Scholars are people who devote themselves to study to an area in which they have developed expertise. A scholar may be an academic, a person who works as a teacher or researcher at a university or other higher education institution. An academic holds an advanced degree; the term scholar is sometimes used with equivalent meaning to that of academic and describes in general those who attain mastery in a research discipline. However, it has wider application, with it being used to describe those whose occupation was researched prior to organized higher education. In 1847, minister Emanuel Vogel Gerhart delivered an extensive address on the role of the scholar in society, writing: Who is a scholar? the first reply that must be given is: He is a scholar whose whole inward intellectual and moral being has been symmetrically unfolded and strengthened under the influence of truth. The different mental activities will always be exercised rightly when the proper equilibrium is preserved. No one faculty should be drawn out to the neglect of others.
The whole inner man should be unfolded harmoniously. Gerhart argued that a scholar can not be focused on a single discipline, contending that knowledge of multiple disciplines is necessary to put each into context and to inform the development of each: o be a scholar involves more than mere learning, he may know much about many things and yet know little or nothing right. Knowledge without system or order is of no more service than useless lumber. A genuine scholar possesses something more: he penetrates and understands the principle and laws of the particular department of human knowledge with which he professes acquaintance, he imbibes the life of Science. To know only one thing as it ought to be known constitutes a man more of a scholar than to know many things by rote; the man of one idea may be an object of ridicule, yet if his one idea is apprehended in its proper life and power, he is of far more account than if he had collected a number of notions, all jumbled together in his mind confusedly.
The knowledge of a scholar becomes a part of himself. Yielding himself to the plastic power of truth, as such, his mind is transfused and moulded by its energy and spirit. A more recent examination outlined the following attributes accorded to scholars as "described by many writers, with some slight variations in the definition": The common themes are that a scholar is a person who has a high intellectual ability, is an independent thinker and an independent actor, has ideas that stand apart from others, is persistent in her quest for developing knowledge, is systematic, has unconditional integrity, has intellectual honesty, has some convictions, stands alone to support these convictions. Scholars may rely on the scholarly method or scholarship, a body of principles and practices used by scholars to make their claims about the world as valid and trustworthy as possible, to make them known to the scholarly public, it is the methods that systemically advance the teaching and practice of a given scholarly or academic field of study through rigorous inquiry.
Scholarship is creative, can be documented, can be replicated or elaborated, can be and is peer-reviewed through various methods. Scholars have been upheld as creditable figures engaged in work important to the advance of society. In Imperial China, in the period from 206 BC until AD 1912, the intellectuals were the Scholar-officials, who were civil servants appointed by the Emperor of China to perform the tasks of daily governance; such civil servants earned academic degrees by means of imperial examination, were skilled calligraphers, knew Confucian philosophy. Historian Wing-Tsit Chan concludes that: Generally speaking, the record of these scholar-gentlemen has been a worthy one, it was good enough to be imitated in 18th century Europe. It has given China a tremendous handicap in their transition from government by men to government by law, personal considerations in Chinese government have been a curse. In Joseon Korea, the intellectuals were the literati, who knew how to read and write, had been designated, as the chungin, in accordance with the Confucian system.
They constituted the petite bourgeoisie, composed of scholar-bureaucrats who administered the dynastic rule of the Joseon dynasty. In his 1847 address, Gerhart asserted that scholars have an obligation to continue their studies so as to remain aware of new knowledge being generated, to contribute their own insights to the body of knowledge available to all: The progress of science involves momentous interests, it merits the attention of all sincere lovers of truth. Every one professing to be a scholar is under obligations to contribute towards the ever-progressive unfolding of its riches and power. Not content with what is well known in reference to a great variety of subjects —not content with the imperfect views that have been acquired of many others, all genuine scholars, availing themselves of previous efforts, should combine their energies to bring to view what has eluded the keen vision of those men of noble intellectual stature who have lived and died before them. Many scholars are professors engaged in the teaching of others.
