Solomon Buber was a Jewish Galician scholar and editor of Hebrew works. He is especially remembered for his editions of Midrash and other medieval Jewish manuscripts, solomon Buber was born at Lemberg on February 2,1827. Buber soon desired to conduct independent research and put the results in literary form—a disposition that proved valuable to Jewish literature, at twenty years of age, Buber married and entered commercial pursuits. He rose rapidly to become Handelskammerrath, and auditor of the Austro-Hungarian bank, the bank. Buber was president of the Geschäftshalle, vice-president of the free kitchen, while active in public life, Buber devoted himself to learned research. The midrash literature had special attractions for him, and his activity in this field has been remarkable in extent, the book appeared as a publication of the society known under the name of Mekitze Nirdamim. Bubers method of dealing with the undertaking was new to scientific literature. The introduction was translated into German by August Wünsche, and published by him with his translation of the Midrash, Leipzig,1884.
As this array of shows, Buber was a prolific writer, yet the scientific quality of his work does not suffer on this account. At the outset he adopted a system to which he consistently adhered. His work is distinguished by thoroughness, and reveals his ability as well as the vast extent of his reading. The only serious opposition to the views encountered by Buber has been in regard to his theory concerning the Tanchuma, Buber distinguished himself in other departments of literature. His first work was a biography of the grammarian Elias Levita, in these works Buber appears as a philologist and as a careful writer of biographies of scholars, especially of the Jewish scholars of Poland. He proved himself a veritable Maecenas of learning, the cost involved in the publication of his works was usually borne by him, and he presented gratuitous copies to libraries and indigent scholars. Visotzky states that Bubers texts are now largely considered defective on two counts, many of the midrashic works that Buber first published now exist in newer critical editions, which will generally be listed in modern reviews such as Strack & Stemberger.
Solomon Buber was the grandfather and teacher of Martin Buber and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Isidore, et al. eds. New York, Funk & Wagnalls Company, 28-40, Sefer Zikkaron, p.7, Warsaw,1889. Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash, Edinburgh, T&T Clark, literature by and about Salomon Buber in University Library JCS Frankfurt am Main, Digital Collections Judaica
Note, Tanya, an important work of Hasidic Judaism, is an unrelated book with a similar name. Tanya Rabbati is a work on Jewish law first published in Italy. Shibbolei ha-Leket, the first Italian Jewish codification of Jewish law, is a work that is similar in scope and content. Many scholars believe that the Tanya Rabbati is, in fact, Shibbolei ha-Leket is concerned with the liturgy, the Passover Haggadah, and laws pertaining to Shabbat and the Jewish Holidays. It was authored by Zedekiah ben Abraham Anav, a 13th-century Italian Talmudist, the work was culled from many Rishonim. It is divided into 372 paragraphs, plus appendices and responsa on topics such as circumcision, tzitzit, inheritance, an abridged version was published in Venice in 1545, and a complete version in Vilna in 1886. Tanya Rabbati discusses Shabbat and the Jewish Holidays, the work is named for its first word, which is Aramaic for it is stated in a baraita. It is believed to have been authored by Jehiel ben Jekutheil Anav, a 13th-century Rabbinic author, manuscript copyist, the work was first published in Mantua, and was re-printed in Cremona,1565, and in two other editions. S. H.
Kook believes that Tanya Rabbati is the first edition of Shibbolei ha-Leket, in this view, Jehiel copied Shibbolei ha-Leket and added his own notes and ideas. In contrast, S. K. Mirsky believes that Jehiel is the author of Tanya Rabbati
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
Venice is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region. It is situated across a group of 118 small islands that are separated by canals and these are located in the shallow Venetian Lagoon, an enclosed bay that lies between the mouths of the Po and the Piave Rivers. Parts of Venice are renowned for the beauty of their settings, their architecture, the lagoon and a part of the city are listed as a World Heritage Site. In 2014,264,579 people resided in Comune di Venezia, together with Padua and Treviso, the city is included in the Padua-Treviso-Venice Metropolitan Area, with a total population of 2.6 million. PATREVE is a metropolitan area without any degree of autonomy. The name is derived from the ancient Veneti people who inhabited the region by the 10th century BC, the city was historically the capital of the Republic of Venice. Venice has been known as the La Dominante, Queen of the Adriatic, City of Water, City of Masks, City of Bridges, The Floating City, and City of Canals.
