Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Zeesen is a village south of Königs Wusterhausen in Germany, known for Deutschlandsender Zeesen, built in 1927, the Zeesen short-wave transmitter
Shortwave radio is radio transmission using shortwave radio frequencies. There is no official definition of the band, but the range always includes all of the high frequency band, extends from 1.7–30 MHz. Radio waves in the shortwave band can be reflected or refracted from a layer of electrically charged atoms in the atmosphere called the ionosphere. Therefore, short waves directed at an angle into the sky can be reflected back to Earth at great distances, beyond the horizon; this is called skywave or "skip" propagation. Thus shortwave radio can be used for long distance communication, in contrast to radio waves of higher frequency which travel in straight lines and are limited by the visual horizon, about 64 km. Shortwave radio is used for broadcasting of voice and music to shortwave listeners over large areas, it is used for military over-the-horizon radar, diplomatic communication, two-way international communication by amateur radio enthusiasts for hobby and emergency purposes, as well as for long distance aviation and marine communications.
The widest popular definition of the shortwave frequency interval is the ITU Region 1 definition, is the span 1.6–30 MHz, just above the medium wave band, which ends at 1.6 MHz. There are other definitions of the shortwave frequency interval: 1.71 to 30 MHz in ITU Region 2 1.8 to 30 MHz 2.3 to 30 MHz 2.3 to 26.1 MHz In Germany and Austria the ITU Region 1 shortwave radio frequency interval can be subdivided in: de:Grenzwelle: 1.605–3.8 MHz In Germany these shortwave radio frequency intervals have been seen used: the above other definitions The name "shortwave" originated during the early days of radio in the early 20th century, when the radio spectrum was considered divided into long wave, medium wave and short wave bands based on the wavelength of the radio waves. Shortwave radio received its name because the wavelengths in this band are shorter than 200 m which marked the original upper limit of the medium frequency band first used for radio communications; the broadcast medium wave band now extends above the 200 m/1,500 kHz limit, the amateur radio 1.8 MHz – 2.0 MHz band is the lowest-frequency band considered to be'shortwave'.
Early long distance radio telegraphy used long waves, below 300 kilohertz. The drawbacks to this system included a limited spectrum available for long distance communication, the expensive transmitters and gigantic antennas that were required, it was difficult to beam the radio wave directionally with long wave, resulting in a major loss of power over long distances. Prior to the 1920s, the shortwave frequencies above 1.5 MHz were regarded as useless for long distance communication and were designated in many countries for amateur use. Guglielmo Marconi, pioneer of radio, commissioned his assistant Charles Samuel Franklin to carry out a large scale study into the transmission characteristics of short wavelength waves and to determine their suitability for long distance transmissions. Franklin rigged up a large antenna at Poldhu Wireless Station, running on 25 kW of power. In June and July 1923, wireless transmissions were completed during nights on 97 meters from Poldhu to Marconi's yacht Elettra in the Cape Verde Islands.
In September 1924, Marconi transmitted daytime and nighttime on 32 meters from Poldhu to his yacht in Beirut. Franklin went on to refine the directional transmission, by inventing the curtain array aerial system. In July 1924, Marconi entered into contracts with the British General Post Office to install high speed shortwave telegraphy circuits from London to Australia, South Africa and Canada as the main element of the Imperial Wireless Chain; the UK-to-Canada shortwave "Beam Wireless Service" went into commercial operation on 25 October 1926. Beam Wireless Services from the UK to Australia, South Africa and India went into service in 1927. Shortwave communications began to grow in the 1920s, similar to the internet in the late 20th century. By 1928, more than half of long distance communications had moved from transoceanic cables and longwave wireless services to shortwave and the overall volume of transoceanic shortwave communications had vastly increased. Shortwave stations had cost and efficiency advantages over massive longwave wireless installations, however some commercial longwave communications stations remained in use until the 1960s.
Long distance radio circuits reduced the load on the existing transoceanic telegraph cables and hence the need for new cables, although the cables maintained their advantages of high security and a much more reliable and better quality signal than shortwave. The cable companies began to lose large sums of money in 1927, a serious financial crisis threatened the viability of cable companies that were vital to strategic British interests; the British government convened the Imperial Wireless and Cable Conference in 1928 "to examine the situation that had arisen as a result of the competition of Beam Wireless with the Cable Services". It recommended and received Government approval for all overseas cable and wireless resources of the Empire to be merged into one system controlled by a newly formed company in 1929, Imperial and International Communications Ltd; the name of the company was changed to Cable and Wireless Ltd. in 1934. Long-distance cables had a
Pinus rigida, the pitch pine, is a small-to-medium-sized pine. It is native to eastern North America, from central Maine south to Georgia and as far west as Kentucky, in two pockets along the St. Lawrence River in southern Quebec and Ontario, it is found in environments which other species would find unsuitable for growth such as acidic and low nutrient soils. This species hybridizes with other pine species such as loblolly pine, shortleaf pine, pond pine. Pitch pine is found in the southern areas of the northeastern United States, from coastal Maine and Ohio to Kentucky and northern Georgia. A few stands occur in southern Ontario, it is known as a pioneer species and is the first tree to vegetate a site after it has been cleared away. In extreme conditions, it is a climax vegetation type, but in most cases, it is replaced by other hardwoods. This pine occupies a variety of habitats from dry acidic sandy uplands to swampy lowlands, can survive in poor conditions. Scientific name: Pinus rigida It was given its name by British botanist Philip Miller.
It belongs to the Pinaceae family and the subgenus Diploxyon along other hard pines It is irregular in shape, branches are twisted and it does a poor job at self-pruning. The needles are in fascicles of three, about 6–13 cm in length, are stout and slightly twisted; the cones are 4 -- 7 cm oval with prickles on the scales. Trunks are straight with a slight curve to them, they are covered in irregular, large plates of bark. Pitch pine has an exceptionally high regenerative ability; this is one of its many adaptations to fire, which includes a thick bark to protect the sensitive cambium layer from heat. Burnt trees form stunted, twisted trees with multiple trunks as a result of the resprouting; this characteristic makes it a popular species for bonsai. Pitch pine is rapid-growing when young, gaining around one foot of height per year under optimal conditions until the tree is 50–60 years old, whereupon growth slows. By 90 years of age, the amount of annual height gain is minimal. Open-growth trees begin bearing cones in as little as three years, with shade-inhabiting pines taking a few years longer.
Cones take two years to mature and seed dispersal occurs over the fall and winter and trees cannot self-pollinate. The total lifespan of pitch pine is about 200 years. Pitch pine provides a habitat and offers food for many wildlife species, they are used as cover and nesting for birds such as the pine warbler, wild turkey, red-cockaded woodpecker, great-crested flycatchers, blue jays, black-capped chickadees, black-and-white warblers, Nashville warblers, chestnut-sided warblers. Deer consume seedlings and new sprouts, small mammals and birds eat the seeds. Pitch pine is not a major timber tree due to the frequency of crooked trunks. However, it grows well on unfavorable sites. In the past, it was a major source of pitch and timber for ship building, mine timbers, railroad ties because the wood's high resin content preserves it from decay; therefore it was used for elaborate wood constructions, e. g. radio towers. Pitch pine is used for rough construction, pulp and fuel. However, due to its uneven growth, quantities of high quality can be sought after, large lengths of pitch pine can be costly.
Archaeology indicates that the Iroquois and Cherokee all utilized pitch pine. The Iroquois used the pitch to treat rheumatism, burns and boils. Pitch worked as a laxative. A pitch pine poultice was used by both the Iroquois and the Shinnecock to open boils and to treat abscesses; the Cherokee used pitch pine wood in canoe construction and for decorative carvings
A lattice tower or truss tower is a freestanding framework tower. They can be used as electricity transmission towers for voltages above 100 kilovolts, as a radio tower or as an observation tower. Before 1940, they were used as radio transmission towers for short and medium wave lattice towers consisting of wood were utilized; the tallest wooden lattice tower was at Germany. It had a height of 190 metres and was built in 1934 and demolished in 1945. Most wood lattice towers were demolished before 1960. In Germany the last big radio towers consisting of wood were the transmission towers of the Golm transmitter and the transmitter Ismaning, they were demolished in 1983 respectively. The tallest lattice tower is the Tokyo Skytree, with a height of 634 metres. Lattice towers are designed as either a space frame or a hyperboloid structure. Architectural structure List of towers Hyperboloid structure Partially guyed tower Additionally guyed tower