The flute is a family of musical instruments in the woodwind group. Unlike woodwind instruments with reeds, a flute is an aerophone or reedless wind instrument that produces its sound from the flow of air across an opening. According to the instrument classification of Hornbostel–Sachs, flutes are categorized as edge-blown aerophones. A musician who plays the flute can be referred to as a flute player, flutist or, less fluter or flutenist. Flutes are the earliest extant musical instruments, as paleolithic instruments with hand-bored holes have been found. A number of flutes dating to about 43,000 to 35,000 years ago have been found in the Swabian Jura region of present-day Germany; these flutes demonstrate that a developed musical tradition existed from the earliest period of modern human presence in Europe. The word flute first entered the English language during the Middle English period, as floute, or else flowte, flote from Old French flaute and from Old Provençal flaüt, or else from Old French fleüte, flaüte, flahute via Middle High German floite or Dutch fluit.
The English verb flout has the same linguistic root, the modern Dutch verb fluiten still shares the two meanings. Attempts to trace the word back to the Latin flare have been pronounced "phonologically impossible" or "inadmissable"; the first known use of the word flute was in the 14th century. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, this was in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Hous of Fame, c.1380. Today, a musician who plays any instrument in the flute family can be called a flutist, or flautist, or a flute player. Flutist dates back to at least 1603, the earliest quotation cited by the Oxford English Dictionary. Flautist was used in 1860 by Nathaniel Hawthorne in The Marble Faun, after being adopted during the 18th century from Italy, like many musical terms in England since the Italian Renaissance. Other English terms, now obsolete, are fluter and flutenist; the oldest flute discovered may be a fragment of the femur of a juvenile cave bear, with two to four holes, found at Divje Babe in Slovenia and dated to about 43,000 years ago.
However, this has been disputed. In 2008 another flute dated back to at least 35,000 years ago was discovered in Hohle Fels cave near Ulm, Germany; the five-holed flute is made from a vulture wing bone. The researchers involved in the discovery published their findings in the journal Nature, in August 2009; the discovery was the oldest confirmed find of any musical instrument in history, until a redating of flutes found in Geißenklösterle cave revealed them to be older with an age of 42,000 to 43,000 years. The flute, one of several found, was found in the Hohle Fels cavern next to the Venus of Hohle Fels and a short distance from the oldest known human carving. On announcing the discovery, scientists suggested that the "finds demonstrate the presence of a well-established musical tradition at the time when modern humans colonized Europe". Scientists have suggested that the discovery of the flute may help to explain "the probable behavioural and cognitive gulf between" Neanderthals and early modern human.
A three-holed flute, 18.7 cm long, made from a mammoth tusk was discovered in 2004, two flutes made from swan bones excavated a decade earlier are among the oldest known musical instruments. A playable 9,000-year-old Gudi was excavated from a tomb in Jiahu along with 29 defunct twins, made from the wing bones of red-crowned cranes with five to eight holes each, in the Central Chinese province of Henan; the earliest extant Chinese transverse flute is a chi flute discovered in the Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng at the Suizhou site, Hubei province, China. It dates from 433 BC, of the Zhou Dynasty, it is fashioned of lacquered bamboo with closed ends and has five stops that are at the flute's side instead of the top. Chi flutes are mentioned in Shi Jing and edited by Confucius, according to tradition; the earliest written reference to a flute is from a Sumerian-language cuneiform tablet dated to c. 2600–2700 BCE. Flutes are mentioned in a translated tablet of the Epic of Gilgamesh, an epic poem whose development spanned the period of 2100–600 BCE.
