Buddha-nature or Buddha Principle refers to several related terms, most notably tathāgatagarbha and buddhadhātu. Tathāgatagarbha means "the womb" or "embryo" of the "thus-gone", or "containing a tathagata", while buddhadhātu means "Buddha-realm" or "Buddha-substrate". Tathāgatagarbha has a wide range of meanings in Indian and East Asian and Tibetan Buddhist literature. Debates on what the term means continues to be a major part of Mahayana Buddhist scholastics. For example, the Tibetan scholar Go Lotsawa outlined four meanings of the term Tathāgatagarbha as used by Indian Buddhist scholars generally: As an emptiness, a nonimplicative negation, the luminous nature of the mind, alaya-vijñana, all bodhisattvas and sentient beings; the term tathāgatagarbha may mean "embryonic tathāgata", "womb of the tathāgata", or "containing a tathagata". Various meanings may all be brought into mind; the Sanskrit term tathāgatagarbha is a compound of two terms, tathāgata and garbha: tathāgata means "the one thus gone", referring to the Buddha.
It is composed of "tathā" and "āgata", "thus come", or "tathā" and "gata", "thus gone". The term refers to a Buddha, who has "thus gone" from samsara into nirvana, "thus come" from nirvana into samsara to work for the salvation of all sentient beings. Garbha, "womb", "embryo", "center", "essence"; the Chinese translated the term tathāgatagarbha as (traditional Chinese: 如来藏. According to Brown, "storehouse" may indicate both "that which enfolds or contains something", or "that, itself enfolded, hidden or contained by another." The Tibetan translation is de bzhin gshegs pa'i snying po, which cannot be translated as "womb", but as "embryonic essence", "kernel" or "heart". The term "heart" was used by Mongolian translators; the term tathagatagarbha is translated and interpreted in various ways by western translators and scholars: According to Sally King, the term tathāgatagarbha may be understood in two ways:"embryonic tathāgata", the incipient Buddha, the cause of the Tathāgata, "womb of the tathāgata", the fruit of Tathāgata.
According to King, the Chinese rúláizàng was taken in its meaning as "womb" or "fruit". Wayman & Wayman point out that the Chinese takes garbha as "womb", but prefer to use the term "embryo". According to Brown, following Wayman & Wayman, "embryo" is the best fitting translation, since it preserves "the dynamic, self-transformative nature of the tathagatagarbha." According to Zimmerman, garbha may mean the interior or center of something, its essence or central part. As a tatpurusa it may refer to a person being "container" of the tathagata; as a bahuvrihi it may refer to a person as having an embryonic tathagata inside. In both cases, this embryonic tathagata still has to be developed. Zimmerman concludes that tathagatagarbha is a bahuvrihi, meaning "containing a tathagata", but notes the variety of meanings of garbha, such as "containing", "born from", "embryo", " womb", "calyx", "child", "member of a clan", "core", which may all be brought into mind when the term tathagatagarbha is being used.
The term "Buddha-nature" is related in meaning to the term tathāgatagarbha, but is not a translation of this term. It refers to; the corresponding Sanskrit term is buddhadhātu. It has two meanings, namely the nature of the Buddha, equivalent to the term dharmakāya, the cause of the Buddha; the link between the cause and the result is the nature, common to both, namely the dharmadhātu. Matsumoto Shirō points out that "Buddha-nature" translates the Sanskrit-term buddhadhātu, a "place to put something," a "foundation," a "locus." According to Shirō, it does not mean "original nature" or "essence," nor does it mean the "possibility of the attainment of Buddhahood," "the original nature of the Buddha," or "the essence of the Buddha."In the Vajrayana, the term for Buddha-nature is sugatagarbha. According to Wayman, the idea of the tathagatagarbha is grounded on sayings by the Buddha that there is something called the luminous mind, "which is only adventitiously covered over by defilements" The luminous mind is mentioned in a passage from the Anguttara Nikaya: "Luminous, monks, is the mind.
