 as the Austro-Hungarian Empire; the head of the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg was elected Holy Roman Emperor: from 1452 until the Empire's dissolution in 1806, Charles VII of Bavaria was the only Holy Roman Emperor, not Habsburg ruler of Austria. The two entities were never coterminous, as the Habsburg Monarchy covered many lands beyond the Holy Roman Empire, most of the Empire was ruled by other dynasties.
This Austrian Habsburg Monarchy must not be confused with the House of Habsburg, existing since the 11th century, whose vast domains were split up in 1521 between this "junior" Austrian branch and the "senior" Spanish branch. The monarchy had no official name. Instead, various names included: Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg Empire Habsburg/Austrian Hereditary Lands Austrian Monarchy Danubian Monarchy The Habsburg family originated with the Habsburg Castle in modern Switzerland, after 1279 came to rule in Austria; the Habsburg family grew to European prominence with the marriage and adoption treaty by Emperor Maximilian I at the First Congress of Vienna in 1515, the subsequent death of adopted Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia in 1526. Following the death of Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia in the Battle of Mohács against the Turks, his brother-in-law Archduke Ferdinand of Austria was elected the next King of Bohemia and Hungary. Names of the territory that became Austria-Hungary: Habsburg monarchy: This was an unofficial umbrella term, but frequent, name during that time.
The entity had no official name. Austrian Empire: This was the official name. Note that the German version is Kaisertum Österreich, i.e. the English translation empire refers to a territory ruled by an emperor, not just to a "widespreading domain". Austria-Hungary: This name was used in the international relations, though the official name was Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. An unofficial popular name was the Danubian Monarchy often used was the term Doppel-Monarchie meaning two states under one crowned ruler. Crownlands or crown lands: This is the name of all the individual parts of the Austrian Empire, of Austria-Hungary from 1867 on; the Kingdom of Hungary was not considered a "crownland" after the establishment of Austria-Hungary 1867, so that the "crownlands" became identical with what was called the Kingdoms and Lands represented in the Imperial Council. The Hungarian parts of the Empire were called "Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen" or "Lands of Holy Stephen's Crown"; the Bohemian Lands were called "Lands of the St. Wenceslaus' Crown".
Names of some smaller territories: Austrian lands or "Archduchies of Austria" – Lands up and below the Enns: This is the historical name of the parts of the Archduchy of Austria that became the present-day Republic of Austria on 12 November 1918. Modern day Austria is a semi-federal republic of nine states that are: Lower Austria, Upper Austria, Styria, Carinthia and Burgenland and the Capital of Vienna, a state of its own. Burgenland came to Austria in 1921 from Hungary. Salzburg became Austrian in 1816 after the Napoleonic wars. Vienna, Austria's capital became a state 1 January 1922, after being residence and capital of the Austrian Empire for the Habsburg monarchs for centuries. Upper and Lower Austria were split into "Austria above the Enns" and "Austria below the Enns". Upper Austria was enlarged after the Treaty of Teschen following the "War of the Bavarian Succession" by the so-called Innviertel part of Bavaria. Hereditary Lands or German Hereditary Lands or Austrian Hereditary Lands: In a narrower sense these were the "original" Habsburg Austrian territories, i.e. the Austrian lands and Carniola.
In a wider sense the Lands of the Bohemian Crown were included in the Hereditary lands. The term was replaced by the term "Crownlands" in the 1849 March Constitution, but it was used afterwards; the Er
German town law
The German town law or German municipal concerns was a set of early town privileges based on the Magdeburg rights developed by Otto I. The Magdeburg Law became the inspiration for regional town charters not only in Germany, but in Central and Eastern Europe who modified it during the Middle Ages; the German town law was used in the founding of many German cities and villages beginning in the 13th century. As Germans began establishing towns throughout northern Europe as early as the 10th century, they received town privileges granting them autonomy from local secular or religious rulers; such privileges included the right to self-governance, economic autonomy, criminal courts, militia. Town laws were more or less copied from neighboring towns, such as the Westphalian towns of Soest, Minden, Münster; as Germans began settling eastward, the colonists modelled their town laws on the pre-existing 12th century laws of Cologne in the west, Lübeck in the north, Magdeburg in the east, either Nuremberg or Vienna in the south.
The granting of German city rights modelled after an established town to a new town regarded the original model as a Rechtsvorort, or a legal sponsor of the newly chartered town. For instance, Magdeburg became the sponsor of towns using Magdeburg Rights, its lay judges could rule in ambiguous legal cases in towns using such rights. Certain city rights became known under different names, although they came from the same source; as territorial borders changed through the passage of time, changes to German city rights were inevitable. During the course of the 15th, 16th, 17th centuries, the town laws of many places were modified with aspects of Roman law by legal experts; the older towns' laws, along with local autonomy and jurisdiction, gave way to landed territorial rulers. With the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss of 1803 all of the 51 reichsfrei cities of the Holy Roman Empire were mediatised by the territorial princes; the only remnants of medieval town rights included in the Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch of 1 January 1900 were single articles concerning family and inheritance laws.
The cities of Hamburg and Berlin are administered under Landesrechte, or laws of the federal states of Germany. Many towns granted German city rights had existed for some time, but the granting of town law codified the legal status of the settlement. Many European localities date their foundation to their reception of a town charter though they had existed as a settlement beforehand. German town law was applied during the Ostsiedlung of Central and Eastern Europe by German colonists beginning in the early 13th century; because many areas were considered underpopulated or underdeveloped, local rulers offered urban privileges to peasants from German lands to induce them to immigrate eastward. Some towns which received a German town law charter were based on pre-existing settlements, while others were constructed anew by colonists. Many towns were formed in conjunction with the settlement of nearby rural communities, but the towns' urban rights were jealously guarded. German town law was applied only to ethnic Germans, but in most localities all town-dwellers were regarded as citizens, regardless of ethnic origin.
Lübeck law spread among the maritime settlements along the southern shore of the Baltic Sea and was used in northern Mecklenburg, Western Pomerania, parts of Pomerelia and Warmia. It formed the basis of Riga law in Riga, used for some towns in the lands of the Livonian Order in Livonia and Courland. Magdeburg law was popular around the March of Meißen and Upper Saxony and was the source of several variants, including Neumarkt-Magdeburg law, used extensively in Upper Silesia, Kulm law, used in the territory of the Teutonic Knights in Prussia and along the lower Vistula in Eastern Pomerania. Other variants included Brandenburg, Litoměřice, Olomouc law. Litoměřice law and codes based on that of Nuremberg, such as Old Prague and Cheb law, were introduced into Bohemia during the reign of King Wenceslaus I, while German colonists introduced Brünn and Olmütz law in Moravia. South German law, broadly referring to the codes of Nuremberg and Vienna, was used in Bavaria and Slovenia, was introduced into the Kingdom of Hungary during the rule of King Béla IV.
Jihlava law was a variant used by mining communities in Bohemia, the mountains of Upper Hungary, Transylvania. Other town laws were only suitable for or were modified to fit local conditions, such as Głubczyce, Görlitz, Goslar, Lüneburg, Lwówek Śląski, Spiš, Székesfehérvár laws. Resulting from the reign of King Casimir III of Poland, numerous towns were chartered with Neumarkt town law throughout the Kingdom of Poland in the 14th century in Masovia and Volhynia. Many Transylvanian Saxon settlements in Transylvania in the regions of Altland, Nösnerland, received South German town law in the 14th century. In the 15th century, many towns in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania were chartered with the Neumarkt town law used in much of Poland, although this was done through the duplication of Polish administrative methods instead of German colonization. In the 16th century Muscovy granted or reaffirmed Magdeburg rights to various towns along the Dnie
The Silesian Piasts were the elder of four lines of the Polish Piast dynasty beginning with Władysław II the Exile, eldest son of Duke Bolesław III of Poland. By Bolesław's testament, Władysław was granted Silesia as his hereditary province and the Lesser Polish Seniorate Province at Kraków according to the principle of agnatic seniority; the history of the Silesian Piasts began with the feudal fragmentation of Poland in 1138 following the death of the Polish duke Bolesław III Wrymouth. While the Silesian province and the Kraków seniorate were assigned to Władysław II the Exile, his three younger half–brothers Bolesław IV the Curly, Mieszko III the Old, Henry of Sandomierz received Masovia, Greater Poland and Sandomierz according to the Testament of Boleslaw III. Władysław soon entered into fierce conflicts with the Polish nobility; when in 1146 he attempted to take control of the whole of Poland, he was excommunicated by Archbishop Jakub ze Żnina of Gniezno and his brothers drove him into exile.
He was received by King Conrad III of Germany, his brother-in-law by Władysław's consort Agnes of Babenberg, at the imperial palace of Altenburg. Silesia and the Seniorate Province came under the control of second-born Bolesław IV the Curly, Duke of Masovia. In the same year King Conrad III failed. Not until 1157 Duke Bolesław IV the Curly was defeated in a campaign by Konrads successor Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, the "Silesian issue" was not mentioned in the treaty concluded by the rulers, so Władysław remained in exile, he died in 1159 without returning to Poland. In 1163, Bolesław the Curly was pressed by Frederick Barbarossa to return the hereditary Silesian province to Władysław's sons Bolesław the Tall, Konrad Spindleshanks and Mieszko Tanglefoot, though he retained the Seniorate Province and the Polish throne at Kraków; the Duchy of Silesia remained within the Polish seniorate constitution, but Władysław's sons were obliged to pay a yearly tribute to the Holy Roman Emperor. High Duke Bolesław the Curly retained control of the most important Silesian cities such as Wrocław, Opole, Głogów, Racibórz and Legnica until 1166, when the Silesian dukes took control of these parts.
Władysław's sons ruled Silesia together until 1172, when they divided their territory: Bolesław the Tall, eldest brother, received the large area from Legnica up the Oder River to Wroclaw and created the Duchy of Opole for his eldest son Jarosław. Mieszko Tanglefoot the smaller Duchy of Racibórz around Racibórz and Cieszyn, their minor brother Konrad Spindleshanks received Żagań, Głogów and Krosno from the hands of Bolesław the Tall. As Konrad prepared himself for a clerical career at the Fulda monastery, his brother Bolesław administered his possessions until Konrad's early death, when he incorporated Konrad's part into his own duchy. Mieszko at the same time was able to expand his duchy with the former Lesser Polish territories of Bytom and Oświęcim, given to him by High Duke Casimir II the Just, with the Duchy of Opole, which he received after the death of Duke Jarosław and his father Bolesław in 1201. One year Bolesław's heir, Duke Henry I the Bearded, his uncle Mieszko moreover specified to rule out the right of succession among their branches, an arrangement, responsible for the special position of what would become Upper Silesia.
In the same year, Poland abolished the seniorate and the Silesian duchies became independent entities. Henry I the Bearded took part in the inner-Polish conflicts and expanded his dominion with determination. Henry, before securing in 1229 the sovereignty in Kraków, had made no less persevering efforts to bring Greater Poland under his dominion. From the beginning of the thirteenth century he had not ceased to intervene in the disputes which were carried on between the descendants of Mieszko the Old. At last in 1234, a good half of that province was formally ceded to him; as a guardian of minor dukes, Henry moreover ruled over Sandomierz. But, he aimed higher; this Silesian prince not only intended to enlarge his possessions. He became duke of Kraków in 1232. Henry expanded his realm outside Poland ruling over Barnim, Teltow as well as parts of Lower Lusatia. Despite his efforts, he never gained the Polish crown; the royal crown forgotten since the fall of Bolesław II, was destined by him for his eldest son, whom he associated in his rule towards the end of his life.
This Henry II the Pious, who succeeded his father in 1238, was, in fact worthy of the heritage of the first Piasts. Pursuing the able policy of Henry the Bearded, his son was moreover able to obtain the support of the clergy, with whom his father had had frequent disagreements. In a close alliance with his brother-in-law, Bohemian king Wenceslaus, he consolidated his position in Greater Poland against Barnim I of Pomerania and repelled an attack on castle Lubusz by the margrave of Brandenburg and the archbishop of Magdeburg. Following an old tradition of his dynasty, he placed himself under the protection of the Holy See, with which he allied himself against Frederick II. In spite of all his German connections, Henry the Pious would, assuredly have maintained the independence and prestige of the kingdom if all his plan had not been annihilated by an unforeseen catastrophe. In 1241, he died as a Christian hero in the Battle of Legnica, in which he was attempting to arrest the Mongolian invasion.