Additionally, a set of cuneiform tablets knows as the "musical texts" provide precise tuning instructions for seven scale of a stringed instrument. One of those scales is named embūbum, an Akkadian word for "flute"; the Bible, in Genesis 4:21, cites Jubal as being the "father of all those who play the ugab and the kinnor". The former Hebrew term is believed by some to refer to some wind instrument, or wind instruments in general, the latter to a stringed instrument, or stringed instruments in general; as such, Jubal is regarded in the Judeo-Christian tradition as the inventor of the flute. Elsewhere in the Bible, the flute is referred to as "chalil", in particular in 1 Samuel 10:5, 1 Kings 1:40, Isaiah 5:12 and 30:29, Jeremiah 48:36. Archeological digs in the Holy Land have discovered flutes from both the Bronze Age and the Iron Age, the latter era "witness the creation of the Israelite kingdom and its separation into the two kingdoms of Israel and Judea."Some early flutes were made out of tibias.
Michał Urbaniak is a Polish jazz musician who plays violin and saxophone. His music includes elements of folk music and blues, hip hop, symphonic music. Urbaniak started his music education during high school in Łódź, continued from 1961 in Warsaw in the violin class of Tadeusz Wroński. Learning to play on the saxophone alone, he first played in a Dixieland band, with Zbigniew Namysłowski and the Jazz Rockers, with whom he performed during the Jazz Jamboree festival in 1961. After this, he was invited to play with Andrzej Trzaskowski, toured the United States in 1962 with the Andrzej Trzaskowski band, the Wreckers, playing at festivals and clubs in Newport, San Francisco, Chicago and New York City. After returning to Poland, he worked with Krzysztof Komeda's quintet. Together, they left for Scandinavia, after finishing a couple of contracts, Urbaniak remained until 1969. There he created a band with Urszula Dudziak and Wojciech Karolak, which gained considerable success and was to be the starting point for the Michał Urbaniak Fusion.
After Urbaniak returned to Poland and the violin, he created the Michał Urbaniak Group, to which he invited, among others, Urszula Dudziak, Adam Makowicz, Pawel Jarzebski – bass and Czeslaw Bartkowski – drums They recorded their first international albums, Parathyphus B, Instinct and played in many festivals, including Jazz Jamboree in 1969–1972. During the Montreux'71 festival, Urbaniak was awarded "Grand Prix" for the best soloist and received a scholarship to the Berklee College of Music in Boston. After many triumphant concerts in Europe and the United States, in May 1973 he played for the last time before a Polish audience and emigrated with Urszula Dudziak on September 11, 1973, to the United States, where he now lives as a U. S. citizen. Despite getting an award from Berklee, he did not study there. Recommended by John H. Hammond, Urbaniak signed a contract with Columbia Records, who published the West German album Super Constellation under the name Fusion. For the tour, he invited Polish musicians, including Czesław Bartkowski, Paweł Jarzębski, Wojciech Karolak.
In 1974, Urbaniak formed the band Fusion and introduced melodic and rhythmic elements of Polish folk music into his funky New York-based music. With this band Urbaniak recorded another album for Columbia in New York: Atma. Urbaniak followed his musical journey with innovative projects such as Urbanator and UrbSymphony. On January 27, 1995, UrbSymphony performed and recorded a concert with a rapper and a 60-piece symphony orchestra. Since 1970 Urbaniak has been playing his custom-made, five-string violin furnished for him, a violin synthesizer called "talking" violin, his fusion with a hint of folklore was becoming popular among American jazz musicians. He started to play in well known clubs such as the Village Vanguard and Village Gate, in famous concert halls such as Carnegie Hall, Beacon Theatre, Avery Fisher Hall. Urbaniak has played with Billy Cobham, Buster Williams, Chick Corea, Elvin Jones, Freddie Hubbard, George Benson, Herbie Hancock, Joe Henderson, Joe Zawinul, Kenny Barron, Larry Coryell, Lenny White, Marcus Miller, Quincy Jones, Ron Carter, Roy Haynes, Wayne Shorter, Weather Report.