And it is defiled by incoming defilements." The Mahāsāṃghika school coupled this idea of the luminous mind with the idea of the mulavijnana, the substratum consciousness that serves as the basis consciousness. From the idea of the luminous mind emerged the idea that the awakened mind is the pure, undefiled mind. In the tathagatagarbha-sutras it is this pure consciousness, regarded to be the seed from which Buddhahood grows: When this intrinsically pure consciousness came to be regarded as an element capable of growing into Buddhahood, there was the "embryo of the Tathagata" doctrine, whether or not this term is employed. Karl Brunnholzl writes; the passage states:If someone devotes himself to the Ekottarikagama, Then he has the tathagatagarbha. If his body cannot exhaust defilements in this life, In his next life he will attain supreme wisdom; this tathāgatagarbha idea was the result of an interplay between various strands of Buddhist thought, on the nature of human consciousness and the means of awakening.
Gregory comments on this origin of the Tathagatagarba-doctrine: "The implication of this doctrine is that enlightenment is the n
The Rinzai school is one of three sects of Zen in Japanese Buddhism. Rinzai is the Japanese line of the Chinese Linji school, founded during the Tang dynasty by Linji Yixuan. Though there were several attempts to establish Rinzai lines in Japan, it first took root in a lasting way through the efforts of the monk Myōan Eisai. In 1168, Myōan Eisai traveled to China. In 1187, he went to China again, returned to establish a Linji lineage, known in Japan as Rinzai. Decades Nanpo Shōmyō studied Linji teachings in China before founding the Japanese Ōtōkan lineage, the most influential and only surviving branch of Rinzai; the time during which Rinzai Zen was established in Japan saw the rise of the samurai to power. Along with early imperial support, Rinzai came to enjoy the patronage of this newly ascendant warrior class. During the Muromachi period, the Rinzai school was the most successful of the schools because it was favoured by the shōgun; the school may be said to have flowered and achieved a distinctly Japanese identity with Shūhō Myōchō and Musō Soseki, two influential Japanese Zen masters who did not travel to China to study.
In the beginning of the Muromachi period, the Five Mountain System system was worked out. The final version presided over by Nanzen-ji. A second tier of the system consisted of Ten Temples; this system was extended throughout Japan giving control to the central government, which administered this system. The monks well educated and skilled, were employed by the shōgun for the governing of state affairs. Not all Rinzai Zen organisations were under such strict state control; the Rinka monasteries, which were located in rural areas rather than cities, had a greater degree of independence. The Ōtōkan lineage, which centered on Daitoku-ji had a greater degree of freedom, it was founded by Nanpo Shōmyō, Shūhō Myōchō, Kanzan Egen. A well-known teacher from Daitoku-ji was Ikkyū. Another Rinka lineage was the Hotto lineage. By the 18th century, the Rinzai school had entered a period of decline. At that time, the monk Hakuin Ekaku became prominent as a revitalizer and organizer of Rinzai Zen, his vigorous methods spearheaded a long-lasting revival.
Hakuin's systemization of the kōan training system serves today as the framework of formal Rinzai practice. Most Rinzai lineages pass through Hakuin Ekaku, the 18th century revivalist, who considered himself to be an heir of Shōju Rōnin, though Hakuin's formal dharma transmission from Shōju Rōnin entails some unanswered questions; when he was installed as head priest of Shōin-ji in 1718, he had the title of Dai-ichiza, "First Monk": It was the minimum rank required by government regulation for those installed as temple priests and seems to have been little more than a matter of paying a fee and registering Hakuin as the incumbent of Shōin-ji. All contemporary Rinzai-lineages stem from Inzan Ien and Takujū Kosen, both students of Gasan Jitō. Gasan is considered to be a dharma heir of Hakuin, though "he did not belong to the close circle of disciples and was not one of Hakuin's dharma heirs". Through Hakuin, all contemporary Japanese Rinzai-lineages are part of the Ōtōkan lineage, brought to Japan in 1267 by Nanpo Jomyo, who received his dharma transmission in China in 1265.
