Federal Aviation Administration
The Federal Aviation Administration is a governmental body of the United States with powers to regulate all aspects of civil aviation in that nation as well as over its surrounding international waters. Its powers include the construction and operation of airports, air traffic management, the certification of personnel and aircraft, the protection of U. S. assets during the launch or re-entry of commercial space vehicles. Powers over neighboring international waters were delegated to the FAA by authority of the International Civil Aviation Organization. Created in August 1958, the FAA replaced the former Civil Aeronautics Administration and became an agency within the US Department of Transportation; the FAA's roles include: Regulating U. S. commercial space transportation Regulating air navigation facilities' geometric and flight inspection standards Encouraging and developing civil aeronautics, including new aviation technology Issuing, suspending, or revoking pilot certificates Regulating civil aviation to promote transportation safety in the United States through local offices called Flight Standards District Offices Developing and operating a system of air traffic control and navigation for both civil and military aircraft Researching and developing the National Airspace System and civil aeronautics Developing and carrying out programs to control aircraft noise and other environmental effects of civil aviation The FAA is divided into four "lines of business".
Each LOB has a specific role within the FAA. Airports: plans and develops projects involving airports, overseeing their construction and operations. Ensures compliance with federal regulations. Air Traffic Organization: primary duty is to safely and efficiently move air traffic within the National Airspace System. ATO employees manage air traffic facilities including Airport Traffic Control Towers and Terminal Radar Approach Control Facilities. See Airway Operational Support. Aviation Safety: Responsible for aeronautical certification of personnel and aircraft, including pilots and mechanics. Commercial Space Transportation: ensures protection of U. S. assets during the launch or reentry of commercial space vehicles. The FAA is headquartered in Washington, D. C. as well as the William J. Hughes Technical Center in Atlantic City, New Jersey, the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center in Oklahoma City and its nine regional offices: Alaskan Region – Anchorage, Alaska Northwest Mountain – Seattle, Washington Western Pacific – Los Angeles, California Southwest – Fort Worth, Texas Central – Kansas City, Missouri Great Lakes – Chicago, Illinois Southern – Atlanta, Georgia Eastern – New York, New York New England – Boston, Massachusetts The Air Commerce Act of May 20, 1926, is the cornerstone of the federal government's regulation of civil aviation.
This landmark legislation was passed at the urging of the aviation industry, whose leaders believed the airplane could not reach its full commercial potential without federal action to improve and maintain safety standards. The Act charged the Secretary of Commerce with fostering air commerce and enforcing air traffic rules, licensing pilots, certifying aircraft, establishing airways, operating and maintaining aids to air navigation; the newly created Aeronautics Branch, operating under the Department of Commerce assumed primary responsibility for aviation oversight. In fulfilling its civil aviation responsibilities, the Department of Commerce concentrated on such functions as safety regulations and the certification of pilots and aircraft, it took over the building and operation of the nation's system of lighted airways, a task initiated by the Post Office Department. The Department of Commerce improved aeronautical radio communications—before the founding of the Federal Communications Commission in 1934, which handles most such matters today—and introduced radio beacons as an effective aid to air navigation.
The Aeronautics Branch was renamed the Bureau of Air Commerce in 1934 to reflect its enhanced status within the Department. As commercial flying increased, the Bureau encouraged a group of airlines to establish the first three centers for providing air traffic control along the airways. In 1936, the Bureau itself began to expand the ATC system; the pioneer air traffic controllers used maps and mental calculations to ensure the safe separation of aircraft traveling along designated routes between cities. In 1938, the Civil Aeronautics Act transferred the federal civil aviation responsibilities from the Commerce Department to a new independent agency, the Civil Aeronautics Authority; the legislation expanded the government's role by giving the CAA the authority and the power to regulate airline fares and to determine the routes that air carriers would serve. President Franklin D. Roosevelt split the authority into two agencies in 1940: the Civil Aeronautics Administration and the Civil Aeronautics Board.