In 1985, he was invited to play during the recording of Tutu with Miles Davis. In 2012, he acted in the Polish film My Father's Bike. Urbaniak's Orchestra Paratyphus B Inactin New Violin Summit with Don Harris, Jean-Luc Ponty Super Constellation Polish Jazz Atma Fusion Funk Factory Fusion III Body English The Beginning Tribute to Komeda Urbaniak Ecstasy Urban Express Daybreak Music for Violin and Jazz Quartet Serenade for the City Folk Songs: Children's Melodies Jam at Sandy's My One and Only Love The Larry Coryell and Michael Urbaniak Duo Recital with Władysław Sendecki A Quiet Day in Spring Take Good Care of My Heart New York Five at the Village Vanguard Songs for Poland Milky Way, Some Other Blues, Mardin Cinemode Songbird Michal Urbaniak Manhattan Man Milky Way Burning Circuits, Urban Express, Manhattan Man Urbanator Friday Night at the Village Vanguard Some Other Blues Code Blue Urbanator II Live in Holy City Urbaniax Fusion Ask Me Now From Poland with Jazz Urbsymphony Decadence Urbanizer Urbanator III Michal Urbaniak's Group I Jazz Love You Sax Love Polish Wind Miles of Blue With Urszula Dudziak 1976 Urszula 1977 Midnight Rain 1979 Future Talk 1983 Sorrow Is Not Forever...
But Love IsWith others 1971 Swiss Suite, Oliver Nelson 1974 Journey, Arif Mardin 1977 Tomorrow's Promises, Don Pullen 1977 The Lion and the Ram, Larry Coryell 1980 Swish, Michael Brecker 1981 Stratus, Charly Antolini/Billy Cobham 1984 Islands, Scott Cossu 1986 Tutu, Miles Davis 1987 Music from Siesta, Miles Davis/Marcus Miller 1987 The Camera Never Lies, Michael Franks 1989 Whispers and Promises, Earl Klugh 1994 Rejoicing, Paul Bley 1994 Mo' Jam
A pianist is an individual musician who plays the piano. Since most forms of Western music can make use of the piano, pianists have a wide repertoire and a wide variety of styles to choose from, among them traditional classical music, jazz and all sorts of popular music, including rock and roll. Most pianists can, to an extent play other keyboard-related instruments such as the synthesizer, harpsichord and the organ. Modern classical pianists dedicate their careers to performing, teaching and learning new works to expand their repertoire, they do not write or transcribe music as pianists did in the 19th century. Some classical pianists might specialize in accompaniment and chamber music, while others will perform as full-time soloists. Mozart could be considered the first "concert pianist" as he performed on the piano. Composers Beethoven and Clementi from the classical era were famed for their playing, as were, from the romantic era, Brahms, Chopin and Rachmaninoff. From that era, leading performers less known as composers were Hans von Bülow.
However, as we do not have modern audio recordings of most of these pianists, we rely on written commentary to give us an account of their technique and style. Jazz pianists always perform with other musicians, their playing is more free than that of classical pianists and they create an air of spontaneity in their performances. They do not write down their compositions. Well known jazz pianists include Art Tatum, Duke Ellington, Thelonious Monk, Oscar Peterson and Bud Powell. Popular pianists might work as live performers, session musicians, arrangers most feel at home with synthesizers and other electronic keyboard instruments. Notable popular pianists include Victor Borge. A single listing of pianists in all genres would be impractical, given the multitude of musicians noted for their performances on the instrument. Below are links to lists of well-known or influential pianists divided by genres: List of classical pianists List of classical pianists List of classical piano duos List of jazz pianists List of pop and rock pianists List of blues musicians List of boogie woogie musicians List of gospel musicians List of new-age music artists Many important composers were virtuoso pianists.
The following is an incomplete list of such musicians. Franz Schubert Ludwig van Beethoven Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Johann Nepomuk Hummel Carl Maria von Weber Muzio Clementi Edvard Grieg Franz Liszt Charles-Valentin Alkan Anton Arensky Sergei Rachmaninoff Anton Rubinstein Frédéric Chopin Felix Mendelssohn Johannes Brahms Camille Saint-Saëns Isaac Albéniz Nikolai Medtner Béla Bartók George Gershwin Sergei Prokofiev Dmitri Shostakovich Some people, having received a solid piano training in their youth, decide not to continue their musical careers but choose nonmusical ones; as a result, there are prominent communities of amateur pianists all over the world that play at quite a high level and give concerts not to earn money but just for the love of music. The International Piano Competition for Outstanding Amateurs, held annually in Paris, attracts about one thousand listeners each year and is broadcast on French radio, it is notable that Jon Nakamatsu, the Gold Medal winner of the Van Cliburn International Piano Competition for professional pianists in Fort Worth, Texas was at the moment of his victory technically an amateur: he never attended a music conservatory or majored in music, worked as a high school German teacher at the time.