During the Meiji period, after a coup in 1868, Japan abandoned its feudal system and opened up to Western modernism. Shinto became the state religion, Buddhism adapted to the new regime. Within the Buddhist establishment the Western world was seen as a threat, but as a challenge to stand up to. A Rinzai university was founded in 1872, Hanazono University as a seminary for those entering the priesthood. Rinzai Zen is marked by the emphasis it places on kenshō as the gateway to authentic Buddhist practice, for its insistence on many years of exhaustive post-kensho training to embody the free functioning of wisdom within the activities of daily life. Training focuses on zazen, kōan, samu; when engaged in zazen, kōans are the object of meditation, while shikantaza is less emphasized, but still used. This contrasts with Sōtō practice, which has de-emphasized kōans since Gentō Sokuchū, instead emphasizes shikantaza. In general, the Rinzai school is known for the severity of its training methods; the Rinzai style of Zen practice may be characterized as somewhat sharp.
In this regard, Rinzai is contrasted with another sect of Zen established in Japan, Sōtō, called more gentle and rustic in spirit. A Japanese saying reflects these perceptions: "Rinzai for the Shōgun, Sōtō for the peasants". Rinzai Zen in Japan today is not a single organized body. Rather, it is divided into 15 branches, referred to by the names of their head temples, of which half are based in Kyoto; the largest and most influential of these is the Myōshin-ji branch, whose head temple was founded in 1342 by Kanzan Egen. Other major branches include Nanzen-ji and Tenryū-ji, Daitoku-ji, Tōfuku-ji; these branches are purely organizational divisio
Chan, from Sanskrit dhyāna, is a Chinese school of Mahāyāna Buddhism. It developed in China from the 6th century CE onwards, becoming dominant during the Tang and Song dynasties. After the Yuan, Chan less fused with Pure Land Buddhism. Chan spread south to Vietnam as Thiền and north to Korea as Seon, and, in the 13th century, east to Japan as Zen; the historical records required for a complete, accurate account of early Chan history no longer exist. The history of Chán in China can be divided into several periods. Zen as we know it today is the result of a long history, with many changes and contingent factors; each period had different types of Zen. Ferguson distinguishes three periods from the 5th century into the 13th century: The Legendary period, from Bodhidharma in the late 5th century to the An Lushan Rebellion around 765 CE, in the middle of the Tang Dynasty. Little written information is left from this period, it is the time of the Six Patriarchs, including Bodhidharma and Huineng, the legendary "split" between the Northern and the Southern School of Chán.
The Classical period, from the end of the An Lushan Rebellion around 765 CE to the beginning of the Song Dynasty around 950 CE. This is the time of the great masters of Chán, such as Mazu Daoyi and Linji Yixuan, the creation of the yü-lü genre, the recordings of the sayings and teachings of these great masters; the Literary period, from around 950 to 1250, which spans the era of the Song Dynasty. In this time the gongan-collections were compiled, collections of sayings and deeds by the famous masters, appended with poetry and commentary; this genre reflects the influence of literati on the development of Chán. This period idealized the previous period as the "golden age" of Chán, producing the literature in which the spontaneity of the celebrated masters was portrayed. Although McRae has reservations about the division of Chán-history in phases or periods, he distinguishes four phases in the history of Chán: Proto-Chán. In this phase, Chán developed in multiple locations in northern China, it is connected to the figures of Bodhidharma and Huike.
Its principal text is Four Practices, attributed to Bodhidharma. Early Chán. In this phase Chán took its first clear contours. Prime figures are the fifth patriarch Daman Hongren, his dharma-heir Yuquan Shenxiu, the sixth patriarch Huineng, protagonist of the quintessential Platform Sutra, Shenhui, whose propaganda elevated Huineng to the status of sixth patriarch. Prime factions are Southern School and Oxhead School. Middle Chán. In this phase developed the well-known Chán of the iconoclastic zen-masters. Prime figures are Mazu Daoyi, Shitou Xiqian, Linji Yixuan, Xuefeng Yicun. Prime factions are the Hongzhou school and the Hubei faction An important text is the Anthology of the Patriarchal Hall, which gives a great amount of "encounter-stories", the well-known genealogy of the Chán-school. Song Dynasty Chán. In this phase Chán took its definitive shape including the picture of the "golden age" of the Chán of the Tang-Dynasty, the use of koans for individual study and meditation. Prime figures are Dahui Zonggao who introduced the Hua Tou practice and Hongzhi Zhengjue who emphasized Shikantaza.
