Governorates of Egypt
For administrative purposes, Egypt is divided into twenty-seven governorates. Egyptian governorates are the top tier of the country's jurisdiction hierarchy. A governorate is administered by a governor, appointed by the President of Egypt and serves at the president's discretion. Most governorates have a population density of more than one thousand per km², while the three largest have a population density of less than two per km². Governorates are either "urban" or a mixture of "urban" and "rural." The official distinction between "urban" and "rural" is reflected in the lower tiers:, urban governorates have no regions, as the markaz is, natively, a conglomeration of villages. Moreover, governorates may comprise just one city, as in the case of Cairo Governorate or Alexandria Governorate. Hence, these one-city governorates are only divided into districts. Cairo Governorate consists of 41 districts. Two new governorates were created in April 2008: 6th of October. In April 2011, the 6th of October and Helwan governorates were again incorporated into the Cairo and Giza Governorates, respectively.
Luxor was created in December 2009, to be the 29th governorate of Egypt, but with the abolition of the 6th of October and Helwan governorates, the number of governorates has decreased to 27. Before the 1952 revolution, state penetration of the rural areas was limited by the power of local notables. Under Nasser, land reform reduced those notables socioeconomic dominance, the peasants were incorporated into cooperatives which transferred mass dependence from landlords to the government; the extension of officials into the countryside permitted the regime to bring development and services to the village. The local branches of the ruling party, the Arab Socialist Union, fostered a certain peasant political activism and coopted the local notables — in particular the village headmen — and checked their independence from the regime. State penetration did not retreat under Mubarak; the earlier effort to mobilize peasants and deliver services disappeared as the local party and cooperative withered, but administrative controls over the peasants remained intact.
The local power of the old families and the headmen revived but more at the expense of peasants than of the state. The district police station balanced the notables, the system of local government integrated them into the regime; until 1979, local government enjoyed limited power in Egypt's centralized state. Under the central government, there were twenty-six governorates, which were subdivided into regions, each of, further subdivided into towns or villages. At each level, there was a governing structure that combined representative councils and government-appointed executive organs headed by governors, district officers, mayors, respectively. Governors were appointed by the president, they, in turn, appointed subordinate executive officers; the coercive backbone of the state apparatus ran downward from the Ministry of Interior through the governors' executive organs to the district police station and the village headman. Sadat took several measures to decentralize power to the towns. Governors acquired more authority under Law Number 43 of 1979, which reduced the administrative and budgetary controls of the central government over the provinces.
The elected councils acquired, at least formally, the right to approve or disapprove the local budget. In an effort to reduce local demands on the central treasury, local government was given wider powers to raise local taxes. Local representative councils became vehicles of pressure for government spending, the soaring deficits of local government bodies had to be covered by the central government. Local government was encouraged to enter into joint ventures with private investors, these ventures stimulated an alliance between government officials and the local rich that paralleled the infitah alliance at the national level. Under Mubarak and local autonomy became more of a reality, local policies reflected special local conditions. Thus, officials in Upper Egypt bowed to the powerful Islamic movement there, while those in the port cities struck alliances with importers." Data taken from CAPMAS: Data taken from CAPMAS:. Information for population is in thousands, pop density - persons/km2 and area is in km2.
List of governorates of Egypt by Human Development Index Subdivisions of Egypt Regions of Egypt List of Egyptian cities List of political and geographic subdivisions by total area ISO 3166-2:EG Census 2006 area and population data Population and area data Egypt Administrative Divisions Map, The University of Texas at Austin Library Egyptian Government Services Portal and English History of administrative divisions in Egypt since the French Invasion
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, biofacts or ecofacts and cultural landscapes. Archaeology can be considered a branch of the humanities. In North America archaeology is a sub-field of anthropology, while in Europe it is viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines. Archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa 3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology is distinct from palaeontology, the study of fossil remains, it is important for learning about prehistoric societies, for whom there may be no written records to study. Prehistory includes over 99% of the human past, from the Paleolithic until the advent of literacy in societies across the world. Archaeology has various goals, which range from understanding culture history to reconstructing past lifeways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time.