In a number of countries, the title "research professor" refers to a professor, or engaged in research, who has few or no teaching obligations. For example, the title is used in this sense in the United Kingdom (where it is known as research professor at some universities and professorial research fellow at some other institutions
Min Thu Wun
Min Thu Wun was a Burmese poet and scholar who helped launch a new age literary movement called Khit-San in Burma. He is the father of Htin Kyaw, president of Myanmar from 2016 to 2018. Born Maung Wun at Kungyangon in Mon state in 1909, he was of Bamar descent, he started writing poems at the age of 20 for Rangoon College magazine. It was in university that he, along with the other students of Professor Pe Maung Tin – Theippan Maung Wa and Zawgyi, pioneered the Hkit san style of short stories and poems, published in the university magazine, Ganda Lawka magazine which he edited, under the tutelage of J S Furnivall, founder of the Burma Research Society; the year 1934 saw the publication of Hkit san pon byin – a collection of short stories to test the readers' reaction, written by Zawgyi, Min Thu Wun and Theippan Maung Wa among others. The writing was distinct and novel in style using shorter sentences and moving away from the traditional literary vocabulary. In 1935 Min Thu Wun received his master's degree in Burmese literature.
He went to study at Oxford University, achieved a bachelor's degree in literature in 1939. Whilst Theippan Maung Wa was famous for his prose, Min Thu Wun and Zawgyi were best known for their portrayal of the daily lives of ordinary people and for their appreciation of nature in their poems. Zawgyi became the most respected literary critic, Min Thu Wun the best loved poet. Nursery Songs for Maung Khway – 13 songs in Burmese with music and English translations by Gordon H Luce of 60 years ago were reprinted in 2002. Stories for Children – his translation of 26 stories for children from around the world from 1955 to 1961 were collected into a book in 1965. Min Thu Wun's prolific writings on literature, both classical and modern, in numerous articles were collected into 3 important books. Pan hnin pinzi – The Tree Trunk and the Blooms Myanma sa Myanma hmu – Burmese Life and Letters Pyinma ngokto – The Tough Tree Stump Min Thu Wun explained in a book review the nature of "light" and "serious" literature.
He went on to create the Burmese version of Braille for the blind. He helped compile Mon – Burmese and Pali – Burmese dictionaries. In 1990 he was elected as a National League for Democracy Member of Parliament, although he resigned 8 years under pressure from the military regime, his work has been banned from publication. A popular publication called Sapei Gya-ne was blocked in its attempt to dedicate its June 1995 issue to Min Thu Wun, he died on 15 August 2004 at the age of 95. Literature of Burma official website Rose p38, The Pyima Stump, p41 Poems translated by Dragan Janikovic Let's Go A-gathering Thabye Plums Poems translated by Hla Myo Nwe Poems by Min Thu Wun English translation by Dr Maung Maung Nyo Sayagyi Min Thu Wun Centenary old photos in Burma Digest Myanmar sa Myanmar hmu Min Thu Wun, in Burmese, Scribd NLD party youth marked Min Thu Wun 100 Year Anniversary MoeMaKa Radio & Multimedia
University of Yangon
University of Yangon, located in Kamayut, Yangon, is the oldest university in Myanmar's modern education system and the best known university in Myanmar. The university offers undergraduate and postgraduate degrees programs in liberal arts and law. Full-time bachelor's degrees were not offered at the university's main campus after the student protests of 1996; the bachelor's degree was re-offered from 2014 to the best students in the country. Today degrees in Political Science are offered to undergraduate students, as well as Postgraduate diplomas in areas such as social work and geology. Most major universities in the country depended on Yangon University; until 1958 when Mandalay University became an independent university, all institutions of higher education in Myanmar were under Yangon University. After the University Education Act of 1964, all professional colleges and institutes of the university such as the Institute of Medicine 1, Rangoon Institute of Technology and Yangon Institute of Economics became independent universities, leaving the Yangon University with liberal arts and law.