Prime factions are the Caodong school. The classic koan-collections, such as the Blue Cliff Record were assembled in this period, which reflect the influence of the "literati" on the development of Chán. In this phase Chán is transported to Japan, exerts a great influence on Korean Seon via Jinul. Neither Ferguson nor McRae give a periodisation for Chinese Chán following the Song-dynasty, though McRae mentions "at least a postclassical phase or multiple phases"; when Buddhism came to China, it was adapted to understanding. Theories about the influence of other schools in the evolution of Chan vary and reliant upon speculative correlation rather than on written records or histories; some scholars have argued that Chan developed from the interaction between Mahāyāna Buddhism and Taoism, while others insist that Chan has roots in yogic practices kammaṭṭhāna, the consideration of objects, kasiṇa, total fixation of the mind. A number of other conflicting theories exist. Buddhist meditation was practiced in China centuries before the rise of Chán, by people such as An Shigao and his school, who translated various Dhyāna sutras (, which were influential early meditation texts based on the Yogacara meditation teachings of the Sarvāstivāda school of Kashmir circa 1st-4th centuries CE..
The five main types of meditation in the Dyana sutras are anapanasati. Other important translators of meditation texts were Kumārajīva, who translated The Sutra on the Concentration of Sitting Meditation, amongst many other texts; these Chinese translations of Indian Sarvāstivāda Yo
Dahui Zonggao was a 12th-century Chinese Chan master. Dahui was a student of Yuanwu Keqin and was the 12th generation of the Linji school of Chan Buddhism, he was the dominant figure of the Linji school during the Song dynasty. Dahui introduced the practice of kan huatou, or "inspecting the critical phrase", of a kōan story; this method was called the "Chan of gongan introspection". Although he believed that kōans were the best way to achieve enlightenment, he recognized the teaching of Confucius and Laozi as valuable. Dahui was a vigorous critic of what he called the "heretical Chan of silent illumination" of the Caodong school. Dahui was born in Anhui, to the Xi family, he became a Buddhist monk at seventeen. His initiatory name was Zong Gao. Following the tradition of the day, he wandered from Chan community to community, seeking instruction, he mastered the essentials of the Five Ranks in two years. He studied all the records of the Five Houses of Chan, being drawn to the words of Yunmen Wenyan, 864-949, founder of one of the "Five Houses" of Chan.
He sought out instruction on the sayings of the old masters collected and commented on by Xuedou Chongxian which became the basis for the koan collection, the Blue Cliff Record. Dissatisfied with intellectual study, at the age of twenty-one he went to Treasure Peak, near the modern city of Nanchang in Jiangxi Province, to study with Zhan Tangzhun, a master of the Huang-lung branch of the Linji School. Although Dahui developed a great intellectual understanding of Chan, enlightenment eluded him. Recognizing his potential and great intellectual abilities, Zhan Tangzhun made Dahui his personal attendant. One day Tangzhou asked Dahui, "Why are your nostrils boundless today?" Dahui replied, " I’m at your place." Tangzhou retorted, "You phony Chan man." Another time, when Dahui was twenty-six, Tangzhou called him over and said, You can talk about Ch'an well. You are eloquent in giving quick with the exchanges during interviews, but there is one thing which you still do not know". Ta-hui asked. Tangzhou answered, "is the awakening.