The City State of Venice is considered to have been the first real international financial center which gradually emerged from the 9th century to its peak in the 14th century and this made Venice a wealthy city throughout most of its history. It is known for its several important artistic movements, especially the Renaissance period, Venice has played an important role in the history of symphonic and operatic music, and it is the birthplace of Antonio Vivaldi. Venice has been ranked the most beautiful city in the world as of 2016, the name Venetia, derives from the Roman name for the people known as the Veneti, and called by the Greeks Eneti. The meaning of the word is uncertain, although there are other Indo-European tribes with similar-sounding names, such as the Celtic Veneti, Baltic Veneti, and the Slavic Wends. Linguists suggest that the name is based on an Indo-European root *wen, so that *wenetoi would mean beloved, lovable, a connection with the Latin word venetus, meaning the color sea-blue, is possible.
The alternative obsolete form is Vinegia, some late Roman sources reveal the existence of fishermen on the islands in the original marshy lagoons. They were referred to as incolae lacunae, the traditional founding is identified with the dedication of the first church, that of San Giacomo on the islet of Rialto — said to have taken place at the stroke of noon on 25 March 421. Beginning as early as AD166 to 168, the Quadi and Marcomanni destroyed the center in the area. The Roman defences were again overthrown in the early 5th century by the Visigoths and, some 50 years later, New ports were built, including those at Malamocco and Torcello in the Venetian lagoon. The tribuni maiores, the earliest central standing governing committee of the islands in the Lagoon, the traditional first doge of Venice, Paolo Lucio Anafesto, was actually Exarch Paul, and his successor, Marcello Tegalliano, was Pauls magister militum. In 726 the soldiers and citizens of the Exarchate rose in a rebellion over the controversy at the urging of Pope Gregory II
Vilnius is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 542,664 as of 2015. Vilnius is located in the southeast part of Lithuania and is the second largest city in the Baltic states, Vilnius is the seat of the main government institutions of Lithuania as well as of the Vilnius District Municipality. Vilnius is classified as a Gamma global city according to GaWC studies and its Jewish influence until the 20th century has led to it being described as the Jerusalem of Lithuania and Napoleon named it the Jerusalem of the North as he was passing through in 1812. In 2009, Vilnius was the European Capital of Culture, together with the Austrian city of Linz, the name of the city originates from the Vilnia River. The city has known by many derivate spellings in various languages throughout its history. The most notable names for the city include, Wilno, Belarusian, Вiльня, Wilna, Latvian, Viļņa, Russian, Вильнюс, Yiddish, ווילנע , Czech. A Russian name from the time of the Russian Empire was Вильна/Вильно, the name Vilna is still used in Finnish, Portuguese and Hebrew.
Wilna is still used in German, along with Vilnius, the neighborhoods of Vilnius have names in other languages, which represent the languages spoken by various ethnic groups in the area. Historian Romas Batūra identifies the city with Voruta, one of the castles of Mindaugas, during the reign of Vytenis a city started to emerge from a trading settlement and the first Franciscan Catholic church was built. These letters contain the first unambiguous reference to Vilnius as the capital, According to legend, Gediminas dreamt of an iron wolf howling on a hilltop and consulted a pagan priest for its interpretation. He was told, What is destined for the ruler and the State of Lithuania, is thus, the Iron Wolf represents a castle and a city which will be established by you on this site. This city will be the capital of the Lithuanian lands and the dwelling of their rulers, the location offered practical advantages, it lay within the Lithuanian heartland at the confluence of two navigable rivers, surrounded by forests and wetlands that were difficult to penetrate.
The duchy had been subject to intrusions by the Teutonic Knights, Vilnius was the flourishing capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the residence of the Grand Duke. Gediminas expanded the Grand Duchy through warfare along with strategic alliances and marriages, at its height it covered the territory of modern-day Lithuania, Ukraine and portions of modern-day Poland and Russia. His grandchildren Vytautas the Great and Jogaila, fought civil wars, during the Lithuanian Civil War of 1389–1392, Vytautas besieged and razed the city in an attempt to wrest control from Jogaila. The two settled their differences, after a series of treaties culminating in the 1569 Union of Lublin, the rulers of this federation held either or both of two titles, Grand Duke of Lithuania or King of Poland. In 1387, Jogaila acting as a Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland Władysław II Jagiełło, the city underwent a period of expansion. The Vilnius city walls were built for protection between 1503 and 1522, comprising nine city gates and three towers, and Sigismund August moved his court there in 1544
The term public domain has two senses of meaning. Anything published is out in the domain in the sense that it is available to the public. Once published and information in books is in the public domain, in the sense of intellectual property, works in the public domain are those whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired, have been forfeited, or are inapplicable. Examples for works not covered by copyright which are therefore in the domain, are the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes. Examples for works actively dedicated into public domain by their authors are reference implementations of algorithms, NIHs ImageJ. The term is not normally applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, as rights are country-based and vary, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another. Some rights depend on registrations on a basis, and the absence of registration in a particular country, if required. Although the term public domain did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined many things that cannot be privately owned as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis.
