France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Oberharmersbach is a town in the district of Ortenau in Baden-Württemberg in Germany
Achern is a city in Western Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is located 18 km southwest of Baden-Baden and 19 km northeast of Offenburg. Achern is the fourth largest city in the county of Ortenau, after Offenburg, Lahr / Black Forest and Kehl; as subsequent to the district reform in the 1970s the population passed the 20,000 mark, Achern requested to be awarded the status of Große Kreisstadt. The status was granted by the State government effective January 1, 1974. Achern collaborates with the communities of Lauf and Sasbachwalden in administrative matters. Besides Achern itself, the municipality includes the boroughs of Fautenbach, Großweier, Mösbach, Oberachern, Önsbach and Wagshurst. Achern is located in the northern Black Forest near the Hornisgrinde, at the entrance to the Acher Valley and not far from the eastern edge of the Upper Rhine Valley. Coming from the Black Forest, the Acher enters the city from the southeast and passes Oberachern on its way to the center of town with the historic center, the Altstadt, situated on the right bank.
The Acher continues on in northwesterly direction between Fautenbach and Großweier and south of Gamshurst, before leaving the city to head for the Rhine. The river gave the city its name; the city contains several artificially created lakes, some of which still produce sand. The largest lake is called Achernsee, near the Achern Autobahn ramp, in the West of the city. Achern is surrounded by the following communities: Lichtenau and Ottersweier, as well as Sasbach, Sasbachwalden, Kappelrodeck and Rheinau, all part of Ortenau County. Within the municipal borders of Achern, the city is made up of the city center, the boroughs that were redistricted into Achern during the District Reform in the 1970s, Fautenbach, Großweier, Mösbach, Oberachern, Önsbach and Wagshurst. Except Oberachern, the boroughs have community status under state administrative law, which entitles them to a borough council, elected by registered voters in municipal elections; the borough councils are headed up by the Borough President.
In some cases, named neighborhoods or developments are part of the boroughs, though with few residents and not defined limits. Examples of such neighborhoods are Litzloch and Ziegelhütte in Gamshurst, Malghurst in Sasbachried, Lindenhof in Fautenbach and Schollenhof in Wagshurst. Achern was first mentioned in 1095 as Acchara and developed into Oberachern and Niederachern. Niederachern was referred to only as Achern. During the High Middle Ages the town became part of the German Reich, courtesy of the Staufenberger and Zähringer families, was included in the Landsvogtei of Ortenau. In 1334, together with Ortenau Achern became part of Baden, in 1351 it went to Strasbourg, in 1405 to the Electorate of the Palatinate, in 1504 to Fürstenberg-Fürstenberg. In 1551 the town became part of the Reichlandsvogtei Ortenau. In 1495 and again in 1637 Achern burned to the ground and was uninhabited for several years thereafter. In 1805 Achern again became part of what was the Grand Duchy of Baden and was made a district court seat.
In 1808 it was awarded City status. In 1924 the district of Achern was dissolved and became part of the district of Bühl, awarded County status in 1939. After World War II, Bühl County was part of the State of Baden and from 1952 part of the Regierungsbezirk of South Baden. Pursuant to the district reform Bühl County was dissolved, effective January 1, 1973, its southern part — and with it the city of Achern — was made part of the newly created Ortenaukreis. The boroughs all came under the rule of Baden in 1805 as part of the district of Achern. Exceptions are Mösbach, which first belonged to the district of Oberkirch and was joined into the Achern district in 1859, Wagshurst, which first belonged to the district of Appenweier and became part of the Achern district in 1819; when the district of Achern was dissolved in 1924, all of its communities except Wagshurst were joined with the district, in 1939, County of Bühl. Wagshurst became part of the County of Kehl. Fautenbach was first mentioned circa 1100 as Vultenbach.
Via the cloister in Hirsau it gained Großweier und Schauenburg. Gamshurst was an expansion of Sasbach. Großweier was first mentioned around 1115 as Crosvvilare, it remained Croschweier well into the 19th century. Like Gamshurst it was an expansion of Sasbach. Großweier had been given to a family as a fief by the Duke of Baden; that vassal family took its name from the castle in town. When the last of the vassal family died, Großweier became the property of the Lords of Seldeneck whose kin sold it back to Baden in 1583; the moated castle was the seat of the district court until it was moved to Bühl after the castle's destruction in 1689 by French troops during the Nine Years' War. Mösbach was first mentioned in 1386 as Mestbach, it belonged to Strasbourg. Oberachern was first mentioned in 1347 as Obernacher. Before that date no distinction was made between Niederachern, it belonged to the Staufenberg family as early as 1100 though parts of it belonged to the cloister in Hirsau. Before 1130 Oberachern belonged to the cloister St. Georgen.