The discipline involves surveying and analysis of data collected to learn more about the past. In broad scope, archaeology relies on cross-disciplinary research, it draws upon anthropology, art history, ethnology, geology, literary history, semiology, textual criticism, information sciences, statistics, paleography, paleontology and paleobotany. Archaeology developed out of antiquarianism in Europe during the 19th century, has since become a discipline practiced across the world. Archaeology has been used by nation-states to create particular visions of the past. Since its early development, various specific sub-disciplines of archaeology have developed, including maritime archaeology, feminist archaeology and archaeoastronomy, numerous different scientific techniques have been developed to aid archaeological investigation. Nonetheless, archaeologists face many problems, such as dealing with pseudoarchaeology, the looting of artifacts, a lack of public interest, opposition to the excavation of human remains.
The science of archaeology grew out of the older multi-disciplinary study known as antiquarianism. Antiquarians studied history with particular attention to ancient artifacts and manuscripts, as well as historical sites. Antiquarianism focused on the empirical evidence that existed for the understanding of the past, encapsulated in the motto of the 18th-century antiquary, Sir Richard Colt Hoare, "We speak from facts not theory". Tentative steps towards the systematization of archaeology as a science took place during the Enlightenment era in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. In Europe, philosophical interest in the remains of Greco-Roman civilization and the rediscovery of classical culture began in the late Middle Age. Flavio Biondo, an Italian Renaissance humanist historian, created a systematic guide to the ruins and topography of ancient Rome in the early 15th century, for which he has been called an early founder of archaeology. Antiquarians of the 16th century, including John Leland and William Camden, conducted surveys of the English countryside, drawing and interpreting the monuments that they encountered.
One of the first sites to undergo archaeological excavation was Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments in England. John Aubrey was a pioneer archaeologist who recorded numerous megalithic and other field monuments in southern England, he was ahead of his time in the analysis of his findings. He attempted to chart the chronological stylistic evolution of handwriting, medieval architecture and shield-shapes. Excavations were carried out by the Spanish military engineer Roque Joaquín de Alcubierre in the ancient towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum, both of, covered by ash during the Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79; these excavations began in 1748 in Pompeii, while in Herculaneum they began in 1738. The discovery of entire towns, complete with utensils and human shapes, as well the unearthing of frescos, had a big impact throughout Europe. However, prior to the development of modern techniques, excavations tended to be haphazard; the father of archaeological excavation was William Cunnington. He undertook excavations in Wiltshire from around 1798.
Cunnington made meticulous recordings of Neolithic and Bronze Age barrows, the terms he used to categorize and describe them are still used by archaeologists today. One of the major achievements of 19th-century archaeology was the development of stratigraphy; the idea of overlapping strata tracing back to successive periods was borrowed from the new geological and paleontological work of scholars like William Smith, James Hutton and Charles Lyell. The application of stratigraphy to archaeology first took place with the excavations of prehistorical and Bronze Age sites. In the third and fourth decades of the 19th-century, archaeologists like Jacques Boucher de Perthes and Christian Jürgensen Thomsen began to put the artifacts they had found in chronological order. A major figure in the development of archaeology into a rigorous science was the army officer and ethnologist, Augustus Pitt Rivers, who began excavations on his land in England in the 1880s, his approach was methodical by the standards of the time, he is regarded as the first scientific archaeologist.
He arranged his artifacts by type or "typologically, within types by date or "chronologically"
The Nile is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, is the longest river in Africa and in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest. The Nile, about 6,650 km long, is an "international" river as its drainage basin covers eleven countries, Tanzania, Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, South Sudan, Republic of the Sudan and Egypt. In particular, the Nile is the primary water source of Sudan; the river Nile has the White Nile and Blue Nile. The White Nile is considered to be the headwaters and primary stream of the Nile itself; the Blue Nile, however, is the source of most of the silt. The White Nile is longer and rises in the Great Lakes region of central Africa, with the most distant source still undetermined but located in either Rwanda or Burundi, it flows north through Tanzania, Lake Victoria and South Sudan. The Blue Nile flows into Sudan from the southeast; the two rivers meet just north of the Sudanese capital of Khartoum. The northern section of the river flows north entirely through the Sudanese desert to Egypt ends in a large delta and flows into the Mediterranean Sea.