The term res nullius was defined as not yet appropriated. The term res communes was defined as things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air, sunlight. The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, when the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by British and French jurists in the eighteenth century, instead of public domain they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law. The phrase fall in the domain can be traced to mid-nineteenth century France to describe the end of copyright term. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain. Because copyright law is different from country to country, Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being different sizes at different times in different countries.
According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the public domain and equates the public domain to public property. However, the usage of the public domain can be more granular. Such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair use rights, the materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival
Purim is a Jewish holiday that commemorates the saving of the Jewish people from Haman, who was planning to kill all the Jews. This took place in the ancient Achaemenid Persian Empire, the story is recorded in the Biblical Book of Esther. The day of deliverance became a day of feasting and rejoicing, Purim is celebrated annually according to the Hebrew calendar on the 14th day of the Hebrew month of Adar, the day following the victory of the Jews over their enemies. Today, only Jerusalem and a few other cities celebrate Purim on the 15th of Adar. At this feast Ahasuerus gets thoroughly drunk, and at the prompting of his courtiers, orders his wife Vashti to display her beauty before the nobles and populace and her refusal prompts Ahasuerus to have her removed from her post. Ahasuerus orders all young women to be presented to him, one of these is Esther, who was orphaned at a young age and was being fostered by her first cousin Mordecai. Some rabbinic commentators state that she was actually Mordecais wife, since the Torah permits an uncle to marry his niece and she finds favor in the kings eyes, and is made his new wife.
Esther does not reveal her origins and that she is Jewish, shortly afterwards, Mordecai discovers a plot by two courtiers Bigthan and Teresh to kill Ahasuerus. They are apprehended and hanged, and Mordecais service to the king is recorded in the record of the court. Ahasuerus appoints Haman as his viceroy, who sits at the palace gates, falls into Hamans disfavor as he refuses to bow down to him. Having found out that Mordecai is Jewish, Haman plans to not just Mordecai. Obtaining Ahasuerus permission and funds to execute this plan, he casts lots to choose the date on which to do this – the thirteenth of the month of Adar. Esther discovers what has transpired, there follows an exchange of messages between her and Mordecai, with Hatach, one of the servants, as the intermediary. Mordecai requests that she intercede with the king on behalf of the embattled Jews, she replies that nobody is allowed to approach the king, under penalty of death. Esther has a change of heart, says she will fast and pray for three days and will approach the king to seek his help, despite the law against doing so.
She requests that Mordecai tell all Jews of Shushan to fast, on the third day, she seeks an audience with Ahasuerus, during which she invites him to a feast in the company of Haman. During the feast, she asks them to attend a further feast the next evening, Ahasuerus asks whether anything was done for Mordecai and is told that he received no recognition for saving the kings life. Just then, Haman appears, and King Ahasuerus asks him what should be done for the man that the wishes to honor
Rome is a special comune and the capital of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region, with 2,873,598 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the countrys largest and most populated comune and fourth-most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the center of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4.3 million residents, the city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber. Romes history spans more than 2,500 years, while Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at only around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe. The citys early population originated from a mix of Latins, Etruscans and it was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, and the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the Caput Mundi, due to that, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, and the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism.
Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, in 1871 Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, and in 1946 that of the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city, Rome ranked in 2014 as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, and the most popular tourist attraction in Italy. Its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site and museums such as the Vatican Museums and the Colosseum are among the worlds most visited tourist destinations with both locations receiving millions of tourists a year. Rome hosted the 1960 Summer Olympics and is the seat of United Nations Food, however, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was actually derived from Rome itself. As early as the 4th century, there have been alternate theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. There is archaeological evidence of occupation of the Rome area from approximately 14,000 years ago. Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence, several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum.