Thus, when I talk with you in my room, you have Chan. But as soon as you leave the room, you lose it; when you are awake and attentive, you have Chan. But as soon as you fall asleep, you lose it. If you continue like this, how can you conquer life and death?" Dahui agreed, saying, "This is my point of doubt." Dahui continued his studies with Yuanwu Keqin. On his way to Tianning Wanshou, a monastery in the old imperial city of Bian, Dahui vowed to work with Yuanwu for nine years and if he did not achieve enlightenment, or, if Yuanwu turned out to be a false teacher, giving approval too Dahui would give up and turn to writing scriptures or treatises. Yuanwu gave. Dahui threw himself into the koan and struggled with it day and night, giving forty-nine answers to the koan, but all were rejected by his teacher. On May 13, 1125, he broke through, he recalled the event: Master Yuan-wu ascended the high seat in the lecture hall at the request of Madame Chang K'ang-kuo. He said, "Once a monk asked Yun-men this question,'where do all the Buddhas come from?'
Yun-men answered.'The East Mountain walks over the water'. But if I were he, I would have given a different answer.'Where do all the Buddhas come from?"As the fragrant breeze comes from the south, a slight coolness stirs in the palace pavilion.'" When I heard this, all of a sudden there was no more after. Time stopped. I ceased to feel any disturbance in my mind, remained in a state of utter calmness; as it turned out, Yuanwu did not give approval too easily. He said, It is indeed not easy to arrive at your present state of mind, but you have only died but are not yet reborn. Your greatest problem is. Don't you remember this saying?'When you let go your hold on the precipice, you become the master of your own fate. Yuanwu gave Dahui the koan, "To be and not to be --- it is like a wisteria leaning on a tree" to work on and after six months, Dahui achieved the final breakthrough and was recognized by Yuanwu as a Dharma-heir in the Linji tradition. Yuanwu assigned teaching duties to Dahui and Dahui's fame spread wide.
A high ranking government official, the Minister of the Right, Lu Shun, gave Dahui a purple robe and the honorific, "Fori", the Sun of the Dharma. The following year, 1126, the Jürchen Jin dynasty captured the Emperors Huizong and Qinzong. Dahui moved south and taught both monks and laymen, it was at this time that he began his severe criticism of the "heretical Chan of silent illumination" of the Caodong school which he would continue for the rest of his life. He became a great favorite of the educated and literate classes as well as Chan monks and in 1137, at the age of forty-nine, Chancellor Zhang Jun, a student of Dahui, appointed him abbot of Jingshan monastery in the new capital Lin-an. Within a few y
Seon Buddhism is the transformative facture of Chan Buddhism tradition and creed in Korea. A main feature of Seon Buddhism is a method of Ganhwa Seon. A Korean monk, Jinul accepted a meditative method of Chan Buddhism in 1205. In Chan Buddhism, hwadu was a delivery of realising a natural state of the Awakening. Jinul addressed a doctrine of Sagyo Yiepseon ) that monks should live an inborn life after learning and forgetting all creeds and theories. Within the doctrine of Jinul, hwadu is the witnessing of truthful meaning in everyday life. During the Goryeo dynasty Jinul influenced Korean Buddhism, he was the first monk to be appointed a national teacher and advisor by the king, having written a book presenting the Seon tradition from the Song dynasty. And this Seon tradition preserved well to this day, after Taego Bou brought his Dharma transmission to Goryeo; the Joseon dynasty suppressed buddhism in favour of confucianism. In spite of the suppression, Hyujeong wrote about the three religions in the Joseon dynasty from Seon point of view.
He succeeded to the Dharma transmission. During the Japanese invasions of Korea and Yujeong commanded guerrilla units of monks and took part in diplomacy. Under annexation by Japan most monks were forced to marry - this lasted about 40 years until the act of purification. During those times, masters like Gyoengheo and Mangong kept Dharma transmission alive. 21th centry, the few left this Dharma transmission. "남진제 북송담'." is well-known phrase in Korean seon tradition these days. Others are Daewon. Chan was transmitted into Unified Silla. Beomnang, who studied with the Fourth Patriarch Dayi Daoxin, was the first to bring the teachings to Korea. Beomnang transmitted his teachings to Sinhaeng, who traveled to China. Sinhaeng studied with Puji, a successor of Yuquan Shenxiu, the head of the East Mountain Teaching of Chan. Seon was further popularized by Doui at the beginning of the ninth century. Seon was further transmitted into Korea, as Korean monks of predominantly Hwaeom and Yogacara background began to travel to China to study the Hongzhou school of Mazu Daoyi and his successors and the Rinzai school of Linji Yixuan.