Egyptian civilization and Sudanese kingdoms have depended on the river since ancient times. Most of the population and cities of Egypt lie along those parts of the Nile valley north of Aswan, nearly all the cultural and historical sites of Ancient Egypt are found along river banks. In the ancient Egyptian language, the Nile is called Ḥ'pī or Iteru, meaning "river". In Coptic, the word ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, pronounced piaro or phiaro, means "the river", comes from the same ancient name. In Egyptian Arabic, the Nile is called en-Nīl while in Standard Arabic. In Biblical Hebrew: הַיְאוֹר, Ha-Ye'or or הַשִׁיחוֹר, Ha-Shiḥor; the English name Nile and the Arabic names en-Nîl and an-Nîl both derive from the Latin Nilus and the Ancient Greek Νεῖλος. Beyond that, the etymology is disputed. Hesiod at his Theogony refers that Nilus was one of son of Oceanus and Tethys. Another derivation of Nile might be related to the term Nil, which refers to Indigofera tinctoria, one of the original sources of indigo dye. Another possible etymology derives it from a Semitic Nahal, meaning "river".
The standard English names "White Nile" and "Blue Nile", to refer to the river's source, derive from Arabic names applied only to the Sudanese stretches which meet at Khartoum. With a total length of about 6,650 km between the region of Lake Victoria and the Mediterranean Sea, the Nile is the longest river on the African continent; the drainage basin of the Nile covers about 10 % of the area of Africa. Compared to other major rivers, the Nile carries little water; the Nile basin is complex, because of this, the discharge at any given point along the mainstem depends on many factors including weather, diversions and evapotranspiration, groundwater flow. Above Khartoum, the Nile is known as the White Nile, a term used in a limited sense to describe the section between Lake No and Khartoum. At Khartoum the river is joined by the Blue Nile; the White Nile starts in equatorial East Africa, the Blue Nile begins in Ethiopia. Both branches are on the western flanks of the East African Rift; the source of the Nile is sometimes considered to be Lake Victoria, but the lake has feeder rivers of considerable size.
The Kagera River, which flows into Lake Victoria near the Tanzanian town of Bukoba, is the longest feeder, although sources do not agree on, the longest tributary of the Kagera and hence the most distant source of the Nile itself. It is either the Ruvyironza, which emerges in Bururi Province, Burundi, or the Nyabarongo, which flows from Nyungwe Forest in Rwanda; the two feeder rivers meet near Rusumo Falls on the Rwanda-Tanzania border. In 2010, an exploration party went to a place described as the source of the Rukarara tributary, by hacking a path up steep jungle-choked mountain slopes in the Nyungwe forest found an appreciable incoming surface flow for many kilometres upstream, found a new source, giving the Nile a length of 6,758 km. Gish Abay is the place where the "holy water" of the first drops of the Blue Nile develop; the Nile leaves Lake Nyanza at Ripon Falls near Uganda, as the Victoria Nile. It flows north for some 130 kilometers, to Lake Kyoga; the last part of the 200 kilometers river section starts from the western shores of the lake and flows at first to the west until just south of Masindi Port, where the river turns north makes a great half circle to the east and north until Karuma Falls.
For the remaining part it flows westerly through the Murchison Falls until it reaches the northern shores of Lake Albert where it forms a significant river delta. The lake itself is on the border of DR Congo. After leaving Lake Albert, the river is known as the Albert Nile; the Nile river flows into South Sudan just south of Nimule. Just south of the town it has the confluence with the Achwa River; the Bahr al Ghazal, itself 716 kilometers (44
A rock-cut tomb is a burial chamber, cut into an existing occurring rock formation, so a type of rock-cut architecture. They are cut into a cliff or sloping rock face, but may go down from flat ground, it was a common form of burial for the wealthy in ancient times in several parts of the world. Important examples are found in Egypt, most notably in the town of Deir el-Medina, located between the Valley of the Kings and the Valley of the Queens. Other notable clusters include numerous rock-cut tombs in modern Israel, at Naghsh-e Rostam necropolis in Iran, at Myra in Turkey, Petra in modern Jordan, Mada'in Saleh in Saudi Arabia and Larnaca. Indian rock-cut architecture is extensive, but does not feature tombs. Egyptian rock-cut tombs. Phrygian rock-cut tombs such as the Midas monument. Etruscan rock-cut tombs, Italy. Tomb of Darius I (Naqsh-e Rostam. Lycian rock-cut tombs. Petra, Jordan. A kokh is a type of tomb complex characterized by a series of long narrow shafts, in which the deceased were placed for burial, radiating from a central chamber.