CAA was responsible for ATC, airman and aircraft certification, safety enforcement, airway development. CAB was entrusted with safety regulation, accident investigation, economic regulation of the airlines; the CAA was part of the Department of Commerce. The CAB was an independent federal agency. On the eve of America's entry into World War II, CAA began to extend its ATC responsibilities to takeoff and landing operations at airports; this expanded role became permanent after the war. The application of radar to ATC helped controllers in their drive to keep abreast of the postwar boom in commercial air transportation. In 1946, Congress gave CAA the added task of administering the federal-aid airport program, the first peacetime program of financial assistance aimed exclusivel
Zenith STOL CH 801
The Zenith STOL CH 801 is a four-seat sport STOL aircraft developed by Chris Heintz and available in kit form from the Zenith Aircraft Company. The CH 801 is based on features of the smaller two-place STOL CH 701 model, it offers a useful load of 1,000 lb, double the 701's 500 lb. While both aircraft look alike they do not share any common parts; the STOL CH 801 is made from sheet aluminium and employs a deep wing chord, full-length leading edge slots and trailing edge flaperons to develop high lift at low speed, while maintaining a short wing-span for maximum strength and ground maneuverability. By the end of 2011 160 CH 801s were flying. Data from Source: Kitplanes magazineGeneral characteristics Crew: one pilot Capacity: three passengers Length: 24.5 feet Wingspan: 27.0 feet Height: Wing area: 167 sq ft Empty weight: 1150 lb Useful load: 1050 lb Loaded weight: 2200 lb Max. Takeoff weight: 2200 lb Powerplant: 1 × Lycoming O-360, 180 hp Performance Cruise speed: 105 mph Stall speed: 39 mph Range: 370 sm Rate of climb: 1200 ft/min Power/mass: 12.2 lb/hp Zenith Aircraft
Canada Aviation and Space Museum
The Canada Aviation and Space Museum is Canada's national aviation history museum. The museum is located in Ottawa, Canada, at the Ottawa/Rockcliffe Airport; the museum was first formed in 1964 at RCAF Station Rockcliffe as the National Aeronautical Collection from the amalgamation of three separate existing collections. These included the National Aviation Museum at Uplands, which concentrated on early aviation and bush flying. In 1982 the collection was renamed the National Aviation Museum and in 1988 the collection was moved to a new experimental type triangular hangar from the Second World War-era wooden hangars it had been residing in. In 2006 an additional hangar was opened, which allows all of the collection's aircraft to be stored indoors; the museum closed 2 September 2008 for remodeling and rearrangement of the aircraft on display. This project was completed and the museum reopened 19 November 2008; the changes made include making space for a new exhibition entitled Canadian Wings: A Remarkable Century of Flight, unveiled on 23 February 2009, the centennial of the first heavier than air aircraft flight in Canada.
In December 2008, the museum announced that approval had been granted for a C$7M expansion to begin in May 2009 and to be completed by the fall of 2010. The improvements carried out included an addition of 2600 m² giving 18% more space and providing room for a new foyer, cafeteria, retail space, a landscaped entrance and classrooms. In April 2010, the parent Canada Science and Technology Museum Corporation announced that the museum would be expanded and that its name would be changed to the "Canada Aviation and Space Museum" in May 2010; the Canadian Press expressed concern that the name change would cause confusion with the existing Toronto-based Canadian Air and Space Museum. The Canada Aviation and Space Museum is under the control of Ingenium known as the Canadian Science and Technology Museums Corporation. Ingenium is an autonomous Crown corporation which works to preserve and protect Canada's scientific and technical heritage; the Corporation is responsible for three museums: the Canada Aviation and Space Museum, the Canada Agriculture Museum and the Canada Science and Technology Museum.
The museum is home to 51 Canada Aviation Museum Squadron, Royal Canadian Air Cadets. The museum's collection contains a wide variety of civilian and military aircraft, representing the history of Canadian aviation from the pioneer era before the First World War up to the present day. Noteworthy is the collection of vintage bushplanes from the 1920s to the 1940s; the military aircraft represent aircraft flown by Canadians in the First World War, Second World War, the Cold War. The museum's best known exhibit is the surviving components of the Avro Arrow interceptor from the late 1950s. At the museum is Space Shuttle Endeavour's Canadarm, the space shuttles' Canadian-built robotic arm, it was unveiled on 2 May 2013 with Chris Hadfield on hand from the International Space Station via video screen to aid with the unveiling. While Endeavour's Canadarm known as Canadarm 201, was moved back to Canada, Atlantis's and Discovery's Canadarms went to the museums of their respective shuttles. On site are interactive activities on the science of flight, demonstrations, a boutique, guided tours.