In Myanmar, responsibility for higher education depends on various ministries. The University of Yangon depends from the Ministry of education. Yangon University has been at the centre of civil discontent throughout its history. All three nationwide strikes against the British began at Rangoon University. Anti-colonial movement's leaders such as General Aung San, U Nu, Ne Win and U Thant are some of the notable alumni of the university; the tradition of student protest at the university continued in the post-colonial era—in 1962, 1974, 1988 and in 1996. Established in 1878 as an affiliated college of the University of Calcutta, the Rangoon College was operated and managed by the Education Syndicate set up by the British colonial administration; the college was renamed Government College in 1904, University College in 1920. Rangoon University was founded in 1920, when University College and Judson College were merged by the University of Rangoon Act; the American Baptist Mission decided to recognise Judson College as a separate institution within Rangoon University.
Rangoon University modelled itself after University of University of Oxford. All subsequent institutions of higher learning founded by the British were placed under Rangoon University's administration: Mandalay College in Mandalay in 1925, Teachers Training College and Medical College in Yangon in 1930, Agriculture College in Mandalay in 1938. Although it was attended only by the elites of the day, the university nonetheless was at the centre of the anti-colonial movement. Students protested against the British government’s control of the University and the Rangoon Act which placed the governor as chancellor of the University of Rangoon. All three nationwide strikes against the British colonial government began at the university. Myanmar National Day in fact commemorates the rebellion of Burmese students at Rangoon University in 1920. By the 1930s, the university was the hotbed of Burmese nationalism, producing a number of future senior Burmese politicians, including General Aung San, U Nu, Ba Maw, Kyaw Nyein, Ba Swe, U Thant and Thein Pe Myint, etc.
Rangoon University became one of the most prestigious universities in Southeast Asia and one of the top universities in Asia, attracting students from across the region. During the second world war, the Japanese occupied the University, but the university recovered and flourished, after Myanmar gained independence in 1948. This golden period ended in 1962. After the military coup of 1962 under Gen. Ne Win and the Burmese Way to Socialism, Rangoon University was put directly under the control of the Directorate of Higher Education, a central government agency, whereas it was run by a council of professors and government officials. In addition, the medium of instruction was changed to Burmese, a radical departure from English, the University's medium of instruction since its founding. Educational standards began to decline markedly and international bodies stopped recognising degrees issued or obtained at the University; the university was renamed the Rangoon Arts and Sciences University, after certain departments and faculties were separated from the University in 1964.
Rangoon University students staged a peaceful demonstration and protest on campus against'unjust university rules' on 7 July 1962. Ne Win sent his troops to disperse the students. Dozens of students were killed and the historic Rangoon University Student Union was reduced to rubble the next morning. In November 1974 the former UN Secretary General U Thant died, on the day of his funeral on 5 December 1974, Rangoon University students snatched his coffin on display at the Kyaikkasan Race Course, erected a makeshift mausoleum on the grounds of the RUSU in protest against the government for not honouring their famous countryman with a state funeral; the military stormed the campus on 11 December killing some of the students, recovered the coffin, buried U Thant at the foot of the Shwedagon Pagoda. Student protests against protest against General Ne Win's socialist government culminated in 1988. Student protest in March 1988 was met with a violent response from the government; this did not stop the protests.
On 8 August 1988, students around the country came together to protest against the military re
History of literature
The history of literature is the historical development of writings in prose or poetry that attempt to provide entertainment, enlightenment, or instruction to the reader/listener/observer, as well as the development of the literary techniques used in the communication of these pieces. Not all writings constitute literature; some recorded materials, such as compilations of data are not considered literature, this article relates only to the evolution of the works defined above. Literature and writing, though connected, are not synonymous; the first writings from ancient Sumer by any reasonable definition do not constitute literature—the same is true of some of the early Egyptian hieroglyphics or the thousands of logs from ancient Chinese regimes. Scholars have disagreed concerning when written record-keeping became more like "literature" than anything else. Moreover, given the significance of distance as a cultural isolator in earlier centuries, the historical development of literature did not occur at an pace across the world.