These tomb complexes were carved into a rock face, were closed with a stone slab and had channels cut into the centre of the shaft to drain any water that seeped through the rock. A kokhim complex survives at the far west end of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem; the Church wall runs through the centre of the complex, the remaining two thirds no longer exist. Many more kokhim can be found throughout the Judean foothills. Rock-cut tombs in ancient Israel Tomb of Darius I Naqsh-e Rustam Necropolis
Third Dynasty of Egypt
The Third Dynasty of ancient Egypt is the first dynasty of the Old Kingdom. Other dynasties of the Old Kingdom include the Fourth and Sixth; the capital during the period of the Old Kingdom was at Memphis. After the turbulent last years of the Second Dynasty which might have included civil war, Egypt came under the rule of Djoser and this marks the beginning of the Third Dynasty. Both the Turin King List and the Abydos King List record five kings, while the Saqqara Tablet only records four; the Turin King List gives: Nebka, Djoserti, Hudjefa I, Huni The Abydos King List gives: Nebka, Teti and Neferkare The Saqqara Tablet gives: Djoser, Djoserteti and HuniThe archaeological evidence shows that Khasekhemwy, the last ruler of the Second Dynasty, was succeeded by Djoser, who at the time was only attested by his presumed Horus name Netjerikhet. Djoser's successor was Sekhemkhet; the last king of the dynasty is Huni. There are three remaining Horus names of known 3rd dynasty kings: Sanakht and Qahedjet.
One of these three went by the nebty name Nebka. Dating the Third Dynasty is challenging. Shaw gives the dates as being from 2686 to 2613 BC; the Turin King List suggests a total of 75 years for the third dynasty. Baines and Malek have placed the third dynasty as spanning the years 2650 – 2575 BC, while Dodson and Hilton date the dynasty to 2584 – 2520 BC, it is not uncommon for these estimates to differ by more than a century. The pharaohs of the Third Dynasty ruled for seventy-five years; the order of the kings is based on Wilkinson. The number of years as king, the regnal years, is based on Hilton, they have the dynasty lasting only 64 years. While Manetho names Necherophes, the Turin King List names Nebka, as the first pharaoh of the Third Dynasty, many contemporary Egyptologists believe Djoser was the first king of this dynasty, pointing out the order in which some predecessors of Khufu are mentioned in the Papyrus Westcar suggests that Nebka should be placed between Djoser and Huni, not before Djoser.
More seals naming Djoser were found at the entrance to Khasekhemwy's tomb at Abydos, which demonstrates that it was Djoser, rather than Sanakht, who buried and succeeded this king. The Turin King List scribe wrote Djoser's name in red ink, which indicates the Ancient Egyptians' recognition of this king's historical importance in their culture. In any case, Djoser is the best known king of this dynasty, for commissioning his vizier Imhotep to build the earliest surviving pyramids, the Step Pyramid; some authorities believe. Little is known for certain of Sekhemkhet. However, it is believed that Khaba built the Layer Pyramid at Zawyet el'Aryan
A pyramid is a structure whose outer surfaces are triangular and converge to a single point at the top, making the shape a pyramid in the geometric sense. The base of a pyramid can be quadrilateral, or of any polygon shape; as such, a pyramid has at least three outer triangular surfaces. The square pyramid, with a square base and four triangular outer surfaces, is a common version. A pyramid's design, with the majority of the weight closer to the ground, with the pyramidion on top, means that less material higher up on the pyramid will be pushing down from above; this distribution of weight allowed early civilizations to create stable monumental structures. Civilizations in many parts of the world have built pyramids; the largest pyramid by volume is the Great Pyramid of Cholula, in the Mexican state of Puebla. For thousands of years, the largest structures on Earth were pyramids—first the Red Pyramid in the Dashur Necropolis and the Great Pyramid of Khufu, both in Egypt—the latter is the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still remaining.