The German pianist Davide Martello is known for traveling around conflict zones to play his moving piano. Martello has been recognised by the European parliament for his “outstanding contribution to European cooperation and the promotion of common values”. List of films about pianists
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
Janusz Józef Muniak was a Polish jazz musician, flutist and composer. He was one of the pioneers of free jazz in Europe, although in life tended towards the mainstream, he debuted in Lublin in 1960. During the 60s and 90s, he cooperated with, among others, Ronnie Burrage, George Cables, James Cammack, Don Cherry, Ted Curson, Art Farmer, Eddie Gladden, Dexter Gordon, Eddie Henderson, Freddie Hubbard, Hank Jones, Rusty Jones, Nigel Kennedy, Branislav Lala Kovačev, Joe Lovano, Wynton Marsalis, Hank Mobley, Takeo Moriyama, Joe Newman, Sal Nistico, Jasper van't Hof, Aladár Pege, Rufus Reid, Akira Sakata, Archie Shepp, Charlie Ventura, Yōsuke Yamashita and Polish musicians like Tomasz Stańko, Zbigniew Namysłowski, Zbigniew Seifert, Adam Makowicz, Wojciech Karolak, Krzysztof Komeda, Andrzej Kurylewicz, Andrzej Trzaskowski, Jan Ptaszyn Wróblewski, Jarek Śmietana, Jan Jarczyk, Włodek Pawlik, Leszek Możdżer and Michał Urbaniak, he was one of the first jazzmen who cooperated with rock musicians like Czesław Niemen.
Since 1976 he has been a leader of several ensembles, since 1991 he has been running the Jazz Club "U Muniaka" at Florianska 3 in Krakow, under his artistic management, became an important incubator of new talents. In the poll of Jazz Top 2011 of the monthly Jazz Forum Janusz Muniak was voted the best saxophonist in Poland, he is buried at Rakowicki Cemetery in Krakow. • 1962 Złoty Helikon awarded by Krakow Jazz Club • 2015: Złoty Fryderyk for outstanding artistic achievement awarded by Phonographic Academy • 2016: Knight's Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta awarded posthumously for outstanding achievements in promoting jazz music in Poland. Leading performance: • 1978 Question Mark – Janusz Muniak Quintet • 1983 Placebo – Janusz Muniak • 1986 Janusz Muniak Quartet – Janusz Muniak Quartet • 1994 You Know These Songs? – Janusz Muniak • 1995 Not So Fast – Janusz Muniak • 1997 One And Four – Janusz Muniak • 1998 Spotkanie – Janusz Muniak • 2000 Just Friends – Janusz Muniak • 2002 Annie – Janusz Muniak Quartet • 2015 Contemplation – Janusz Muniak Guest performance: • 1965 Andrzej Trzaskowski Quintet, Andrzej Trzaskowski Quintet, Polskie Nagrania „Muza” XL 0258 • 1966 / 2004 Seant – The Andrzej Trzaskowski Sextet, PN Muza XL 0378 • 1969 Jazz Studio Orchestra of Polish Radio, PN Muza XL 0569 • 1970 Krzysztof Sadowski and His Hammond Organ – Krzysztof Sadowski, PN Muza XL 0606 • 1970 / 1999 / 2004 Music for K – Tomasz Stańko, PN Muza XL 0607 • 1972 Jazzmessage from Poland – Tomasz Stańko Quintet • 1973 Kto tak pięknie gra – SPPT Chałturnik • 1973 Purple Sun – Tomasz Stańko Quintet • 1975 SPPT Chałturnik i Andrzej Rosiewicz – SPPT Chałturnik i Andrzej Rosiewicz • 1982 Grand Standard Orchestra – Grand Standard Orchestra p/d Jana „Ptaszyna” Wróblewskiego • 1998 Krzysztof Komeda Vol. 4 - Moja Ballada – Krzysztof Komeda Joint recordings • 1967/2000 Torpedo / Rien Ne Va Plus – Novi Singers • 1971 / 1987 / 1993 Wołanie o słońce nad światem – Dżamble • 1971 Piotr – Piotr Figiel • 1983 Stańko – Tomasz Stańko • 1995 A Time For Love – Andrzej Dąbrowski • 2003 Follow the Soul – Piotr Lemańczyk Collections • 1964 Jazz Jamboree 1964, vol. 2 • 1973 Koncert podwójny na pięciu solistów i orkiestrę – Polish Radio Jazz Band • 1974 All Stars After Hours - Night Jam Session In Warsaw 1973 – Various • 1974 / 1976 Muzyka Krzysztofa Komedy – Krzysztof Komeda • 1999 Go Right: A Selection – Various • 1999 Novi Singers – Various • 2000 The Best of Cracow Jazz – Various • 2002 Antologia jazzu – Various
