The Rangeet or Rangit is a tributary of the Teesta river, the largest river in the Indian state of Sikkim. The Rangeet river originates in the Himalayan mountains in West Sikkim district; the river forms the boundary between Sikkim and Darjeeling district. A perennial river, it is fed by the melting snow of the Himalayas in early summer and the monsoon rains in June–September, it is popular among rafting enthusiasts owing to its turbulent waters. The river flows past the towns of Jorethang and Legship. During its final few kilometres, it joins the Teesta River at a confluence known as Tribeni, a popular picnic spot; the Rangeet river has an NHPC hydropower plant with a capacity of 60 megawatts capacity in Sikkim
Roro Chu is a river in the Indian state of Sikkim that flows near Gangtok. It flows into the river Ranikhola at Ranipul; the combined river, known as Ranikhola, flows into the Teesta at Singtam
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia, separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau. The range has many including the highest, Mount Everest; the Himalayas include over fifty mountains exceeding 7,200 m in elevation, including ten of the fourteen 8,000-metre peaks. By contrast, the highest peak outside Asia is 6,961 m tall. Lifted by the subduction of the Indian tectonic plate under the Eurasian Plate, the Himalayan mountain range runs west-northwest to east-southeast in an arc 2,400 km long, its western anchor, Nanga Parbat, lies just south of the northernmost bend of Indus river. Its eastern anchor, Namcha Barwa, is just west of the great bend of the Yarlung Tsangpo River; the Himalayan range is bordered on the northwest by the Hindu Kush ranges. To the north, the chain is separated from the Tibetan Plateau by a 50–60 km wide tectonic valley called the Indus-Tsangpo Suture. Towards the south the arc of the Himalaya is ringed by the low Indo-Gangetic Plain.
The range varies in width from 350 km in the west to 150 km in the east. The Himalayas are distinct from the other great ranges of central Asia, although sometimes the term'Himalaya' is loosely used to include the Karakoram and some of the other ranges; the Himalayas are inhabited by 52.7 million people, are spread across five countries: Nepal, Bhutan and Pakistan. Some of the world's major rivers – the Indus, the Ganges and the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra – rise in the Himalayas, their combined drainage basin is home to 600 million people; the Himalayas have a profound effect on the climate of the region, helping to keep the monsoon rains on the Indian plain and limiting rainfall on the Tibetan plateau. The Himalayas have profoundly shaped the cultures of the Indian subcontinent; the name of the range derives from himá and ā-laya. They are now known as the "Himalaya Mountains" shortened to the "Himalayas", they were described in the singular as the Himalaya. This was previously transcribed Himmaleh, as in Emily Dickinson's poetry and Henry David Thoreau's essays.
The mountains are known as the Himālaya in Nepali and Hindi, the Himalaya or'The Land of Snow' in Tibetan, the Hamaleh Mountain Range in Urdu and the Ximalaya Mountain Range in Chinese. In the middle of the great curve of the Himalayan mountains lie the 8,000 m peaks of Dhaulagiri and Annapurna in Nepal, separated by the Kali Gandaki Gorge; the gorge splits the Himalayas into Western and Eastern sections both ecologically and orographically – the pass at the head of the Kali Gandaki, the Kora La is the lowest point on the ridgeline between Everest and K2. To the east of Annapurna are the 8,000 m peaks of Manaslu and across the border in Tibet, Shishapangma. To the south of these lies Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal and the largest city in the Himalayas. East of the Kathmandu Valley lies valley of the Bhote/Sun Kosi river which rises in Tibet and provides the main overland route between Nepal and China – the Araniko Highway/China National Highway 318. Further east is the Mahalangur Himal with four of the world's six highest mountains, including the highest: Cho Oyu, Everest and Makalu.
The Khumbu region, popular for trekking, is found here on the south-western approaches to Everest. The Arun river drains the northern slopes of these mountains, before turning south and flowing through the range to the east of Makalu. In the far east of Nepal, the Himalayas rise to the Kanchenjunga massif on the border with India, the third highest mountain in the world, the most easterly 8,000 m summit and the highest point of India; the eastern side of Kanchenjunga is in the Indian state of Sikkim. An independent Kingdom, it lies on the main route from India to Lhasa, which passes over the Nathu La pass into Tibet. East of Sikkim lies the ancient Buddhist Kingdom of Bhutan; the highest mountain in Bhutan is Gangkhar Puensum, a strong candidate for the highest unclimbed mountain in the world. The Himalayas here are becoming rugged with forested steep valleys; the Himalayas continue, turning northeast, through the Indian State of Arunachal Pradesh as well as Tibet, before reaching their easterly conclusion in the peak of Namche Barwa, situated in Tibet inside the great bend of the Yarlang Tsangpo river.