The problems of creating a uniform global history of literature are compounded by the fact that many texts have been lost over the millennia, either deliberately, by accident, or by the total disappearance of the originating culture. Much has been written, for example, about the destruction of the Library of Alexandria in the 1st century BC, the innumerable key texts which are believed to have been lost forever to the flames; the deliberate suppression of texts by organisations of either a spiritual or a temporal nature further shrouds the subject. Certain primary texts, may be isolated which have a qualifying role as literature's first stirrings. Early examples include Epic of Gilgamesh, in its Sumerian version predating 2000 BC, the Egyptian Book of the Dead written down in the Papyrus of Ani in 1250 BC but dates from about the 18th century BC. Ancient Egyptian literature was not included in early studies of the history of literature because the writings of Ancient Egypt were not translated into European languages until the 19th century when the Rosetta stone was deciphered.
Many texts handed down by oral tradition over several centuries before they were fixed in written form are difficult or impossible to date. The core of the Rigveda may date to the mid 2nd millennium BC; the Pentateuch is traditionally dated to the 15th century, although modern scholarship estimates its oldest part to date to the 10th century BC at the earliest. Homer's Iliad and Odyssey date to the 8th century mark the beginning of Classical Antiquity, they stand in an oral tradition that stretches back to the late Bronze Age. Indian śruti texts post-dating the Rigveda, as well as the Hebrew Tanakh and the mystical collection of poems attributed to Lao Tze, the Tao te Ching, date to the Iron Age, but their dating is difficult and controversial; the great Hindu epics were transmitted orally predating the Maurya period. The Classic of Poetry is the oldest existing collection of Chinese poetry, comprising 305 works by anonymous authors dating from the 11th to 7th centuries BC; the Chu Ci anthology is a volume of poems attributed to or considered to be inspired by Qu Yuan's verse writing.
Qu Yuan is the first author of verse in China to have his name associated to his work and is regarded as one of the most prominent figures of Romanticism in Chinese classical literature. The first great author on military tactics and strategy was Sun Tzu, whose The Art of War remains on the shelves of many modern military officers. Philosophy developed far differently in China than in Greece—rather than presenting extended dialogues, the Analects of Confucius and Lao Zi's Tao Te Ching presented sayings and proverbs more directly and didactically; the Zhuangzi is composed of a large collection of creative anecdotes, allegories and fables. Among the earliest Chinese works of narrative history, Zuo Zhuan is a gem of classical Chinese prose; this work and the Shiji or Records of the Grand Historian, were regarded as the ultimate models by many generations of prose stylists in ancient China. The books that constitute the Hebrew Bible developed over a millennium; the oldest texts seem to come from the eleventh or tenth centuries BCE, whilst most of the other texts are somewhat later.
They are edited works, being collections of various sources intricately and woven together. The Old Testament was compiled and edited by various men over a period of centuries, with many scholars concluding that the Hebrew canon was solidified by about the 3rd century BC; the works have been subject to various literary evaluations. Friedrich Nietzsche wrote: “In the Jewish Old Testament, there are men and speeches in so grand a style that Greek and Indian literature have nothing to compare to it. One stands with awe and reverence before these tremendous remnants of what man once was... The taste for the Old Testament is a touchstone of'greatness' and'smallness'.” Ancient Greek society placed considerable emphasis upon literature. Many authors consider the western literary tradition to have begun with the epic poems The Iliad and The Odyssey, which remain giants in the literary canon for their skillful and vivid depictions of war and peace and disgrace, love and hatred. Notable among Greek poets was Sappho, who defined, in many ways, lyric poetry as a genre.
See also: British literature This article is focused on English-language literature rather than the literature of England, so that it includes writers from Scotland, the Crown dependencies, the whole of Ireland, as well as literature in English from countries of the former British Empire, including the United States. However, until the early 19th century, it only deals with the literature of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and Ireland, it does not include literature written in the other languages of Britain. The English language has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years; the earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the fifth century, are called Old English. Middle English began in the late 11th century with the Norman conquest of England. Early Modern English began in the late 15th century with the introduction of the printing press to London and the King James Bible as well as the Great Vowel Shift.