In the 12th century a noble and free family who also supplied the judges for Achern, named itself after the city. This family lived in a moated castle the remains of which were used in the construction of the Stephanus church tower in Oberachern. While Oberac
Renchen is a small city in Baden-Württemberg, part of the district of Ortenau. Renchen is located in the foothills of the northern Black Forest at the entrance to the Rench valley at the edge of the Upper Rhine River Plains; the city shares borders with the following cities and towns, listed clock-wise from the north: Achern, Oberkirch and Rheinau. In addition to Renchen the city includes the boroughs of Ulm zu Renchen. Renchen was first in official documents in 1115. In 1326 it received a city charter but the city lost it again as well as all significance when it was destroyed during the Thirty Years' War. In 1838 the Grand Duke of Baden again granted a city charter to Renchen but it again lost the right to call itself a city as a result of the German district reform in 1935. Renchen received a city charter for the third time in 1950 in recognition of its historic importance. Renchen's borough of Ulm zu Renchen is known for its Ulmer Bier, a specialty beer brewed only at full moon; as of February 2006, Renchen's city council has the following composition: Elections in May 2014: FWV: 8 seats CDU: 6 seats SPD: 4 seats 1945: Albert Dietrich -1969: Franz Brandstetter 1969-1985: Erich Huber 1985–2000: Klaus Brodbeck since 2000: Bernd Siefermann The Grimmelshausen Prize is a literary prize of €10,000 awarded in odd-number years on September 15, in turn, by Renchen or the city of Gelnhausen.
In Renchen the Offenburger Tageblatt publishes a daily local edition as "Acher-Rench-Zeitung" and the Stattzeitung für Südbaden is an alternative magazine offered in the area. Amand Goegg, Baden freedom fighter, honorary citizen of the city Geneva, married the women's rightswoman Marie Goegg-Pouchoulin Martin Knosp, World Champion 1981, Norbert Dobeleit, medalists at the Seoul Summer Olympic Games 1988 Renchen likes to call itself the city of Grimmelshausen, as the poet Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen, author of Der Abenteuerliche Simplicissimus Teutsch, served from 1667 until his death in 1676 as the Bishop of Strasbourg's executor in Renchen. Www.stadt-renchen.de Stattzeitung für Südbaden, erscheint in Renchen
Gutach is a municipality in the district of Ortenau in Baden-Württemberg in Germany. The borough is home to the Black Forest Open-Air Museum. Anton Joos, communist functionary Wilhelm Hasemann, painter.
Durbach is a municipality in the district of Ortenau in Baden-Württemberg in Germany. It is situated on the verge of the northern Black Forest Mountains six kilometers north east of the town of Offenburg. Main branches of commerce are tourism, it is known for its Riesling wine. The Riesling grape grown in the Ortenau district is known as Klingelberger for the name of a vineyard in Durbach. Durbach was mentioned first in 1287 as Turbach. In 1973 the community included Ebersweier. Attractions include the town itself and surrounding vineyards which span the slopes of the mountains. Schloss Staufenberg is a castle, owned by the Markgraf von Baden with views over the Rhine valley and Strassbourg to the Vosges mountains in Alsace. Contemporary art museum HurrleThe «Skulpturenpark» is an exhibition of contemporary sculptures in the park of the MediClin Staufenburg Klinik. Partnership towns are: Austria Bürserberg, Austria France Châteaubernard, Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France. Schwarzwald Durbach Skulpturen Park Staufenburgklinik on YouTube Commons Durbach Commons Skulpturenpark Durbach Commons Burg Staufenberg Official website Durbach:History and images Tourist Information
Baden-Baden is a spa town in the state of Baden-Württemberg, south-western Germany, at the north-western border of the Black Forest mountain range on the small river Oos, ten kilometres east of the Rhine, the border with France, forty kilometres north-east of Strasbourg, France. The springs at Baden-Baden were known to the Romans as Aquae and Aurelia Aquensis after M. Aurelius Severus Alexander Augustus. In modern German, Baden is a noun meaning "bathing" but Baden, the original name of the town, derives from an earlier plural form of Bad; as with the English placename "Bath", various other Badens are at hot springs throughout Central Europe. The current doubled name arose to distinguish it from the others Baden near Vienna in Austria and Baden near Zürich in Switzerland, it is a reference to the Margraviate of the territory named after the town. Baden-Baden thus means the town of Baden in the territory of Baden. Baden-Baden got its formal name in 1931. Baden-Baden lies in a valley of the Northern Black Forest in southwestern Germany.