Mazu's successors had numerous Korean students, some of whom returned to Korea and established their own schools at various mountain monasteries with their leading disciples. The number of these schools was fixed at nine. Seon was termed the nine mountain schools" at the time. Eight of these were of the lineage of Mazu Daoyi, as they were established through connection with either him or one of his eminent disciples; the one exception was the Sumi-san school founded by Yieom, which had developed from the Caodong school. Toǔi, who studied with Zhizang and Baizhang Huaihai is regarded as the first patriarch of Korean Sŏn, he founded the Kaji Mountain school. The Nine mountain Schools adopted the name Jogye Order in 826; the first record of the Nine Mountains school dates from 1084. By the eleventh century Sŏn Buddhism became established in Korea, it distinguished itself from their scriptural emphasis. Tension developed between the new meditational schools and the existing scholastic schools, which were described by the term gyo, meaning "learning" or "study".
Efforts were needed to attain mutual understanding and rapprochement between Sŏn and these scholastic schools. The most important figure of Goryeo-era Seon was Jinul. In his time, the sangha was in internal issues of doctrine. Buddhism was seen as infected by secular tendencies and involvements, such as fortune-telling and the offering of prayers and rituals for success in secular endeavors; this perceived corruption was seen to create a profusion of monks and nuns with questionable motives. Therefore, the correction and improvement of the quality of Buddhism were prominent issues for Buddhist leaders of the period. Jinul sought to establish a new movement within Korean Seon, which he called the "samādhi and prajñā society", its goal was to establish a new community of disciplined, pure-minded practitioners deep in the mountains. He accomplished this mission with the founding of the Songgwangsa at Jogyesan as a new center of pure practice. Jinul's works are characterized by a thorough analysis and reformulation of the methodologies of Seon study and practice.
He laid an equal emphasis on doctrinal Sŏn practice. One major issue that had long fermented in Chan, which received special focus from Jinul, was the relationship between "gradual" and "sudden" methods in practice and enlightenment. Drawing upon various Chinese treatments of this topic, most those by Guifeng Zongmi and Dahui Zonggao, Jinul created Pojo Sŏn, a "sudden enlightenment followed by gradual practice" dictum, which he outlined in a few concise and accessible texts. Jinul incorporated Dahui Zonggao's gwanhwa into his practice; this form of meditation is the main method taught in Korean Seon today. Jinul's philosophical resolution of the Seon-Gyo conflict brought a deep and lasting effect on Korean Buddhism. Jinul’s successor, Chin’gak Hyesim further emphasized the hwadu (Ch. huatou, "word head
Ten Bulls or Ten Ox Herding Pictures is a series of short poems and accompanying drawings used in the Zen tradition to describe the stages of a practitioner's progress toward enlightenment, his or her return to society to enact wisdom and compassion. The calf, bull or ox is one of the earliest similes for meditation practice, it comes from the Maha Gopalaka Sutta. It is used in the commentaries the one on the Maha Satipatthana Sutta and the Satipatthana Sutta; as Buddhism spread throughout South-East Asia, the simile of the bull spread with it. The well-known ten ox-herding pictures emerged in China in the 12th century. D. T. Suzuki mentions four Chinese versions of the Oxherding Pictures, by Ching-chu, Tzu-te Hui, an unknown author, Kuòān Shīyuǎn; the best-known of these is the version by Kuòān Shīyuǎn. The first series was made by Ching-chu, who may have been a contemporary of Kuòān Shīyuǎn. In Ching-chu's version only five pictures are being used, the ox's colour changes from dark to white, representing the gradual development of the practitioner, ending in the disappearance of the practitioner.