On the other side of the Tsangpo, to the east, are the Kangri Garpo mountains. The high mountains to the north of the Tsangpo including Gyala Peri, are sometimes included in the Himalayas. Going west from Dhaulagiri, Western Nepal is somewhat remote and lacks major high mountains, but is home to Rara Lake, the largest lake in Nepal; the Karnali River cuts through the center of the region. Further west, the border with India follows the Sarda River and provides a trade route into China, where on the Tibetan plateau lies the high peak of Gurla Mandhata. Just across Lake Manasarovar from this lies the sacred Mount Kailash, which stands close to the source of the four main rivers of Himalayas and is revered in Hinduism, Sufism and Bonpo. In the newly created Indian state of Uttarkhand, the Himalayas rise again as the Garhwal Himalayas with the high peaks of Nanda Devi and Kamet; the state is an important pilgrimage destination, with
Tsomgo Lake known as Tsongmo Lake or Changu Lake, is a glacial lake in the East Sikkim district of the Indian state of Sikkim, some 40 kilometres from the capital Gangtok. Located at an elevation of 3,753 m, the lake remains frozen during the winter season; the lake surface reflects different colours with change of seasons and is held in great reverence by the local Sikkimese people. Buddhist monks prognosticated after studying the changing colours of the lake. In Bhutia language the name Tsomgo is made of two words'Tso' meaning "lake" and'Mgo' meaning "head" which gives the literal meaning as "source of the lake"; the lake is surrounded by steep mountains. During summer the snow cover forms the source for the lake; the lake which remains frozen in winter season, sometimes extending up to May, receives an average annual precipitation of 1,183 millimetres with temperatures recorded in the range of 0–25 °C. The lake is about 40 kilometres away from Gangtok on the Gangtok-Nathula highway. Further, the road to Nathu La skirts the lake on the north side.
The Chinese border crossing is only some 5 kilometres east-northeast in a straight line, but some 18 kilometres by road. The lake has a surface area of 24.47 hectares. The maximum length of the lake has a maximum width of 427 metres; the maximum depth reported. The lake water quality is of moderate turbidity; the lake is the venue for the Guru Purnima festival, the Raksha Bandhan festival when the faith healers known as Jhakris of Sikkim assemble at the lake area to derive benefits from the healing qualities of the lake waters. Alpine forests cover the catchment of the lake. After the winter season ends in middle of May, the periphery of lake has scenic blooms of flower species of rhododendrons, primulas and yellow poppies, irises and so forth. Seen in the precincts of the lake are several species of birds including Brahminy ducks. Wildlife seen includes the red panda. Tourist attractions at the lake site include joy rides on decorated yaks and mules where kiosks offer variety of food and drinks.
There is a small Shiva temple on the bank of the lake. As the lake is located in a restricted area it is essential for all Indians visiting the area to obtain permits. In case of foreign nationals special permit is essential. Indian Postal Service released a commemorative stamp on the lake on 6 November 2006. Tilicho Lake Gurudongmar Lake Nathu La Tsomgo Lake travel guide - Permit Regulations Climate Temperature Kar, Devashish. Wetlands and Lakes of the World. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-81-322-1023-8
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Tso Lhamo Lake
Tso Lhamo lake is one of the highest lakes in the world, located at an altitude of 5,330 m. It is situated in North Sikkim, about 4 km southwest of the international border with China, it is fed by waters from Zemu glacier, Kangtse glacier or Pauhunri glacier, is the source of the Teesta river. Joseph Dalton Hooker referred to the lake as Cholamoo lake, its name is spelled Chho Lhamo and Cholamu lake. Tso Lhamo Lake is a glacial, fresh-water lake located northeast of the Kangchenjunga range in a high plateau area connected with the Tibetan Plateau; the Gurudongmar Lake lies some 5 km to the west. Tilicho lake Lake Tsongmo Khecheopalri Lake
The Lachung River is a tributary of the Teesta River located in the East Indian state of Sikkim. It is a chief tributary of the Teesta, an important river in Sikkim along with Rangeet River; the village of Lachung is perched on the craggy bank of the river 23 kilometres from Chungthang. It is at Chungthang where the Lachen rivers converge and give rise to the Teesta; the river is 2,500 metres above sea level. The river has its source in a lake, deep in the Himalayas near the Indo-China border; the ragged reaches of the mountain make the place inaccessible. From here, the river flows down in a south-westerly direction and joins with another unknown river at a place just above Lachung village; the tributary river is a slender one with little water in the winter. The river continues its course downwards through the Lachung valley till it meets River Lachen near Chungthang. After the confluence, it flows further down, it drops from altitude of 1,550 to 750 metres. At Singhik another tributary river joins it, called the Talung Chug.
After this point the river flows to Dikchu through a deep ravine and drops to a height of 550 metres. It cambers and reaches Singtam, at a height of 200 metres. After Rangpo, the Teesta meets the River Rangeet at Melli Bazaar; the Lachung is perennial and receives its water from the melting waters of snow in the mountains of the Himalayan Range. The water in the river is during the monsoon; the rainfall adds to the water content. During the months of winter, the water flow decreases significantly; the Lachung has one main tributary. The water of the river is crystal pure; the sparkling waters are the major source of living in the surrounding villages. There are a number of waterfalls and subsidiary streams across this river. At lachung town, there's banned package drinking total restrictions for used; the crystal clear lachung water is used for drinking