The Mesopotamians built the earliest pyramidal structures, called ziggurats. In ancient times, these were brightly painted in gold/bronze. Since they were constructed of sun-dried mud-brick, little remains of them. Ziggurats were built by the Sumerians, Elamites and Assyrians for local religions; each ziggurat was part of a temple complex. The precursors of the ziggurat were raised platforms that date from the Ubaid period during the fourth millennium BC; the earliest ziggurats began near the end of the Early Dynastic Period. The latest Mesopotamian ziggurats date from the 6th century BC. Built in receding tiers upon a rectangular, oval, or square platform, the ziggurat was a pyramidal structure with a flat top. Sun-baked bricks made up the core of the ziggurat with facings of fired bricks on the outside; the facings were glazed in different colors and may have had astrological significance. Kings sometimes had their names engraved on these glazed bricks; the number of tiers ranged from two to seven.
It is assumed that they had shrines at the top, but there is no archaeological evidence for this and the only textual evidence is from Herodotus. Access to the shrine would have been by a series of ramps on one side of the ziggurat or by a spiral ramp from base to summit; the most famous pyramids are the Egyptian — huge structures built of brick or stone, some of which are among the world's largest constructions. They are shaped as a reference to the rays of the sun. Most pyramids had a polished reflective white limestone surface, to give them a shining appearance when viewed from a distance; the capstone was made of hard stone – granite or basalt – and could be plated with gold, silver, or electrum and would be reflective. After 2700 BC, the ancient Egyptians began building pyramids, until around 1700 BC; the first pyramid was erected during the Third Dynasty by the Pharaoh Djoser and his architect Imhotep. This step pyramid consisted of six stacked mastabas; the largest Egyptian pyramids are those at the Giza pyramid complex.
The Egyptian sun god Ra, considered the father of all pharaohs, was said to have created himself from a pyramid-shaped mound of earth before creating all other gods. The age of the pyramids reached its zenith at Giza in 2575–2150 BC. Ancient Egyptian pyramids were in most cases placed west of the river Nile because the divine pharaoh's soul was meant to join with the sun during its descent before continuing with the sun in its eternal round; as of 2008, some 135 pyramids have been discovered in Egypt. The Great Pyramid of Giza is one of the largest in the world, it was the tallest building in the world until Lincoln Cathedral was finished in 1311 AD. The base is over 52,600 square metres in area. While pyramids are associated with Egypt, the nation of Sudan has 220 extant pyramids, the most numerous in the world; the Great Pyramid of Giza is one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. It is the only one to survive into modern times; the Ancient Egyptians covered the faces of pyramids with polished white limestone, containing great quantities of fossilized seashells.
Many of the facing stones have been removed and used for construction in Cairo. Most pyramids are located near Cairo, with only one royal pyramid being located south of Cairo, at the Abydos temple complex; the pyramid at Abydos, Egypt were commissioned by Ahmose I who founded the 18th Dynasty and the New Kingdom. The building of pyramids began in the Third Dynasty with the reign of King Djoser. Early kings such as Snefru built several pyramids, with subsequent kings adding to the number of pyramids until the end of the Middle Kingdom; the last king to build royal pyramids was Ahmose, with kings hiding their tombs in the hills, such as those in the Valley of the Kings in Luxor's West Bank. In Medinat Habu, or Deir el-Medina, smaller pyramids were built by individuals. Smaller pyramids were built by the Nubians who ruled Egypt in the Late Period, though their pyramids had steeper sides. Nubian pyramids were constructed at three sites in Sudan to serve as tombs for the kings and queens of Napata and Meroë.
The pyramids of Kush known as Nubian Pyramids, have different characteristics than the pyramids of Egypt. The Nubian pyramids were constructed at a steeper angle than Egyptian ones. Pyramids were still being built in Sudan as late as 200 AD. One of the unique structures of Igbo culture was the Nsude Pyramids, at the Nigerian town of Nsude, northern Igboland. Ten pyramidal structures were built of clay/mud; the first base section was 60 ft. in circumference and 3 ft. in he
Minya Governorate is one of the governorates of Upper Egypt. Its capital city, Minya, is located on the left bank of the Nile River; the name originates from the chief city of the governorate known in Sahidic Coptic as Tmoone and in Bohairic as Thmonē, meaning “the residence”, in reference to a monastery in the area. The name may originate from the city's name in Egyptian Men'at Khufu; the rate of poverty is more than 60% in this governorate, where the total population is nearly 6 million. The government has provided some assistance via social safety networks some financial assistance to residents with disabilities, job opportunities for them and others; the funding has been coordinated by the country's Ministry of Finance and with assistance from international organizations. The governorate is divided into municipal divisions with a total estimated population as of March 2019 of 5,807,919. In the case of Minya governorate, there are a number of aqsam and marakiz, a new city. Sometimes a markaz and a kism share a name.