Through the influence of the British Empire, the English language has spread around the world since the 17th century. Old English literature, or Anglo-Saxon literature, encompasses the surviving literature written in Old English in Anglo-Saxon England, in the period after the settlement of the Saxons and other Germanic tribes in England c. 450, after the withdrawal of the Romans, "ending soon after the Norman Conquest" in 1066. These works include genres such as epic poetry, sermons, Bible translations, legal works and riddles. In all there are about 400 surviving manuscripts from the period. Widsith, which appears in the Exeter Book of the late 10th century, gives a list of kings of tribes ordered according to their popularity and impact on history, with Attila King of the Huns coming first, followed by Eormanric of the Ostrogoths, it may be the oldest extant work that tells the Battle of the Goths and Huns, told in such Scandinavian works as Hervarar's saga and Gesta Danorum. Lotte Hedeager argues that the work is far older and that it dates back to the late 6th or early 7th century, citing the author's knowledge of historical details and accuracy as proof of its authenticity.
She does note, that some authors, such as John Niles, have argued the work was invented in the 10th century. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of annals in Old English, from the 9th century, that chronicle is the history of the Anglo-Saxons; the poem Battle of Maldon deals with history. This is a work of uncertain date, celebrating the Battle of Maldon of 991, at which the Anglo-Saxons failed to prevent a Viking invasion. Oral tradition was strong in early English culture and most literary works were written to be performed. Epic poems were popular, some, including Beowulf, have survived to the present day. Beowulf is the most famous work in Old English, has achieved national epic status in England, despite being set in Scandinavia; the only surviving manuscript is the Nowell Codex, the precise date of, debated, but most estimates place it close to the year 1000. Beowulf is the conventional title, its composition is dated between the 8th and the early 11th century. Nearly all Anglo-Saxon authors are anonymous: twelve are known by name from medieval sources, but only four of those are known by their vernacular works with any certainty: Cædmon, Alfred the Great, Cynewulf.
Cædmon is the earliest English poet whose name is known, his only known surviving work Cædmon's Hymn dates from the late 7th century. The poem is one of the earliest attested examples of Old English and is, with the runic Ruthwell Cross and Franks Casket inscriptions, one of three candidates for the earliest attested example of Old English poetry, it is one of the earliest recorded examples of sustained poetry in a Germanic language. The poem, The Dream of the Rood, was inscribed upon the Ruthwell Cross. Two Old English poems from the late 10th century are The Seafarer. Both have a religious theme, Richard Marsden describes The Seafarer as "an exhortatory and didactic poem, in which the miseries of winter seafaring are used as a metaphor for the challenge faced by the committed Christian ". Classical antiquity was not forgotten in Anglo-Saxon England, several Old English poems are adaptations of late classical philosophical texts; the longest is King Alfred's 9th-century translation of Boethius' Consolation of Philosophy.
After the Norman conquest of England in 1066, the written form of the Anglo-Saxon language became less common. Under the influence of the new aristocracy, French became the standard language of courts and polite society; as the invaders integrated, their language and literature mingled with that of the natives, the Norman dialects of the ruling classes became Anglo-Norman. From until the 12th century, Anglo-Saxon underwent a gradual transition into Middle English. Political power was no longer in English hands, so that the West Saxon literary language had no more influence than any other dialect and Middle English literature was written in the many dialects that corresponded to the region, history and background of individual writers. In this period religious literature continued to enjoy popularity and Hagiographies were written and translated: for example, The Life of Saint Audrey, Eadmer's. At the end of the 12th century, Layamon in Brut adapted the Norman-French of Wace to produce the first English-language work to present the legends of King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table.