A few of the tours take the visitors "behind the scenes" to see conservation and restoration work in progress, components which are in storage. The museum is affiliated with: CMA, CHIN, Virtual Museum of Canada. List of aerospace museums Organization of Military Museums of Canada Military history of Canada Canada Science and Technology Museum Corporation History of aviation in Canada McCaffery, Canada's Warplanes: Unique Aircraft in Canada's Aviation Museums, J. Lorimer, ISBN 1-55028-699-4 Official website Canada Aviation Museum floor plan Fall 2008 Canada Aviation Museum Exhibit Photos Canada Aviation Museum Photos 51 Canada Aviation Museum Squadron – Royal Canadian Air Cadets
Kazakhstan the Republic of Kazakhstan, is the world's largest landlocked country, the ninth largest in the world, with an area of 2,724,900 square kilometres. It is a transcontinental country located in Asia. Kazakhstan is the dominant nation of Central Asia economically, generating 60% of the region's GDP through its oil and gas industry, it has vast mineral resources. Kazakhstan is a democratic, unitary, constitutional republic with a diverse cultural heritage. Kazakhstan shares borders with Russia, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan, adjoins a large part of the Caspian Sea; the terrain of Kazakhstan includes flatlands, taiga, rock canyons, deltas, snow-capped mountains, deserts. Kazakhstan has an estimated 18.3 million people as of 2018. Given its large land area, its population density is among the lowest, at less than 6 people per square kilometre; the capital is Astana, where it was moved in 1997 from the country's largest city. The territory of Kazakhstan has been inhabited by groups included the nomadic groups and empires.
In antiquity, the nomadic Scythians have inhabited the land and the Persian Achaemenid Empire expanded towards the southern territory of the modern country. Turkic nomads who trace their ancestry to many Turkic states such as Turkic Khaganate etc have inhabited the country throughout the country's history. In the 13th century, the territory joined the Mongolian Empire under Genghis Khan. By the 16th century, the Kazakh emerged as a distinct group, divided into three jüz; the Russians began advancing into the Kazakh steppe in the 18th century, by the mid-19th century, they nominally ruled all of Kazakhstan as part of the Russian Empire. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, subsequent civil war, the territory of Kazakhstan was reorganised several times. In 1936, it was made part of the Soviet Union. Kazakhstan was the last of the Soviet republics to declare independence during the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. Nursultan Nazarbayev, the first President of Kazakhstan, was characterized as an authoritarian, his government was accused of numerous human rights violations, including suppression of dissent and censorship of the media.
Nazarbayev resigned in March 2019, with Senate Chairman Kassym-Jomart Tokayev taking office as Interim President. Kazakhstan has worked to develop its economy its dominant hydrocarbon industry. Human Rights Watch says that "Kazakhstan restricts freedom of assembly and religion", other human rights organisations describe Kazakhstan's human rights situation as poor. Kazakhstan's 131 ethnicities include Kazakhs, Uzbeks, Germans and Uyghurs. Islam is the religion of about 70% of the population, with Christianity practised by 26%. Kazakhstan allows freedom of religion, but religious leaders who oppose the government are suppressed; the Kazakh language is the state language, Russian has equal official status for all levels of administrative and institutional purposes. Kazakhstan is a member of the United Nations, WTO, CIS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the Eurasian Economic Union, CSTO, OSCE, OIC, TURKSOY; the name "Kazakh" comes from the ancient Turkic word qaz, "to wander", reflecting the Kazakhs' nomadic culture.
The name "Cossack" is of the same origin. The Persian suffix -stan means "land" or "place of", so Kazakhstan can be translated as "land of the wanderers". Though traditionally referring only to ethnic Kazakhs, including those living in China, Turkey and other neighbouring countries, the term "Kazakh" is being used to refer to any inhabitant of Kazakhstan, including non-Kazakhs. Kazakhstan has been inhabited since the Paleolithic. Pastoralism developed during the Neolithic as the region's climate and terrain are best suited for a nomadic lifestyle; the Kazakh territory was a key constituent of the Eurasian Steppe route, the ancestor of the terrestrial Silk Roads. Archaeologists believe. During recent prehistoric times Central Asia was inhabited by groups like the Proto-Indo-European Afanasievo culture early Indo-Iranians cultures such as Andronovo, Indo-Iranians such as the Saka and Massagetae. Other groups included the nomadic Scythians and the Persian Achaemenid Empire in the southern territory of the modern country.
In 329 BC, Alexander the Great and his Macedonian army fought in the Battle of Jaxartes against the Scythians along the Jaxartes River, now known as the Syr Darya along the southern border of modern Kazakhstan. The Cuman entered the steppes of modern-day Kazakhstan around the early 11th century, where they joined with the Kipchak and established the vast Cuman-Kipchak confederation. While ancient cities Taraz and Hazrat-e Turkestan had long served as important way-stations along the Silk Road connecting Asia and Europe, true political consolidation began only with the Mongol rule of the early 13th century. Under the Mongol Empire, the largest in world history, administrative districts were established; these came under the rule of the emergent Kazakh Khanate. Throughout this period, traditional nomadic life and a livestock-
The Colomban Cri-Cri is the smallest twin-engined manned aircraft in the world, designed in the early 1970s by French aeronautical engineer Michel Colomban. The name Cri-Cri comes from the nickname of Christine, one of Colomban's daughters.'Cri-cri"or'cricri' is the French term for the sound of a cricket or a cicada, or an informal name for the insects themselves, but it is unclear if this double meaning was intended by Colomban himself. The Cri-Cri features a cantilever low-wing, a single-seat enclosed cockpit under a bubble canopy, fixed tricycle landing gear and twin engines mounted on pylons to the nose of the aircraft in tractor configuration; the aircraft is made from aluminum sheet glued to Klegecell foam. Its 4.9 m span wing employs a Wortmann 21.7% mod airfoil, has an area of 3.1 m2. The aircraft is capable of aerobatics within the limitations of twin-engined aircraft. MC-12 Cri-Cri Model with a cruising speed of 185 range of 500 km. MC-15 Cri-Cri Model powered by two JPX PUL 212 15 horsepower engines.
MC-15 Cri-Cri Jet Model powered by two PBS VB TJ20 210 newtons turbojet engines. As with any homebuilt aircraft, the existing Cri-Cri planes have been modified by their builders, departing from the original design to a varying degree, resulting in varying performance. Most versions can climb with one engine inoperative. In June 2010, EADS partnered with Aero Composites Saintonge and the Greencri-cri Association to present an electric-powered Cri-Cri at the Green Aviation Show in Le Bourget; the modified airframe with composite components can fly for 30 minutes at 110 km/h. The aircraft uses four brushless electric motors with counter-rotating propellers, which makes the aircraft one of the world's smallest four-engine aircraft. On September 5, 2010 Electravia accomplished a world record speed of 262 km/h for a lithium polymer-powered aircraft using a Cri-Cri with two electric motors during the attempt; the company claimed engine and cooling drag reductions of 46 percent versus the conventional combustion engine arrangement.
On 9 July 2015 the electric-powered Electravia version of the design flew across the English Channel hours before the Airbus E-Fan, becoming the third electric aircraft to do so. It did not take off on its own; the first was the MacCready Solar Challenger in 1981 and the second used electric motors powered by hydrogen. Data from Michel ColombanGeneral characteristics Crew: one Length: 3.9 m Wingspan: 4.9 m Wing area: 3.1 m2 Airfoil: Wortmann 21.7 Empty weight: 78 kg Max takeoff weight: 170 kg Powerplant: 2 × JPX PUL 212 single-cylinder piston engines, 11 kW each Propellers: 2-bladedPerformance Maximum speed: 220 km/h Cruise speed: 185 km/h.
Homebuilt aircraft known as amateur-built aircraft or kit planes, are constructed by persons for whom this is not a professional activity. These aircraft may be constructed from "scratch," from assembly kits. In the United States, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, homebuilt aircraft may be licensed Experimental under FAA or similar local regulations. With some limitations, the builder of the aircraft must have done it for their own education and recreation rather than for profit. In the U. S. the primary builder can apply for a repairman's certificate for that airframe. The repairman's certificate allows the holder to perform and sign off on most of the maintenance and inspections themselves. Alberto Santos-Dumont was the first to offer for free construction plans, publishing drawings of his Demoiselle in the June 1910 edition of Popular Mechanics; the first aircraft to be offered for sale as plans, rather than a completed airframe, was the Baby Ace in the late 1920s. Homebuilt aircraft gained in popularity in the U.