As of 2018, 10 cities in Minya had a population of over 15,000 inhabitants. According to population estimates from 2015 the majority of residents in the governorate live in rural areas, with an urbanization rate of only 18.9%. Out of an estimated 5,566,702 people residing in the governorate, 4,683,284 people live in rural areas as opposed to only 979,418 in urban areas. Little is known today about Minya Governorate compared to its great wealth of archaeological sites, its history, including Ancient Egyptian, Hellenistic and Arab periods, has not yet received the full attention of scholars. Dehnet, Fraser Tombs and Zawyet el-Maiyitin comprise monuments dating back to the Old Kingdom; the village of Bani Hasan al Shurruq houses 390 rock-cut decorated tombs and chapels from the Middle Kingdom. The Speos Artemidos is nearby, hosts temples built by Queen Hatshepsut. Akhetaten was dedicated to the god Aten. Akhenaten lived there in isolation with his wife and daughters, devoting himself to the monotheistic religion that he preached.
The glorious remains of the palaces and tombs still exist today. Other significant archaeological sites in the governorate of Minya include Deir Abu Hinis, Deir el-Bersha, El-Sheikh Sa'id, Tuna el-Gebel. El Ashmunein was the capital of the region during this period, it was the main center of worship of the god Thoth. Today, the ruins of a Greek temple, similar to the Parthenon, can be still found; the tomb and chapel of Petosiris are found near the modern village of Tuna el-Gebel. Antinopolis was built in 130 A. D. by the Roman emperor Hadrian in memory of his favorite cup-bearer Antinous. The Monastery of the Virgin Mary at Gebel el-Teir is an important Christian site near the city of Samalut, its church was built by Empress Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, in 328, on one of the sites where the Holy Family is believed to have stayed during its Flight into Egypt. Oxyrhynchus was an important administrative center during the Hellenistic Period, remains an important archaeological source for papyri from the Byzantine Egypt.
Maghagha hosts the mosque of the famous Muslim Zayid ibn al Mugharah. Today, Minya Governorate has the highest concentration of Coptic Christians of 50% of the total population. There are a number of active monasteries in the region. In 2018, a Coptic cathedral was consecrated by Pope Tawadros II in the small village of Al Ur, near Samalut; the new cathedral was dedicated to the 21 Coptic Martyrs of thirteen of whom were from Al Ur. In 1981, the Basic Village Service Program of USAID, had several water, road projects, going on in several markazes in the Minya Governorate. In 2013, The United Nations Trust Fund for Human Security helped farmers in Minya by doing consultation work with them and taking soil samples; the national holiday of the Minya governorate is on 18 March. It commemorates those who were executed by the British at Deir Mawas on 18 March 1919. According to the Egyptian Governing Authority for Investment and Free Zones, in affiliation with the Ministry of Investment, the following industrial zones are located in this governorate: Al Matahra, east of the Nile Heavy industrial zone - Wadi el Sararyah New Minya Minya Governorate is an important agricultural and industrial region.
Among its principal crops are sugarcane, beans, garlic, vegetables of various sorts, potatoes and grapes. Among the leading local industries are food processing and weaving of cotton, perfumes and fats, cement-making and brick-making. Akhetaten Dehenet Ansena Beni Hasan Deir el-Bersha el-Sheikh Sa'id Fraser Tombs Hatnub Hebenu Herwer Khmun Per Medjed Sharuna Speos Artemidos Tuna el-Gebel Zawyet el-Maiyitin Monastery of Saint Fana, near Mallawi Abdel Hakim Amer, military general Akhenaten, Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty Hakim, folkloric singer Hoda Shaarawi, female activist Khufu, second Pharaoh of the Fourth dynasty Louis Awad and intellectual Maria al-Qibtiyya, wife of Muhammad Sanaa Gamil, actress Suzanne Mubarak, the former first lady of Egypt Taha Hussein and intellectual Mervat Amin, artist Ahmed Hassan, leader of Egyptian Football Team Total area: 32,279 km². Percentage to total area of Egypt: 3.2%. Population: around 5.8 million Population density: 115 people/km² Rural population