It was the first historiography written in English since the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Middle English Bible translations, notably Wycliffe's Bible, helped to establish English as
British rule in Burma
British rule in Burma lasted from 1824 to 1948, from the Anglo-Burmese wars through the creation of Burma as a Province of British India to the establishment of an independently administered colony, independence. The region under British control was known as British Burma. Various portions of Burmese territories, including Arakan, Tenasserim were annexed by the British after their victory in the First Anglo-Burmese War; the annexed territories were designated the minor province, British Burma, of British India in 1862. After the Third Anglo-Burmese War in 1885, Upper Burma was annexed, the following year, the province of Burma in British India was created, becoming a major province in 1897; this arrangement lasted until 1937, when Burma began to be administered separately by the Burma Office under the Secretary of State for India and Burma. British rule was disrupted during the Japanese occupation of much of the country during the World War II. Burma achieved independence from British rule on 4 January 1948.
Burma is sometimes referred to as "the Scottish Colony", due to the heavy role played by Scotsmen in colonising and running the country, one of the most notable beings Sir James Scott, the Irrawaddy Flotilla Company. Because of its location, trade routes between China and India passed straight through the country, keeping Burma wealthy through trade, although self-sufficient agriculture was still the basis of the economy. Indian merchants traveled along the coasts and rivers throughout the regions where the majority of Burmese lived, bringing Indian cultural influences into the country that still exist there today. Burma was one of the first Southeast Asian countries to adopt Buddhism, which went on to become the patronised religion. Before the British conquest and colonisation, the ruling Konbaung Dynasty practiced a centralized form of government; the king was the chief executive with the final say on all matters, but he could not make new laws and could only issue administrative edicts. The country had two codes of law, the Rajathat and Dammathat, the Hluttaw, the center of government, was divided into three branches—fiscal and judicial.
In theory the king was in charge of all of the Hluttaw but none of his orders got put into place until the Hluttaw approved them, thus checking his power. Further dividing the country, provinces were ruled by governors who were appointed by the Hluttaw and villages were ruled by hereditary headmen approved by the king. Conflict began between Burma and the British when the Konbaung Dynasty decided to expand into Arakan in the state of Assam, close to British-held Chittagong in India. After Burma's defeat of the Kingdom of Arakan in 1784–1785, in 1823, Burmese forces again crossed the frontier; this led to the First Anglo-Burmese War. The British dispatched a large seaborne expedition that took Rangoon without a fight in 1824. In Danuphyu, south of Ava, the Burmese general Maha Bandula was killed and his armies routed. Myanmar was forced to cede other northern provinces; the 1826 Treaty of Yandabo formally ended the First Anglo-Burmese War, the longest and the most expensive war in the history of British India.
Fifteen thousand European and Indian soldiers died, together with an unknown number of Burmese army and civilian casualties. The campaign cost the British five million pounds sterling to 13 million pounds sterling or (5 million pounds = 24 million dollars. In 1852, the Second Anglo-Burmese War was provoked by the British, who sought the teak forests in Lower Burma as well as a port between Calcutta and Singapore. After 25 years of peace and Burmese fighting started afresh and continued until the British occupied all of Lower Burma; the British were victorious in this war and as a result obtained access to the teak and rubies of northern Myanmar. King Mindon tried to readjust to the thrust of imperialism, he made Burma more receptive to foreign interests. But the British initiated the Third Anglo-Burmese War, which lasted less than two weeks during November 1885; the British government justified their actions by claiming that the last independent king of Myanmar, Thibaw Min, was a tyrant and that he was conspiring to give France more influence in the country.
British troops entered Mandalay on 28 November 1885. Thus, after three wars gaining various parts of the country, the British occupied all the area of present-day Myanmar, making the territory a Province of British India on 1 January 1886; the British decided to annex all of Upper Burma as a colony and to make the whole country a province of British India. The new colony of Upper Burma was attached to the Burma Province on 26 February 1886. Burmese armed resistance continued sporadically for several years and the British commander had to coerce the High Court of Justice to continue to function. Though war ended after only a couple of weeks, resistance continued in northern Burma until 1890, with the British resorting to systematic destruction of villages and appointment of new officials to halt all guerrilla activity. Traditional Burmese society was drastically altered by the demise of the monarchy and the separation of religion and state. Intermarriage between Europeans and Burmese gave birth to an indigenous Eurasian community known as the Anglo-Burmese who would come to dominate the colonial society, hovering above
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti