Silicon Valley is a region in the southern part of the San Francisco Bay Area in Northern California that serves as a global center for high technology and social media. It corresponds to the geographical Santa Clara Valley. San Jose is the Valley's largest city, the third largest in California, the tenth largest in the United States. Other major Silicon Valley cities include Palo Alto, Menlo Park, Santa Clara, Mountain View, Sunnyvale; the San Jose Metropolitan Area has the third highest GDP per capita in the world, according to the Brookings Institution. The word "silicon" in the name referred to the large number of silicon chip innovators and manufacturers in the region, but the area is now home to many of the world's largest high-tech corporations, including the headquarters of 39 businesses in the Fortune 1000, thousands of startup companies. Silicon Valley accounts for one-third of all of the venture capital investment in the United States, which has helped it to become a leading hub and startup ecosystem for high-tech innovation and scientific development.
It was in the Valley that the silicon-based integrated circuit, the microprocessor, the microcomputer, among other technologies, were developed. As of 2013, the region employed about a quarter of a million information technology workers; as more high-tech companies were established across San Jose and the Santa Clara Valley, north towards the Bay Area's two other major cities, San Francisco and Oakland, the "Silicon Valley" has come to have two definitions: a geographic one, referring to Santa Clara County, a metonymical one, referring to all high-tech businesses in the Bay Area. The term is now used as a synecdoche for the American high-technology economic sector; the name became a global synonym for leading high-tech research and enterprises, thus inspired similar named locations, as well as research parks and technology centers with a comparable structure all around the world. The popularization of the name is credited to Don Hoefler, who first used it in the article "Silicon Valley USA", appearing in the January 11, 1971 issue of the weekly trade newspaper Electronic News.
The term gained widespread use in the early 1980s, at the time of the introduction of the IBM PC and numerous related hardware and software products to the consumer market. Silicon Valley was born through several contributing factors intersecting, including a skilled STEM research base housed in area universities, plentiful venture capital, steady U. S. Department of Defense spending. Stanford University leadership was important in the valley's early development. Together these elements formed the basis of its success. On August 23, 1899, the first ship-to-shore wireless telegraph message to be received in the US was from the San Francisco lightship outside the Golden Gate, signaling the return of the American fleet from the Philippines after their victory in the Spanish–American War; the ship had been outfitted with a wireless telegraph transmitter by a local newspaper, so that they could prepare a celebration on the return of the American sailors. Local historian Clyde Arbuckle states in Clyde Arbuckle's History of San Jose that "California first heard the click of a telegraph key on September 11, 1853.
It marked completion of an enterprise begun by a couple of San Francisco Merchants' Exchange members named George Sweeney and Theodore E. Baugh…" He says, "In 1849, the gentleman established a wigwag telegraph station a top a high hill overlooking Portsmouth Squares for signaling arriving ships… The operator at the first station caught these signals by telescope and relayed them to the Merchant's Exchange for the waiting business community." Arbuckle points to the historic significance the Merchants Exchange Building and Telegraph Hill, San Francisco when he goes on to say "The first station gave the name Telegraph to the hill on which it was located. It was known as the Inner Station. Both used their primitive mode of communication until Messrs. Sweeney and Baugh connected the Outer Station directly with the Merchants's Exchange by electric telegraph Wire." According to Arbuckle Sweeney and Baugh's line was an intra-city, San Francisco-based service. E. Allen and C. Burnham led the way to "build a line from San Francisco to Marysville via San Jose and Sacramento."
Delays to construction occurred until September 1853. The line was completed when Gamble's northbound crew met a similar crew working southward from Marysville on October 24." The Bay Area had long been a major site of United States Navy research and technology. In 1909, Charles Herrold started the first radio station in the United States with scheduled programming in San Jose; that year, Stanford University graduate Cyril Elwell purchased the U. S. patents for Poulsen arc radio transmission technology and founded the Federal Telegraph Corporation in Palo Alto. Over the next decade, the FTC created the world's first global radio communication system, signed a contract with the Navy in 1912. In 1933, Air Base Sunnyvale, was commissioned by the United States Government for use as a Naval Air Station to house the airship USS Macon in Hangar One; the station was renamed NAS Moffett Field, between 1933 and 1947, U. S. Navy blimps were based there. A number of technology firms had set up shop in the area around Moffett Field to serve the Navy.
When the Navy gave up its airship ambitions and moved most of its west coast
Outliers: The Story of Success is the third non-fiction book written by Malcolm Gladwell and published by Little and Company on November 18, 2008. In Outliers, Gladwell examines the factors. To support his thesis, he examines why the majority of Canadian ice hockey players are born in the first few months of the calendar year, how Microsoft co-founder Bill Gates achieved his extreme wealth, how the Beatles became one of the most successful musical acts in human history, how Joseph Flom built Skadden, Slate, Meagher & Flom into one of the most successful law firms in the world, how cultural differences play a large part in perceived intelligence and rational decision making, how two people with exceptional intelligence, Christopher Langan and J. Robert Oppenheimer, end up with such vastly different fortunes. Throughout the publication, Gladwell mentions the "10,000-Hour Rule", claiming that the key to achieving world-class expertise in any skill, is, to a large extent, a matter of practicing the correct way, for a total of around 10,000 hours, though the authors of the original study this was based on have disputed Gladwell's usage.
The book debuted at number one on the bestseller lists for The New York Times and The Globe and Mail, holding the position on the former for eleven consecutive weeks. Well received by critics, Outliers was considered more personal than Gladwell's other works, some reviews commented on how much Outliers felt like an autobiography. Reviews praised the connection that Gladwell draws between his own background and the rest of the publication to conclude the book. Reviewers appreciated the questions posed by Outliers, finding it important to determine how much individual potential is ignored by society. However, the lessons learned were considered dispiriting; the writing style, though deemed easy to understand, was criticized for oversimplifying complex social phenomena. Gladwell was a journalist for The Washington Post before writing for The New Yorker; the subjects for his articles non-fiction, range from "Ron Popeil's infomercial empire to computers that analyze pop songs". His familiarity with academic material has allowed him to write about "psychology experiments, sociological studies, law articles, statistical surveys of plane crashes and classical musicians and hockey players", which he converts into prose accessible to a general audience and which sometimes pass as memes into the popular imagination.
Before Outliers, Gladwell wrote two best-selling books: Blink. Both books have been described as "pop economics"; the Tipping Point focuses on how ideas and behaviors reach critical mass, such as how Hush Puppies grew popular in the 1990s. Blink explains "what happens during the first two seconds we encounter something, before we start to think". All Gladwell's books focus on singularities: singular events in The Tipping Point, singular moments in Blink, singular people in Outliers. Gladwell was drawn to writing about singular things after he discovered that "they always made the best stories". Convinced that the most unusual stories had the best chance of reaching the front page of a newspaper, he was "quickly weaned off the notion that should be interested in the mundane". For Outliers, Gladwell spent time looking for research that made claims that were contrary to what he considered to be popularly held beliefs. In one of the book's chapters, in which Gladwell focuses on the American public school system, he used research conducted by university sociologist Karl Alexander that suggested that "the way in which education is discussed in the United States is backwards".
In another chapter, Gladwell cites pioneering research performed by Canadian psychologist Roger Barnsley when discussing how the birthdate of a young hockey player can determine their skill level in the future. While writing the book, Gladwell noted that "the biggest misconception about success is that we do it on our smarts, ambition and hard work." In Outliers, he hopes to show that there are a lot more variables involved in an individual's success than society cares to admit, he wants people to "move away from the notion that everything that happens to a person is up to that person". Gladwell noted that, although there was little that could be done with regard to a person's fate, society can still impact the "man"-affected part of an individual's success; when asked what message he wanted people to take away after reading Outliers, Gladwell responded, "What we do as a community, as a society, for each other, matters as much as what we do for ourselves. It sounds a little trite, but there's a powerful amount of truth in that, I think."
Outliers has two parts: "Part One: Opportunity" contains five chapters, "Part Two: Legacy" has four. The book contains an Introduction and Epilogue. Focusing on outliers, defined by Gladwell as people who do not fit into our normal understanding of achievement, Outliers deals with exceptional people those who are smart and successful, those who operate at the extreme outer edge of what is statistically plausible; the book offers examples that include the musical ensemble the Beatles, Microsoft's co-founder Bill Gates, the theoretical physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer. In the introduction, Gladwell lays out the purpose of Outliers: "It's not enough to ask what successful people are like, it is only by asking where they are from that we can unravel the logic behind who succeeds and who doesn't." Throughout the publication, he discusses how family and friendship each play a role in an individual's success, he asks whether successful people deserve the praise that we give them. The book begins with the observat
François-Marie Arouet, known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer and philosopher famous for his wit, his criticism of Christianity the Roman Catholic Church, his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech, separation of church and state. Voltaire was a versatile and prolific writer, producing works in every literary form, including plays, novels and historical and scientific works, he wrote more than 2,000 books and pamphlets. He was an outspoken advocate of civil liberties, despite the risk this placed him in under the strict censorship laws of the time; as a satirical polemicist, he made use of his works to criticize intolerance, religious dogma and the French institutions of his day. François-Marie Arouet was born in Paris, the youngest of the five children of François Arouet, a lawyer, a minor treasury official, his wife, Marie Marguerite Daumard, whose family was on the lowest rank of the French nobility; some speculation surrounds Voltaire's date of birth, because he claimed he was born on 20 February 1694 as the illegitimate son of a nobleman, Guérin de Rochebrune or Roquebrune.
Two of his older brothers—Armand-François and Robert—died in infancy, his surviving brother Armand and sister Marguerite-Catherine were nine and seven years older, respectively. Nicknamed "Zozo" by his family, Voltaire was baptized on 22 November 1694, with François de Castagnère, abbé de Châteauneuf, Marie Daumard, the wife of his mother's cousin, standing as godparents, he was educated by the Jesuits at the Collège Louis-le-Grand, where he was taught Latin and rhetoric. By the time he left school, Voltaire had decided he wanted to be a writer, against the wishes of his father, who wanted him to become a lawyer. Voltaire, pretending to work in Paris as an assistant to a notary, spent much of his time writing poetry; when his father found out, he sent Voltaire to study law, this time in Normandy. But the young man continued producing essays and historical studies. Voltaire's wit made him popular among some of the aristocratic families with. In 1713, his father obtained a job for him as a secretary to the new French ambassador in the Netherlands, the marquis de Châteauneuf, the brother of Voltaire's godfather.
At The Hague, Voltaire fell in love with a French Protestant refugee named Catherine Olympe Dunoyer. Their affair, considered scandalous, was discovered by de Châteauneuf and Voltaire was forced to return to France by the end of the year. Most of Voltaire's early life revolved around Paris. From early on, Voltaire had trouble with the authorities for critiques of the government; as a result, he was twice sentenced once to temporary exile to England. One satirical verse, in which Voltaire accused the Régent of incest with his daughter, resulted in an eleven-month imprisonment in the Bastille; the Comédie-Française had agreed in January 1717 to stage his debut play, Œdipe, it opened in mid-November 1718, seven months after his release. Its immediate critical and financial success established his reputation. Both the Régent and King George I of Great Britain presented Voltaire with medals as a mark of their appreciation, he argued for religious tolerance and freedom of thought. He campaigned to eradicate priestly and aristo-monarchical authority, supported a constitutional monarchy that protects people's rights.
The author adopted the name Voltaire following his incarceration at the Bastille. Its origin is unclear, it is an anagram of AROVET LI, the Latinized spelling of his surname and the initial letters of le jeune. According to a family tradition among the descendants of his sister, he was known as le petit volontaire as a child, he resurrected a variant of the name in his adult life; the name reverses the syllables of Airvault, his family's home town in the Poitou region. Richard Holmes supports the anagrammatic derivation of the name, but adds that a writer such as Voltaire would have intended it to convey connotations of speed and daring; these come from associations with words such as voltige, volte-face, volatile. "Arouet" was not a noble name fit for his growing reputation given that name's resonance with à rouer and roué. In a letter to Jean-Baptiste Rousseau in March 1719, Voltaire concludes by asking that, if Rousseau wishes to send him a return letter, he do so by addressing it to Monsieur de Voltaire.
A postscript explains: "J'ai été si malheureux sous le nom d'Arouet que j'en ai pris un autre surtout pour n'être plus confondu avec le poète Roi", This refers to Adenes le Roi, the'oi' diphthong was pronounced like modern'ouai', so the similarity to'Arouet' is clear, thus, it could well have been part of his rationale. Voltaire is known to have used at least 178 separate pen names during his lifetime. Voltaire's next play, Artémire, set in ancient Macedonia, opened on 15 February 1720, it was a flop and only fragments of the text survive. He instead turned to an epic poem about Henry IV of France that he had begun in early 1717. Denied a licence to publish, in August 1722 Voltaire headed north to find a publisher outside France. On the journey, he was acco
Peter Andreas Thiel is an American entrepreneur, venture capitalist, political activist, author. He is a co-founder of Palantir Technologies and Founders Fund, he was ranked No. 4 on the Forbes Midas List of 2014, with a net worth of $2.2 billion, No. 328 on the Forbes 400 in 2018, with a net worth of $2.5 billion. Thiel was born in Frankfurt, he moved with his family to the United States as an infant, spent a portion of his upbringing in Southern Africa before returning to the United States. He studied philosophy at Stanford University, graduating with a B. A. in 1989. He went on to the Stanford Law School, received his J. D. in 1992. After graduation, he worked as a judicial clerk for Judge James Larry Edmondson, a securities lawyer for Sullivan & Cromwell, a speechwriter for former-U. S. Secretary of Education William Bennett and as a derivatives trader at Credit Suisse prior to founding Thiel Capital in 1996, he co-founded PayPal in 1999, serving as chief executive officer until its sale to eBay in 2002 for $1.5 billion.
After the sale of PayPal, he founded a global macro hedge fund. He launched Palantir Technologies, a big data analysis company, in 2004 and continues to serve as its chairman as of 2018, his Founders Fund, a venture capital firm, was launched in 2005 along with PayPal partners Ken Howery and Luke Nosek. Earlier, Thiel became Facebook's first outside investor when he acquired a 10.2% stake for $500,000 in August 2004. He sold the majority of his shares in Facebook for over $1 billion in 2012, but remains on the board of directors, he co-founded Valar Ventures in 2010 and operates as its chairman, co-founded Mithril Capital, of which he is investment committee chair, in 2012, served as a partner at Y Combinator from 2015 to 2017. Through the Thiel Foundation, Thiel governs the grant-making bodies Breakout Labs and Thiel Fellowship, funds nonprofit research into artificial intelligence, life extension and seasteading. A co-founder of The Stanford Review, he is a conservative libertarian, critical of high government spending, high debt levels, foreign wars.
He has donated to numerous political figures. In 2016, Thiel revealed that he had funded Hulk Hogan in the Bollea v. Gawker lawsuit, which led to the bankruptcy of Gawker. Peter Andreas Thiel was born in Frankfurt am Main, West Germany, on October 11, 1967, to Susanne and Klaus Friedrich Thiel; the family migrated to the United States when Peter was age one and lived in Cleveland, where Klaus worked as a chemical engineer. Klaus worked for various mining companies, which caused an itinerant upbringing for Thiel and his younger brother, Patrick Michael Thiel. Thiel's mother naturalized as a U. S. citizen but his father did not. Before settling in Foster City, California in 1977, the Thiels had lived in South Africa and South West Africa, Peter had to change elementary schools seven times. One of Peter's elementary schools, a strict establishment in Swakopmund, required students to wear uniforms and utilized corporal punishment, such as striking students' hands with a ruler for mistakes; this experience instilled a distaste for uniformity and regimentation reflected in Thiel's support for individualism and libertarianism as an adult.
Thiel played Dungeons & Dragons, was an avid reader of science fiction, with Isaac Asimov and Robert A. Heinlein among his favorite authors, a fan of J. R. R. Tolkien's works, stating as an adult that he had read The Lord of the Rings over ten times during his childhood, he has since founded 6 firms. Thiel excelled in mathematics, scored first in a California-wide mathematics competition while attending middle school in San Mateo. At the San Mateo High School, he read Ayn Rand, admired the optimism and anti-communism of then-President Ronald Reagan, was valedictorian of his graduating class in 1985. After graduating from San Mateo High School, Thiel went on to study philosophy at Stanford University. During Thiel's time at Stanford, debates on identity politics and political correctness were ongoing at the university. A "Western Culture" program, criticized by The Rainbow Agenda because of a perceived over-representation of the achievements made by European men, was replaced with a "Culture and Values" course, which instead pushed diversity and multiculturalism.
This replacement provoked controversy on the campus, led to Thiel founding The Stanford Review, a paper for conservative and libertarian viewpoints, in 1987, through the funding of Irving Kristol. Thiel served as The Stanford Review's first editor-in-chief and remained in that post until he received his Bachelor of Arts in 1989, at which point his friend David O. Sacks became the new editor-in-chief. Thiel continued on to the Stanford Law School and acquired his Doctor of Jurisprudence in 1992. While at Stanford, Thiel met René Girard. Mimetic theory posits that human behavior is based upon mimesis, that imitation can engender pointless conflict. Girard notes the productive potential of competition: "It is because of this unprecedented capacity to promote competition within limits that always remain if not individually, acceptable that we have all the amazing achievements of the modern world," but states that competition stifles progress once it becomes an end in itself: "rivals are more apt to forget about whatever objects are the cause of the rivalry and instead become more fascinated with one another."
Thiel applied this theory to his personal life and business ventures, stating: "The big problem with competition is that it focuses us on the people around us, and
Nicholas G. Carr
Nicholas G. Carr is an American writer who has published books and articles on technology and culture, his book The Shallows: What the Internet Is Doing to Our Brains was a finalist for the 2011 Pulitzer Prize in General Nonfiction. Nicholas Carr came to prominence with the 2003 Harvard Business Review article "IT Doesn't Matter" and the 2004 book Does IT Matter? Information Technology and the Corrosion of Competitive Advantage. In these discussed works, he argued that the strategic importance of information technology in business has diminished as IT has become more commonplace and cheaper, his ideas roiled the information technology industry, spurring heated outcries from executives of Microsoft, Hewlett-Packard and other leading technology companies, although the ideas got mixed responses from other commentators. In 2005, Carr published the controversial article "The End of Corporate Computing" in the MIT Sloan Management Review, in which he argued that in the future companies will purchase information technology as a utility service from outside suppliers.
Carr's second book, The Big Switch: Rewiring the World, From Edison to Google, was published in January 2008 by W. W. Norton, it examines the economic and social consequences of the rise of Internet-based "cloud computing" comparing the consequences to those that occurred with the rise of electric utilities in the early 20th century. In the summer of 2008, The Atlantic published Carr's article "Is Google Making Us Stupid?" as the cover story of its annual Ideas issue. Critical of the Internet's effect on cognition, the article has been read and debated in both the media and the blogosphere. Carr's main argument is that the Internet may have detrimental effects on cognition that diminish the capacity for concentration and contemplation. Carr's 2010 book, The Shallows, develops this argument further. Discussing various examples ranging from Nietzsche's typewriter to London cab drivers' GPS navigators, Carr shows how newly introduced technologies change the way people think and live; the book focuses on the detrimental influence of the Internet—although it does recognize its beneficial aspects—by investigating how hypertext has contributed to the fragmentation of knowledge.
When we search the Web, for instance, the context of information can be ignored. "We don't see the trees," Carr writes. "We see twigs and leaves." One of Carr's major points is that the change caused by the Internet involves the physical restructuring of the human brain, which he explains using the neuroscientific notion of "neuroplasticity." In addition to being a Pulitzer Prize nominee, the book appeared on the New York Times nonfiction bestseller list and has been translated into 17 languages in addition to English. In January 2008 Carr became a member of the Editorial Board of Advisors of Encyclopædia Britannica. Earlier in his career, Carr served as executive editor of the Harvard Business Review, he was educated at Harvard University. In 2014, Carr published his fourth book, "The Glass Cage: Automation and Us", which presents a critical examination of the role of computer automation in contemporary life. Spanning historical, technical and philosophical viewpoints, the book has been acclaimed by reviewers, with the New York Times Sunday Book Review terming it "essential."In 2016, Carr published "Utopia Is Creepy: and Other Provocations", a collection of blog posts and reviews from 2005 to 2016.
The book provides a critique of modern American techno-utopianism, which TIME magazine said "punches a hole in Silicon Valley cultural hubris." Through his blog "Rough Type," Carr has been a critic of technological utopianism and in particular the populist claims made for online social production. In his 2005 blog essay titled "The Amorality of Web 2.0," he criticized the quality of volunteer Web 2.0 information projects such as Wikipedia and the blogosphere and argued that they may have a net negative effect on society by displacing more expensive professional alternatives. In a response to Carr's criticism, Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales admitted that the Wikipedia articles quoted by Carr "are, quite frankly, a horrific embarrassment" and solicited recommendations for improving Wikipedia's quality. In May 2007, Carr argued that the dominance of Wikipedia pages in many search results represents a dangerous consolidation of Internet traffic and authority, which may be leading to the creation of what he called "information plantations".
Carr coined the term "wikicrats" in August 2007, as part of a more general critique of what he sees as Wikipedia's tendency to develop more elaborate and complex systems of rules and bureaucratic rank or caste over time. He holds a B. A. from Dartmouth College and an M. A. in English and American literature and language, from Harvard University Digital Enterprise: How to Reshape Your Business for a Connected World ISBN 1-57851-558-0 Does IT Matter? ISBN 1-59139-444-9 The Big Switch: Rewiring the World, from Edison to Google ISBN 978-0-393-06228-1 The Shallows: What the Internet Is Doing to Our Brains ISBN 978-0-393-07222-8 The Glass Cage: Automation and Us ISBN 978-0-393-24076-4 Utopia Is Creepy: and Other Provocations ISBN 978-0-393-25454-9 The Shallows Is Google Making Us Stupid? Carr–Benkler wager Nicholas Carr's homepage Nicholas Carr's weblog Appearances on C-SPAN Carr, Nicholas. "Is Google Making Us Stupid?". The Atlantic. 301. Retrieved 2008-07-09; the Web Shatters Focus, Rewires Brains by Nicholas Carr IT Doesn't matter published in Harvard Business Review "How Long Does IT Matter?"
Malcolm Timothy Gladwell is a Canadian journalist and public speaker. He has been a staff writer for The New Yorker since 1996, he has written five books, The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference, Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking, Outliers: The Story of Success, What the Dog Saw: And Other Adventures, a collection of his journalism, David and Goliath: Underdogs and the Art of Battling Giants. All five books were on The New York Times Best Seller list, he is the host of the podcast Revisionist History and co-founder of the podcast company Pushkin Industries. Gladwell's books and articles deal with the unexpected implications of research in the social sciences and make frequent and extended use of academic work in the areas of sociology and social psychology. Gladwell was appointed to the Order of Canada on June 30, 2011. Gladwell was born in Fareham, England, his mother is a Jamaican psychotherapist. His father, Graham Gladwell, was a mathematics professor from England.