Krzysztof Komeda was a Polish film music composer and jazz pianist. Best known for his work in film scores, Komeda wrote the scores for Roman Polanski’s films Knife in the Water, Cul-de-sac, The Fearless Vampire Killers, Rosemary’s Baby. Komeda's album Astigmatic is regarded as one of the most important European jazz albums. Born Krzysztof Trzciński, he chose Komeda as his stage name only upon graduation from university as a means of distancing himself as musician from his daytime job in a medical clinic, he grew up in Częstochowa and Ostrów Wielkopolski where in 1950 he graduated from'liceum for Boys'. While at school, he participated in the Poetry Club. After high school he entered the Medical Academy in Poznań to study medicine, he finished his six-year-long studies and obtained a medical doctor diploma in 1956. He chose to specialize as an otolaryngology physician, he took music lessons from early childhood. He became a member of the Poznań conservatorium at the age of eight, but World War II thwarted his plans.
Komeda explored the theory of music, learned to play piano, during this period and until 1950. Komeda was interested in dance music, he met Witold Kujawski, a graduate of the same school and a well-known swinging bass player, at the gymnasium in Ostrów Wielkopolski. It was Kujawski who acquainted Komeda-Trzciński with jazz, took him to Kraków; the romantic period of Polish jazz, called the catacombs, had its day in the spotlight. Concert publicity did not exist then. Jam sessions, in which such famous musicians as Matuszkiewicz, Borowiec and Kujawski himself participated, took place in Witold’s legendary small apartment in Kraków; some years it became clear why Komeda was fascinated with be-bop performed by Andrzej Trzaskowski. The fascination with jazz and the friendship with famous musicians strengthened his connections with music though he was a doctor by profession, he worked for some time with the first, pioneer Polish jazz band, a group called Melomani, from Kraków and Łódź, whose mainstays were Matuszkiewicz and Kujawski.
He played with various pop groups from Poznań. One of them, Jerzy Grzewiński's group, soon transformed into a dixieland band. Komeda appeared with Grzewiński on the I Jazz Festival in Sopot in August 1956, but he achieved success performing with saxophonist Jan Ptaszyn Wróblewski and vibraphonist Jerzy Milian, because dixieland did not meet Komeda’s expectations at the time, he was more fascinated with modern jazz. Thanks to this passion, the Komeda Sextet was created. Krzysztof Trzciński used the stage name'Komeda' for the first time when he worked at a laryngological clinic, wanted to conceal his interest in jazz from co-workers. Jazz was beginning its struggle for respectability with the communist authorities in the era of'the thaw' and with Polish society; the Komeda Sextet became the first Polish jazz group playing modern jazz, its pioneering performances opened the way for jazz in Poland. He played jazz that related to European traditions and, the synthesis of the two most popular groups at that time: The Modern Jazz Quartet and the Gerry Mulligan Quartet.