His death left the Silesian Piast dynasty shaken. After Henry's death in 1
Lesser Poland Voivodeship
Lesser Poland Voivodeship or Lesser Poland Province known as Małopolska Voivodeship or Małopolska Province, is a voivodeship, in southern Poland. It has an area of 15,108 square kilometres, a population of 3,267,731, it was created on 1 January 1999 out of the former Kraków, Tarnów, Nowy Sącz and parts of Bielsko-Biała, Katowice and Krosno Voivodeships, pursuant to the Polish local government reforms adopted in 1998. The province's name recalls the traditional name of a historic Polish region, Lesser Poland, or in Polish: Małopolska. Current Lesser Poland Voivodeship, covers only a small part of the broader ancient Małopolska region which, together with Greater Poland and Silesia, formed the early medieval Polish state. Historic Lesser Poland is much larger than the current province, it stretches far north, to Radom, Siedlce including such cities, as Stalowa Wola, Kielce, Częstochowa, Sosnowiec. The province is bounded on the north by the Świętokrzyskie Mountains, on the west by Jura Krakowsko-Częstochowska, on the south by the Tatra and Beskidy Mountains.
Politically it is bordered by Silesian Voivodeship to the west, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship to the north, Subcarpathian Voivodeship to the east, Slovakia to the south. All of Lesser Poland lies in the Vistula River catchment area; the city of Kraków was one of the European Cities of Culture in 2000. Kraków has railway and road connections with Katowice, Wrocław and Rzeszów, it lies at the crossroads of major international routes linking Dresden with Kiev, Gdańsk with Budapest. Located here is the second largest international airport in Poland, the John Paul II International Airport; the region's economy includes high technology, banking and metallurgical industries, ore, food processing, spirit and tobacco industries. The most industrialized city of the voivodeship is Kraków; the largest regional enterprise operates here, the Tadeusz Sendzimir Steelworks in Nowa Huta, employing 17,500 people. Another major industrial center is located in the west, in the neighborhood of Chrzanów and Oświęcim. Kraków Park Technologiczny, a Special Economic Zone, has been established within the voivodeship.
There are 210,000 registered economic entities operating in the voivodeship small and medium-sized, of which 234 belong to the state-owned sector. Foreign investment, growing in the region, reached US$18.3 billion by the end of 2006. 130,000 students attend fifteen Kraków institutions of higher learning. The Jagiellonian University, the largest university in the city, was founded in 1364 as Cracow Academy. Nicolaus Copernicus and Karol Wojtyła graduated from it; the AGH University of Science and Technology is considered to be the best technical university in Poland. The Academy of Economics, the Pedagogical University, the Kraków University of Technology and the Agricultural Academy are very regarded. There are the Fine Arts Academy, the State Theatre University and the Musical Academy. Nowy Sącz has become a major educational center in the region thanks to its Higher School of Business and Administration, with an American curriculum, founded in 1992; the school has 4,500 students. There are two private higher schools in Tarnów.
Located in Southern Poland, Lesser Poland is the warmest place in Poland with average summer temperatures between 23 °C and 30 °C during the day reaching 32 °C to 38 °C in July and August, the two warmest months of the year. The city of Tarnów, located in Lesser Poland, is the hottest place in Poland all year round, average temperatures being around 25 °C during the day in the three summer months and 3 °C during the day in the three winter months. In the winter the weather patterns alter each year. Błędów Desert, the only desert in Poland, is located in Lesser Poland, where temperatures can reach up to 38 °C in the summer. Four national parks and numerous reserves have been established in the voivodeship to protect the environment of Lesser Poland; the region has areas for tourism and recreation, including Zakopane and the Tatra and Beskidy Mountains. The natural landscape features many historic sites; the salt mine at Wieliczka, the pilgrimage town of Kalwaria Zebrzydowska, Kraków's Old Town are ranked by UNESCO among the most precious sites of world heritage.