Between the end of the age and the beginning of the Iron age. However, none of them had yet an urban quality, there is a wide consensus that the city was gradually born through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine. All these happenings, which according to the excavations took place more or less around the mid of the 8th century BC. Despite recent excavations at the Palatine hill, the view that Rome has been indeed founded with an act of will as the legend suggests in the middle of the 8th century BC remains a fringe hypothesis. Traditional stories handed down by the ancient Romans themselves explain the earliest history of their city in terms of legend and myth
It is a biblical Jewish holiday celebrated on the 15th day of the month of Tishrei. During the existence of the Jerusalem Temple it was one of the Three Pilgrimage Festivals on which the Israelites were commanded to perform a pilgrimage to the Temple. The more elaborate religious significance from the Book of Leviticus is that of commemorating the Exodus, the holiday lasts seven days in Israel and eight in the diaspora. The first day is a Shabbat-like holiday when work is forbidden and this is followed by intermediate days called Chol Hamoed, when certain work is permitted. The festival is closed with another Shabbat-like holiday called Shemini Atzeret, Shemini Atzeret coincides with the eighth day of Sukkot outside of Israel. The Hebrew word sukkōt is the plural of sukkah, booth or tabernacle, a sukkah is the name of the temporary dwelling in which farmers would live during harvesting, a fact connecting to the agricultural significance of the holiday stressed by the Book of Exodus. Throughout the holiday, meals are eaten inside the sukkah and many people there as well.
On each day of the holiday it is mandatory to perform a ceremony with the Four Species. The origins of Sukkot are both historical and agricultural, Sukkot commemorates the forty-year period during which the children of Israel were wandering in the desert, living in temporary shelters. Agriculturally, Sukkot is a harvest festival and is referred to as Chag HaAsif. Sukkot is a holiday, with the first day celebrated as a full festival with special prayer services. The seventh day of Sukkot is called Hoshana Rabbah and has a special observance of its own, outside Israel, the first and last two days are celebrated as full festivals. The intermediate days are known as Chol HaMoed, according to Halakha, some types of work are forbidden during Chol HaMoed. In Israel many businesses are closed during this time, throughout the week of Sukkot, meals are eaten in the sukkah and the males sleep there, although the requirement is waived in case of rain. Every day, a blessing is recited over the Lulav and the Etrog.
Observance of Sukkot is detailed in the Book of Nehemiah 8, 13-18, Zechariah 14, 16-19 and Leviticus 23, 34-44 in the Bible, the Mishnah, the Tosefta, the sukkah walls can be constructed of any material. The walls can be free-standing or include the sides of a building or porch, the roof must be of organic material, known as schach, such as leafy tree overgrowth, schach mats or palm fronds. It is customary to decorate the interior of the sukkah with hanging decorations of the four species
Shabbat observance entails refraining from work activities, often with great rigor, and engaging in restful activities to honor the day. Judaisms traditional position is that unbroken seventh-day Shabbat originated among the Jewish people, as their first and most sacred institution, variations upon Shabbat are widespread in Judaism and, with adaptations, throughout the Abrahamic and many other religions. According to halakha, Shabbat is observed from a few minutes before sunset on Friday evening until the appearance of three stars in the sky on Saturday night, Shabbat is ushered in by lighting candles and reciting a blessing. Traditionally, three meals are eaten, in the evening, in the early afternoon, and late in the afternoon. The evening meal begins with a blessing called kiddush and another blessing recited over two loaves of challah. Shabbat is closed the evening with a havdalah blessing. Shabbat is a day when Jews exercise their freedom from the regular labors of everyday life. It offers an opportunity to contemplate the spiritual aspects of life, the word Shabbat derives from the Hebrew verb shavat.
Although frequently translated as rest, another translation of these words is ceasing. The related modern Hebrew word shevita, has the implication of active rather than passive abstinence from work. The notion of active cessation from labor is regarded as consistent with an omnipotent Gods activity on the seventh day of Creation according to Genesis. Sabbath is given status as a holy day at the very beginning of the Torah in Genesis 2. It is first commanded after the Exodus from Egypt, in Exodus 16,26 and in Exodus 20, Sabbath is commanded and commended many more times in the Torah and Tanakh, double the normal number of animal sacrifices are to be offered on the day. Sabbath is described by the prophets Isaiah, Ezekiel, Amos, the longstanding traditional Jewish position is that unbroken seventh-day Shabbat originated among the Jewish people, as their first and most sacred institution. The Mosaic tradition quotes an origin from the Bible of special creation, though some suggest a later, naturalistic origin.
Seventh-day Shabbat did not originate with the Egyptians, to whom it was unknown, the first non-Biblical reference to Sabbath is in an ostracon found in excavations at Mesad Hashavyahu, which is dated 630 BCE. The prohibitions on these days, spaced seven days apart, include abstaining from chariot riding, on these days officials were prohibited from various activities and common men were forbidden to make a wish, and at least the 28th was known as a rest-day. The difficulties of this theory include reconciling the differences between a week and a lunar week, and explaining the absence of texts naming the lunar week as Sabbath in any language