Tzu-te Hui made a version with six pictures. The sixth one goes beyond the stage of absolute emptiness. Just like Ching-chu's version, the ox grows whiter along the way. A third version by an unknown author, with ten pictures, was most popular in China, it belongs to the Ching-chu and Tzu-te Hui series of pictures, has a somewhat different serie of pictures compared to Kuòān Shīyuǎn's version. The 1585-edition contains a preface by Chu-hung, it has ten pictures, each of, preceded by Pu-ming's poem, of whom Chu-hung furtherwise provides no information. In this version too the ox's colour changes from dark to white; the best known version of the oxherding pictures was drawn by the 12th century Chinese Rinzai Chán master Kuòān Shīyuǎn, who wrote accompanying poems and introductory words attached to the pictures. In Kuòān Shīyuǎn's version there is no whitening process, his series doesn't end with mere emptiness, or absolute truth, but shows a return to the world, depicting Putai, the laughing Buddha.
According to Chi Kwang Sunim, they may represent a Zen Buddhist interpretation of the ten Bodhisattva bhumi, the ten stages on the Bodhisattva-path. In Japan, Kuòān Shīyuǎn's version gained a wide circulation, the earliest one belonging to the fifteenth century, they first became known in the West after their inclusion in the 1957 book, Zen Flesh, Zen Bones: A Collection of Zen and Pre-Zen Writings, by Paul Reps and Nyogen Senzaki. Liaoan Qingyu made another version with five pictures. Verses by Kuòān Shīyuǎn; the ox-herding pictures had an immediate and extensive influence on the Chinese practice of Chan Buddhism. In the West, Alan Watts included a description of the Ten Bulls in The Spirit of Zen; the pictures were to influence the work of John Cage in his emphasis on rhythmic silence, on images of nothingness. At the same time, through the last picture –'In the Marketplace' – they have provided a conceptual umbrella for those Buddhists seeking a greater engagement with the post-industrial global marketplace.
An equivalent series of stages is depicted in the Nine Stages of Tranquility, used in the Mahamudra tradition, in which the mind is represented by an elephant and a monkey. The Dharma Fellowship, a Kagyu organisation, notes that the practice starts with studying and pondering the dharma, where-after the practice of meditation commences. Buddhist Paths to liberation Bodhi Five Ranks Monomyth Nirvana Spiritual bypass BackgroundRahula, Walpola and the Taming of the Bull: Towards the Definition of Buddhist Thought, Gordon Fraser Book Publishers Tan, The Taming of the Bull. Mind-training and the formation of Buddhist traditions CommentariesYamada, Lectures On The Ten Oxherding Pictures, University of Hawaii Press Samy, AMA, Zen: Awakening to Your Original Face, Cre-A Shibayama, Zenkei, A Flower Does Not Talk: Zen Essays, Tuttle Publishing Daido Loori, The Eight Gates of Zen: A Program of Zen Training, Shambhala Publications GeneralTerebess Online, Oxherding Pictures Index, huge collection of resources on the oxherding picturesZide Huihui version Terebess Asia Online, The Six Oxherding Pictures by 自得慧暉 Zide Huihui, 1090-1159Chinese Pu-Ming version Terebess Asia Online, The Ten Oxherding Pictures by 普明 Puming, an unknown authorKuòān Shīyuǎn version Paul Reps, Zen Flesh, Zen Bones: A Collection of Zen and Pre-Zen Writings Reverend Eshin, Ten Oxherding Pictures John M. Koller, Ox-herding: stages of Zen-practiceExtended commentariesCommentary by D.
T. Suzuki Commentary by Shodo Harada Commentary by Sheng Yen Commentary by Ruben Habito Commentary by Martine Batchelor Commentary by Chögyam TrungpaTaming the ElephantDharma Fellowship, Deepening Calm-Abiding - The Nine Stages of Abiding Skyflower Dharmacenter, Mahamudra Tranquility and InsightOtherA comparison between the Zen Buddhist Ten Oxherding Pictures and the Theory of Positive Disintegration Dward Muzika, Awakening versus Liberation