At Wadowice, birthplace of John Paul II is a museum dedicated to the late Pope's childhood. The area of Oświęcim, with the former Nazi concentration camps Auschwitz-I and Auschwitz-II-Birkenau, is visited annually by a million people. Another tourist destination is the town of Bochnia with Europe's oldest; the voivodeship contains 61 towns. These are listed below in descending order of population: Smaller Poland Voivodeship is divided into 22 counties: 3 city counties and 19 land counties; these are further divided into 182 gminas. The counties are listed in the following table (ordering within
Duchy of Opole
Duchy of Opole was one of the duchies of Silesia ruled by the Piast dynasty. Its capital was Opole in Upper Silesia. Duke Boleslaw III'the Wrymouth' had restored Polish fortunes to some extent but having endured terrific internal strife, he decreed in his Will that the'kingdom' would be better divided into four hereditary principalities for each of his four sons. A kind of family federation. One became Duke of Great Poland, another Silesia, another Cracow, half-heathen Masovia; the rising local magnates, dowered with estates, preferred provincial princes. But the division of loyalties among these princes brought on a long period of dynastic struggle and national weakness. By this time Silesia, under strong German influence, had been divided into sixteen minuscule principalities and was annexed by Bohemia. Civil Wars followed. Boleslav IV submitted as vassal of the German Emperor, Frederick I Barbarossa, the Piast Dukes in Silesia grew wholly Germanized; the disputes, continued. Duke Bolesław I the Tall and his younger brother Mieszko I Tanglefoot divided the territory among themselves into the two duchies of Wrocław and Racibórz.
Bolesław had the intention to bequest the Duchy of Wrocław as a whole to his son of his second marriage Henry I the Bearded, which caused the protest of his eldest son Jarosław. After a long-term dispute in 1172 the Duchy of Opole was formed with Jarosław becoming the first duke. In turn he was obliged to an ecclesiastical career and became Bishop of Wrocław in 1198; when Duke Jarosław died in 1201, the Opole lands reverted to his still living father Bolesław and were incorporated into the Duchy of Wrocław. Bolesław himself however died shortly afterwards and in 1202 Opole was taken by his brother Duke Mieszko I Tanglefoot of Racibórz, who merged it with his duchy, creating the united Upper Silesian Duchy of Opole and Racibórz. After the death of Mieszko's grandson Duke Władysław Opolski in 1281, his sons again divided the Duchy of Opole and Racibórz and the Duchy of Opole was recreated for Casimir and his brother Bolko I, contemporaneously with the establishment of the duchies of Cziesyn and Bytom on former Racibórz territory.
In 1327 King John the Blind of Bohemia reasserted his influence over the Duchy of Opole in an attempt to stabilise the situation. The Duchy underwent various future territorial changes, becoming small until the mid-15th century, when it would start to expand again, resulting in the recreation of the Duchy of Opole and Racibórz under Duke Jan II the Good in 1521. Jan however died without issue in 1532 and the Opole line of the Piasts became extinct, whereafter Opole and Racibórz as feudal fiefdoms reverted to the sovereignty of the Bohemian Crown, it would fall to Margrave George of Brandenburg-Ansbach from the House of Hohenzollern, who had signed his inheritance treaty with Duke Jan in 1522 with the consent of the Bohemian king Ferdinand I of Habsburg. Between 1645 - 1666 Opole was held in feu by the Polish House of Vasa, reverting to the Habsburg Kings of Bohemia. In 1742 it was incorporated into the Kingdom of Prussia. Dukes of Opole Dukes of Silesia Opole Voivodeship
Bolesław V the Chaste
Bolesław V the Chaste was the Duke of Sandomierz in Lesser Poland from 1232 and High Duke of Poland from 1243 until his death, as the last male representative of the Lesser Poland branch of Piasts. Bolesław V was born on 21 June 1226 at Stary Korczyn, as the third child and only son of Leszek I the White by his wife Grzymisława, a Rurikid princess of disputed parentage. Named after his great-grandfather Bolesław III Wrymouth, the V numeral was assigned to him in the Poczet królów Polskich, his nickname of "Chaste", appeared early and was mentioned in the Rocznik franciszkański krakowski. It was given to him by his subjects because of the vows of chastity that Bolesław V and his wife Kinga of Hungary had jointly taken; the marital chastity and lack of mistresses by the Prince resulted from his exceptional devotion and mortification, was evidently influenced by his closest female relatives. On 24 November 1227, during the Congress of Gąsawa, Bolesław V's father Leszek I the White was killed. Like his own father and paternal grandfather before him, he was orphaned at young age.