The western districts lie within the Upper Rhine Plain. The highest mountain of Baden-Baden is the Badener Höhe, part of the Black Forest National Park; the old town lies on the side of a hill on the right bank of the Oos. Since the 19th century, the principal resorts have been located on the other side of the river. There are 29 natural springs in the area, varying in temperature from 46 to 67 °C; the water is rich in salt and flows from artesian wells 1,800 m under Florentine Hill at a rate of 341 litre per minute and is conveyed through pipes to the town's baths. Roman settlement at Baden-Baden has been dated as far back as the emperor Hadrian, but on dubious authority; the known ruins of the Roman bath were rediscovered just below the New Castle in 1847 and date to the reign of Caracalla, who visited the area to relieve his arthritic aches. The facilities were used by the Roman garrison in Strasbourg; the town fell into ruin but its church was first constructed in the 7th century. By 1112, it was the seat of the Margraviate of Baden.
The Lichtenthal Convent was founded in 1254. The margraves used Hohenbaden Castle, whose ruins still occupy the summit above the town, but they completed and moved to the New Castle in 1479. Baden suffered during the Thirty Years' War at the hands of the French, who plundered it in 1643, they returned to occupy the city in 1688 at the onset of the Nine Years' War, burning it to the ground the next year. The margravine Sibylla rebuilt the New Castle in 1697, but the margrave Louis William removed his seat to Rastatt in 1706; the Stiftskirche houses the tombs of several of the margraves. The town began its recovery in the late 18th century, serving as a refuge for émigrés from the French Revolution; the town was frequented during the Second Congress of Rastatt in 1797–99 and became popular after the visit of the Prussian queen in the early 19th century. She came for medicinal reasons, as the waters were recommended for gout, paralysis, skin disorders, stones; the Ducal government subsequently subsidized the resort's development.
The town became a meeting place for celebrities, who visited the hot springs and the town's other amenities: luxury hotels, the Spielbank Casino, horse races, the gardens of the Lichtentaler Allee. Guests included Queen Victoria, Wilhelm I, Berlioz; the pumproom was completed in 1842. The Grand Duchy's railway's mainline reached Baden in 1845. Reaching its zenith under Napoleon III in the 1850s and'60s, Baden became "Europe's summer capital". With a population of around 10 000, the town's size could quadruple during the tourist season, with the French, British and Americans all well represented; the theater was completed in 1861 and a Greek church with a gilt dome was erected on the Michaelsberg in 1863 to serve as the tomb of the teenage son of the prince of Moldavia Mihail Sturdza after he died during a family vacation. A Russian Orthodox church was subsequently erected; the casino was closed for a time in the 1870s. Just before the First World War, the town was receiving 70 000 visitors each year.
The town escaped destruction through both world wars. After World War II, Baden-Baden became the headquarters of the French occupation forces in Germany as well as of the Südwestfunk, one of Germany's large public broadcasting stations, now part of Südwestrundfunk. From 23–28 September 1981, the XIth Olympic Congress took place in Baden-Baden's Kurhaus; the Festspielhaus Baden-Baden, Germany's largest opera and concert house, opened in 1998. CFB Baden-Soellingen, a military airfield built in the 1950s in the Upper Rhine Plain, 10 km west of downtown Baden-Baden, was converted into a civil airport in the 1990s. Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden Airport, or Baden Airpark is now the second-largest airport in Baden-Württemberg by number of passengers. /* History */ Rudolf Höss was born here November 25, 1901. He was the Commandant of Auschwitz extermination camp in Poland relieved of command for impregnating a Jewish prisoner, Eleanor Hodys. Hodys was murdered by the Gestapo. Höss was executed in Poland for war crimes April 16, 1947.
In 1981 Baden-Baden hosted the Olympic Congress, which has made the town awarded the designation Olympic town. 1907–1929: Reinhard Fieser 1929–1934: Hermann Elfner 1934–1945: Hans Schwedhelm (when he was not in office because of military service, ma