They resided in rural Canada throughout Malcolm's early life. Research done by historian Henry Louis Gates Jr. revealed that one of his maternal grandmothers was a Jamaican "free woman of color", a slaveowner. Gladwell has said; when he was six his family moved from Southampton to Elmira, Canada. Gladwell's father noted Malcolm was an unusually ambitious boy; when Malcolm was 11, his father, a professor of Mathematics and Engineering at the University of Waterloo, allowed him to wander around the offices at his university, which stoked the boy's interest in reading and libraries. During his high school years, Gladwell was a middle-distance runner and won the 14-year-old boys' 1500 metres title at the 1978 Ontario High School Championships in Kingston, with a time of 4:05.20. In the spring of 1982, Gladwell interned with the National Journalism Center in Washington, D. C, he graduated with a Bachelor's degree from the University of Toronto, Trinity College, Toronto, in 1984. Gladwell's grades were not high enough for graduate school, so he decided to pursue advertising as a career.
After being rejected by every advertising agency he applied to, he accepted a journalism position at The American Spectator and moved to Indiana. He subsequently wrote for Insight on the News, a conservative magazine owned by Sun Myung Moon's Unification Church. In 1987, Gladwell began covering business and science for The Washington Post, where he worked until 1996. In a personal elucidation of the 10,000-hour rule he popularized in Outliers, Gladwell notes, "I was a basket case at the beginning, I felt like an expert at the end, it took 10 years—exactly that long."When Gladwell started at The New Yorker in 1996 he wanted to "mine current academic research for insights, direction, or inspiration". His first assignment was to write a piece about fashion. Instead of writing about high-class fashion, Gladwell opted to write a piece about a man who manufactured T-shirts, saying: "it was much more interesting to write a piece about someone who made a T-shirt for $8 than it was to write about a dress that costs $100,000.
I mean, you or I could make a dress for $100,000, but to make a T-shirt for $8 – that's much tougher."Gladwell gained popularity with two New Yorker articles, both written in 1996: "The Tipping Point" and "The Coolhunt" These two pieces would become the basis for Gladwell's first book, The Tipping Point, for which he received a $1 million advance. He continues to write for The New Yorker. Gladwell served as a contributing editor for Grantland, a sports journalism website founded by former ESPN columnist Bill Simmons. In a July 2002 article in The New Yorker, Gladwell introduced the concept of "The Talent Myth" that companies and organizations incorrectly follow; this work examines different managerial and administrative techniques that companies, both winners and losers, have used. He states that the misconception seems to be that management and executives are all too ready to classify employees without ample performance records and thus make hasty decisions. Many companies believe in disproportionately rewarding "stars" over other employees with bonuses and promotions.
However with the quick rise of inexperienced workers with little in-depth performance review, promotions are incorrectly made, putting employees into positions they should not have and keeping other more experienced employees from rising. He points out that under this system, narcissistic personality types are more to climb the ladder, since they are more to take more credit for achievements and take less blame for failure, he states both that narcissists make the worst managers and that the system of rewarding "stars" worsens a company's position. Gladwell states that the most successful long-term companies are those who reward experience above all else and require greater time for promotions. Gladwell has written five books; when asked for the process behind his writing, he said: "I have two parallel things I'm interested in. One is, I'm interested in collecting interesting stories, the other is I'm interested in collecting interesting research. What I'm looking for is cases where they overlap".