After Leszek I's death many people claimed the custody of his only son. The nobility of Kraków wanted the regency to be exercised by the Dowager Duchess Grzymisława, jointly with the local voivode and bishop. On 6 December 1227 Casimir I of Kuyavia - who represented his father Konrad I of Masovia at the funeral of Leszek I - advanced his father's claims over the custody of Bolesław V and his inheritance as his closest male relative. Due to the lack of response, Konrad I came to Skaryszew to negotiate with Grzymisława and the local nobility in the first half of March 1228, with regard to assuming the guardianship of his nephew during his minority; the nobility the Gryfici family, preferred the rule of Władysław III Spindleshanks, but at that point he was in the midst of fighting with his nephew Władysław Odonic and was unable to claim his rights. Konrad I appeared in the northern part of Kraków, but at his side were only the Topór and Sztarza families, so this attempt to take the Seniorate failed.
According to Kazimierz Krotowski, the absence from Lesser Poland was the cause of the Prussian invasion to Masovia. On 5 May 1228, a meeting was organized in Cienia between Władysław III Spindleshanks and a delegation of Kraków nobles, which included Bishop Iwo Odrowąż. Under the terms of the meeting, Władysław III agreed to the adoption of Bolesław V, making him his successor over Kraków and Greater Poland. After the meeting, Władysław III arrived in Kraków, where Grzymisława formally gave him the rule of the city; the Dowager Duchess and her son received the Duchy of Sandomierz. Shortly afterwards Władysław Odonic escaped from prison and the fight for Greater Poland was resumed. Władysław III Spindleshanks was forced to leave Kraków; the local nobility, with the consent of Grzymisława, called Henry I the Bearded to Kraków, but only to rule as a Governor. In the summer of 1228 Konrad I of Masovia attacked Kraków, but was defeated at the Battle of Skała by Henry I's son, Henry II the Pious. However, a year Konrad I captured Henry I the Bearded and occupied Sieradz-Łęczyca and Sandomierz, removing Grzymisława from power, despite resistance from the local nobility.
In 1230 Władysław III Spindleshanks, with the help of Henry I, made an unsuccessful attempt to recover his lands. Władysław III died one year in exile in Racibórz. Władysław III's will named Henry I his heir over Greater Poland. In 1231, with the support of the Gryfici family, Henry I obtained the rule over Sandomierz, after Grzymisława surrendered the regency. During 1231-1232 Henry I fought against Konrad I for Lesser Poland. In 1233 Konrad I of Masovia captured Grzymisława and her son after robbing and beating them. Bolesław V and his mother were imprisoned firstly in Czersk and in Sieciechów; the humiliations to the Dowager Duchess continued there, including a slap in the face by Konrad I. Henry I the Bearded decided to rescue his mother. Both Klement and Mikołaj bribed the guards, who were busy drinking, did not pay attention to the prisoners, who left the monastery in disguise. Jan Długosz described the events as follows: When one night the guards after drink and feast forgot their duties, abandoned their posts and during the night Duke Bolesław and his mother secretly left the monastery.
For safety reasons, Henry I the Bearded hid Bolesław V and his mother in the fortress of Skała near the valley of the Prądnik river. On behalf of her son, Grzymisława renounced his rights over Kraków to Henry I. In 1234 a war between Henry I and Konrad I for Lesser Poland broke out. Thanks to Archbishop Pełka, the Treaty of Luchani was signed in August of that year, under which Bolesław V received Sandomierz and gave several castles to Henry I. In June 1235, Pope Gregory IX approved the Treaty of Luchani.