In the thirteen years after the I Sopot Jazz Festival, the artistic personality of Krzysztof Trzciński became more mature and lyrically poetic. Krzysztof was, above all, a searching poet who could find ways of individual expression of himself within jazz, in Slavic lyricism, in the traditions of Polish music; the years 1956–1962 saw Komeda with his group taking part in domestic festivals and preparing ambitious programs. These were the years of his first foreign successes in Moscow and Paris. An interesting show was created at that time. Komeda's adventure with film music began. Scores for the films of Roman Polanski such as Knife in the Water, of Andrzej Wajda such as Innocent Sorcerers, of Janusz Morgenstern Good Bye, Till Tomorrow were created; this period, which in Komeda's artistic biography can be called the period of growing up and improving his own music language, was crowned with "Ballet Etudes" performed on Jazz Jamboree ’62. Although the reaction of domestic critics for the Etudes was rather cold, it opened the doors to Europe for Krzysztof Komeda Trzciński.
Komeda visited Scandinavia for the first time in spring 1960, he went back there every year thereafter. All of his performances at the'Gyllene Cirkeln' in Stockholm and at the Montmartre Jazz Club in Copenhagen, where the most famous celebrities of American jazz performed, turned out to be a real success. Metronome, the Swedish record company, recorded his music played by an international quintet: Allan Botschinsky, Jan "Ptaszyn" Wróblewski, Krzysztof Komeda, Roman Dyląg and Rune Carlsson; the famous Danish director Hennig Carlsen ordered music for his movies Hvad Med Os, Sult. Komeda wrote the music for Tom Segerberg's movie Kattorna and several Polański scores. Overall Komeda wrote more than 70 soundtracks. After successes in Scandinavia, came further successes: jazz festivals in Prague, Koenigsberg.
Poland the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With a population of 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, Szczecin. Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast and Lithuania to the north and Ukraine to the east and Czech Republic, to the south, Germany to the west; the establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to AD 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of the realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin; this union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.
More than a century after the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Germany, followed by the Soviet Union invading Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. More than six million Polish citizens, including 90% of the country's Jews, perished in the war. In 1947, the Polish People's Republic was established as a satellite state under Soviet influence. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic. Poland is regional power, it has the fifth largest economy by GDP in the European Union and one of the most dynamic economies in the world achieving a high rank on the Human Development Index. Additionally, the Polish Stock Exchange in Warsaw is the largest and most important in Central Europe. Poland is a developed country, which maintains a high-income economy along with high standards of living, life quality, safety and economic freedom.
Having a developed school educational system, the country provides free university education, state-funded social security, a universal health care system for all citizens. Poland has 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Poland is a member state of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Three Seas Initiative, the Visegrád Group; the origin of the name "Poland" derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta river basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name "Polanie" itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole". In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites, which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I. Early Bronze Age in Poland begun around 2400 BC, while the Iron Age commenced in 750 BC. During this time, the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became prominent; the most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around 700 BC.
Throughout the Antiquity period, many distinct ancient ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland in an era that dates from about 400 BC to 500 AD. These groups are identified as Celtic, Slavic and Germanic tribes. Recent archeological findings in the Kujawy region, confirmed the presence of the Roman Legions on the territory of Poland; these were most expeditionary missions sent out to protect the amber trade. The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented; the Slavic tribes who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in 966 AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism. With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the religious authority of the Roman Church.
However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the 1030s. Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first documented ruler, Mieszko I, accepted Christianity with the Baptism of Poland in 966, as the new official religion of his subjects; the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries. In 1000, Boleslaw the Brave, continuing the policy of his father Mieszko, held a Congress of Gniezno and created the metropolis of Gniezno and the dioceses of Kraków, Kołobrzeg, Wrocław. However, the pagan unrest led to the transfer of the capital to Kraków in 1038 by Casimir I the Restorer. In 1109, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the Ge