S. in 1924 with the start of the National Air Races, held in Ohio. These races required aircraft with useful loads of 150 lb and engines of 80 cubic inches or less and as a consequence of the class limitations most were amateur-built; the years after Charles Lindbergh's transatlantic flight brought a peak of interest between 1929 and 1933. During this period many aircraft designers and pilots were self-taught and the high accident rate brought public condemnation and increasing regulation to amateur building; the resulting federal standards on design, stress analysis, use of aircraft-quality hardware and testing of aircraft brought an end to amateur building except in some specialized areas, such as racing. In 1946 Goodyear restarted the National Air Races, including a class for aircraft powered by 200 cubic inch and smaller engines; the midget racer class spread nationally in the U. S. and this led to calls for acceptable standards to allow recreational use of amateur-built aircraft. By the mid-1950s both the U.
S. and Canada once again allowed amateur-built aircraft to specified limitations. Homebuilt aircraft are small, one to four-seat sportsplanes which employ simple methods of construction. Fabric-covered wood or metal frames and plywood are common in the aircraft structure, but fiberglass and other composites as well as full aluminum construction techniques are being used, techniques first pioneered by Hugo Junkers as far back as the late World War I era. Engines are most the same as, or similar to, the engines used in certified aircraft. A minority of homebuilts use converted automobile engines, with Volkswagen air-cooled flat-4s, Subaru-based liquid-cooled engines, Mazda Wankel and Chevrolet Corvair six-cylinder engines being most common; the use of automotive engines helps to reduce costs, but many builders prefer dedicated aircraft engines, which are perceived to have better performance and reliability. Other engines that have been used include motorcycle engines. A combination of cost and litigation in the mid-1980s era, discouraged general aviation manufacturers from introducing new designs and led to homebuilts outselling factory built aircraft by five to one.
In 2003, the number of homebuilts produced in the U. S. exceeded the number produced by any single certified manufacturer. The history of amateur-built aircraft can be traced to the beginning of aviation. If the Wright brothers, Clément Ader, their successors had commercial objectives in mind, the first aircraft were constructed by passionate enthusiasts whose goal was to fly. Aviation took a leap forward with the industrialization that accompanied World War I. In the post-war period, manufacturers needed to find new markets and introduced models designed for tourism. However, these machines were affordable only by the rich. Many U. S. aircraft designed and registered in the 1920s onward were considered "experimental" by the CAA, the same registration under which modern homebuilts are issued Special Airworthiness Certificates. Many of these were prototypes, but designs such as Bernard Pietenpol's first 1923 design were some of the first homebuilt aircraft. In 1928, Henri Mignet published plans for his HM-8 Pou-du-Ciel.
Pietenpol constructed a factory, in 1933 began creating and selling constructed aircraft kits. In 1936, an association of amateur aviation enthusiasts was created in France. Many types of amateur aircraft began to make an appearance, in 1938 legislation was amended to provide for a Certificat de navigabilité restreint d'aéronef. 1946 saw the birth of the Ultralight Aircraft Association which in 1952 became the Popular Flying Association in the United Kingdom, followed in 1953 by the Experimental Aircraft Association in the United States and the Sport Aircraft Association in Australia. The term "homebuilding" became popular in the mid-1950s when EAA founder Paul Poberezny wrote a series of articles for the magazine Mechanix Illustrated where he explained how a person could buy a set of plans and build their own aircraft at home; the articles gained the concept of aircraft homebuilding took off. Until the late 1950s, builders had kept to wood-and-cloth and steel tube-and-cloth design. Without the regulatory restrictions faced by production aircraft manufacturers, homebuilders introduced innovative designs and construction techniques.