The initial inspiration for his first book, The Tipping Point, published in 2000, came from the sudden drop of crime in New York City. He wanted the book to have a broader appeal than just crime and sought to explain similar phenomena through the lens of epidemiology. While Gladwell was a
Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts, expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual ideas, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power. In their most general form these activities include the production of works of art, the criticism of art, the study of the history of art, the aesthetic dissemination of art; the three classical branches of art are painting and architecture. Music, film and other performing arts, as well as literature and other media such as interactive media, are included in a broader definition of the arts; until the 17th century, art referred to any skill or mastery and was not differentiated from crafts or sciences. In modern usage after the 17th century, where aesthetic considerations are paramount, the fine arts are separated and distinguished from acquired skills in general, such as the decorative or applied arts. Though the definition of what constitutes art is disputed and has changed over time, general descriptions mention an idea of imaginative or technical skill stemming from human agency and creation.
The nature of art and related concepts, such as creativity and interpretation, are explored in a branch of philosophy known as aesthetics. In the perspective of the history of art, artistic works have existed for as long as humankind: from early pre-historic art to contemporary art. One early sense of the definition of art is related to the older Latin meaning, which translates to "skill" or "craft," as associated with words such as "artisan." English words derived from this meaning include artifact, artifice, medical arts, military arts. However, there are many other colloquial uses of all with some relation to its etymology. Over time, philosophers like Plato, Aristotle and Kant, among others, questioned the meaning of art. Several dialogues in Plato tackle questions about art: Socrates says that poetry is inspired by the muses, is not rational, he speaks approvingly of this, other forms of divine madness in the Phaedrus, yet in the Republic wants to outlaw Homer's great poetic art, laughter as well.
In Ion, Socrates gives no hint of the disapproval of Homer. The dialogue Ion suggests that Homer's Iliad functioned in the ancient Greek world as the Bible does today in the modern Christian world: as divinely inspired literary art that can provide moral guidance, if only it can be properly interpreted. With regards to the literary art and the musical arts, Aristotle considered epic poetry, comedy, dithyrambic poetry and music to be mimetic or imitative art, each varying in imitation by medium and manner. For example, music imitates with the media of rhythm and harmony, whereas dance imitates with rhythm alone, poetry with language; the forms differ in their object of imitation. Comedy, for instance, is a dramatic imitation of men worse than average. Lastly, the forms differ in their manner of imitation—through narrative or character, through change or no change, through drama or no drama. Aristotle believed that imitation is natural to mankind and constitutes one of mankind's advantages over animals.
The more recent and specific sense of the word art as an abbreviation for creative art or fine art emerged in the early 17th century. Fine art refers to a skill used to express the artist's creativity, or to engage the audience's aesthetic sensibilities, or to draw the audience towards consideration of more refined or finer work of art. Within this latter sense, the word art may refer to several things: a study of a creative skill, a process of using the creative skill, a product of the creative skill, or the audience's experience with the creative skill; the creative arts are a collection of disciplines which produce artworks that are compelled by a personal drive and convey a message, mood, or symbolism for the perceiver to interpret. Art is something that stimulates an individual's thoughts, beliefs, or ideas through the senses. Works of art can be explicitly made for this purpose or interpreted on the basis of images or objects. For some scholars, such as Kant, the sciences and the arts could be distinguished by taking science as representing the domain of knowledge and the arts as representing the domain of the freedom of artistic expression.
If the skill is being used in a common or practical way, people will consider it a craft instead of art. If the skill is being used in a commercial or industrial way, it may be considered commercial art instead of fine art. On the other hand and design are sometimes considered applied art; some art followers have argued that the difference between fine art and applied art has more to do with value judgments made about the art than any clear definitional difference. However fine art has goals beyond pure creativity and self-expression; the purpose of works of art may be to communicate ideas, such as in politically, spiritually, or philosophically motivated art. The purpose may be nonexistent; the nature of art has been described by philosopher Richard Wollheim as "one of the most elusive of the traditional problems of human culture". Art has been defined as a vehicle for the expression or communication of emotions and ideas, a means for exp