Burt Rutan introduced the canard design to the homebuilding world and pioneered the use of composite construction. Metal construction in kitplanes was taken to a new level by Richard VanGrunsv
Aerospace engineering is the primary field of engineering concerned with the development of aircraft and spacecraft. It has two major and overlapping branches: astronautical engineering. Avionics engineering deals with the electronics side of aerospace engineering. Aeronautical engineering was the original term for the field; as flight technology advanced to include craft operating in outer space, the broader term "aerospace engineering" has come into common use. Aerospace engineering the astronautics branch is colloquially referred to as "rocket science". Flight vehicles are subjected to demanding conditions such as those caused by changes in atmospheric pressure and temperature, with structural loads applied upon vehicle components, they are the products of various technological and engineering disciplines including aerodynamics, avionics, materials science, structural analysis and manufacturing. The interaction between these technologies is known as aerospace engineering; because of the complexity and number of disciplines involved, aerospace engineering is carried out by teams of engineers, each having their own specialized area of expertise.
The origin of aerospace engineering can be traced back to the aviation pioneers around the late 19th to early 20th centuries, although the work of Sir George Cayley dates from the last decade of the 18th to mid-19th century. One of the most important people in the history of aeronautics, Cayley was a pioneer in aeronautical engineering and is credited as the first person to separate the forces of lift and drag, which are in effect on any flight vehicle. Early knowledge of aeronautical engineering was empirical with some concepts and skills imported from other branches of engineering. Scientists understood some key elements of aerospace engineering, like fluid dynamics, in the 18th century. Many years after the successful flights by the Wright brothers, the 1910s saw the development of aeronautical engineering through the design of World War I military aircraft. Between World Wars I and II, great leaps were made in Aeronautical Engineering; the advent of mainstream civil aviation accelerated this process.
Notable airplanes of this era include the Curtiss JN 4, the Farman F.60 Goliath, Fokker trimotor. Notable military airplanes of this period include the Mitsubishi A6M Zero, the Supermarine Spitfire and the Messerschmitt Bf 109 from Japan, Great Britain, Germany respectively. A significant development in Aerospace engineering came with the first Jet engine-powered airplane, the Messerschmitt Me 262 which entered service in 1944 towards the end of the second World War; the first definition of aerospace engineering appeared in February 1958. The definition considered the Earth's atmosphere and the outer space as a single realm, thereby encompassing both aircraft and spacecraft under a newly coined word aerospace. In response to the USSR launching the first satellite, Sputnik into space on October 4, 1957, U. S. aerospace engineers launched the first American satellite on January 31, 1958. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration was founded in 1958 as a response to the Cold War. In 1969, Apollo 11, the first manned space mission to the moon took place.
It saw three astronauts enter orbit around the Moon, with two, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, visiting the lunar surface. The third astronaut, Michael Collins, stayed in orbit to rendezvous with Armstrong and Aldrin after their visit to the lunar surface; some of the elements of aerospace engineering are: Radar cross-section – the study of vehicle signature apparent to Radar remote sensing. Fluid mechanics – the study of fluid flow around objects. Aerodynamics concerning the flow of air over bodies such as wings or through objects such as wind tunnels. Astrodynamics – the study of orbital mechanics including prediction of orbital elements when given a select few variables. While few schools in the United States teach this at the undergraduate level, several have graduate programs covering this topic. Statics and Dynamics – the study of movement, moments in mechanical systems. Mathematics – in particular, differential equations, linear algebra. Electrotechnology – the study of electronics within engineering.
Propulsion – the energy to move a vehicle through the air is provided by internal combustion engines, jet engines and turbomachinery, or rockets. A more recent addition to this module is ion propulsion. Control engineering – the study of mathematical modeling of the dynamic behavior of systems and designing them using feedback signals, so that their dynamic behavior is desirable; this applies to the dynamic behavior of aircraft, propulsion systems, subsystems that exist on aerospace vehicles. Aircraft structures – design of the physical configuration of the craft to withstand the forces encountered during flight. Aerospace engineering aims to keep structures lightweight and low-cost while maintaining structural integrity. Materials science – related to structures, aerospace engineering studies the materials of which the aerospace structures are to be built. New materials with specific properties are invented, or existing ones are modified to improve their performance. Solid mechanics – Closely related to material science is solid mechanics which deals with stress and strain analysis of the components of the vehicle.
Nowadays there are several Finite Element programs such as MSC