Saab 90 is the name of an aeroplane, the Saab 90 Scandia. The Saab 90 is a compact executive car from Saab made from September 1984 to 1987, it was manufactured at a facility in Finland, at that time owned by Saab and Valmet. The 90 was a continuation of the Saab 99 and it was a Saab 99 from the B-pillar forward with the rear of a Saab 900 sedan; the 90, while easier to build than the 99, was still more labour intensive than the more modern 900. The 900's rear end made the trunk and fuel tank larger than in the 99, while keeping the car smaller than the 900, it came with the 2.0 L Saab H engine, giving 100 hp. It was available with both four and a five-speed manual transmissions, with the five-speed receiving closer gearing and rear spoilers, lower profile tires; the valve seats were hardened. It had a new starter motor, the steering wheel was more upright than the one in the 99. In 1986 it was fitted with modified shock absorbers. In 1987 the Zenith carburettor was altered to make it easier to start in cold weather.
Falling sales meant that it was not worth the investment to catalyze the engine and 1987 was the final year for the model, with the last car built on 1 July. In total, only 25,360 Saab 90s were made, it was sold in a limited number of European countries only. A limited edition of ten Saab 90 Lumikko was made for the Finnish market; these models had extra trim. Lumikko is Finnish for known as Snow weasel in Scandinavia. Media related to Saab 90 at Wikimedia Commons
The Triumph Spitfire is a small British two-seat sports car, introduced at the London Motor Show in 1962. The vehicle was based on a design produced for Standard-Triumph in 1957 by Italian designer Giovanni Michelotti; the car was based upon the chassis of the Triumph Herald saloon, but shortened and without the Herald's outrigger sections. The Herald's running gear and Standard SC engine were carried over; the Spitfire was manufactured at the Standard-Triumph works in Coventry. The bodywork was fitted to a separate structural chassis, but for the open-top convertible Spitfire the backbone chassis' rigidity was augmented by the use of structural components within the bodywork, with the rear trailing arms being bolted to the body rather than the chassis; the Spitfire was provided with a manual soft-top for weather protection, the design improving to a folding hood for models. Factory-manufactured hard-tops were available. Five Spitfire models were sold during the production run: The Triumph Spitfire was devised by Standard-Triumph to compete in the small sports car market that had opened up with the introduction of the Austin-Healey Sprite.
The Sprite had used the basic drive train of the Austin A30/A35 in a light body to make up a budget sports car. Triumph had one advantage, however, it was Triumph's intention to cut that chassis down and give it in a sports body, saving the costs of developing a new chassis-body unit. Italian designer Michelotti—who had designed the Herald—was commissioned for the new project, came up with a traditional, swooping body. Wind-up windows were provided, as well as a single-piece front end which tilted forwards to offer easy access to the engine. In the early 1960s, Standard-Triumph was in deep financial trouble, unable to put the new car into production. Leyland officials, taking stock of their new acquisition, found Michelotti's prototype hiding under a dust sheet in a corner of the factory and approved it for production; the Spitfire was named to honour the World War II fighter plane of the same name. The production car changed little from the prototype, although the full-width rear bumper was dropped in favour of two part-bumpers curving around each corner, with overriders.
The mechanicals were from a stock Herald with the notable addition of front disc brakes. The engine was an 1,147 cc four-cylinder with a pushrod OHV cylinder head and two valves per cylinder, mildly tuned for the Spitfire, fed by twin SU carburettors. From the Herald came the rack and pinion steering and coil-and-wishbone front suspension, courtesy of the former Alford & Alder company, acquired by Standard-Triumph in 1959. At the rear was a single transverse-leaf swing axle arrangement; this ended up being the most controversial part of the car: it was known to "tuck in" and cause violent oversteer if driven too hard in the staid Herald. In the sportier Spitfire it led to severe criticism. Known fixes for this include things like camber compensators, or achieving more negative camber to the rear wheels can help the handling become more manageable; the body was bolted to a much-modified Herald chassis, the outer rails and the rear outriggers having been removed. The Spitfire was an inexpensive small sports car and as such had rather basic trim by today's standards, including rubber mats and a large plastic steering wheel.
It was nonetheless considered comfortable, as it had roll-down windows and exterior door locks, as well as full instrumentation. These early cars were referred to both as "Triumph Spitfire Mark Is" and "Spitfire 4s", different from the Spitfire Mark IV; the "Spitfire 4" name indicated the possibility of the appearance of a six-cylinder version. In UK specification the in-line four produced 63 bhp at 5,750 rpm, 67 lb⋅ft of torque at 3,500 rpm; this gave a top speed of 92 mph, a 0 to 60 mph acceleration in 16.4 seconds. Average fuel consumption was 31 mpg. For 1964 an overdrive option was added to the four-speed manual gearbox. Wire wheels and a hard top were available. An all-monocoque construction derivative of the Spitfire with pop-up headlamps, named the Triumph Fury, was proposed with a single prototype being built. In March 1965 the Spitfire Mark II was launched, it was similar to the Mark I but featured a more tuned engine with a revised camshaft profile, a water-heated intake manifold, a tubular exhaust manifold, increasing power to 67 bhp at 6,000 rpm.
The coil-spring design clutch of the Mark I was replaced with a Borg & Beck diaphragm spring clutch. The exterior trim was modified with badges; the interior trim was improved with redesigned seats and by covering most of the exposed surfaces with rubber cloth. The original moulded rubber floor coverings were replaced with moulded carpets, it was introduced at a base price of £550, compared to the Sprite's £505 and the Midg
An aspirator is a type of ejector-jet pump, which produces vacuum by means of the Venturi effect. In an aspirator, fluid flows through a tube that first narrows and expands in cross-sectional area; when the tube narrows, the fluid pressure decreases. In this narrow area the fluid velocity must increase to conserve mass continuity. Where the tube narrows, a vacuum is drawn because of the Venturi effect; the cheap and simple water aspirator is the most common type of aspirator. It is used in chemistry and biology laboratories and consists of a tee fitting attached to a tap and has a hose barb at one side; the flow of water passes through the straight portion of the tee, which has a restriction at the intersection, where the hose barb is attached. The vacuum hose should be connected to this barb. In the past, water aspirators were common for low-strength vacuums in chemistry benchwork. However, they are water-intensive, depending on what the vacuum is being used for, they can violate environmental protection laws such as the RCRA by mixing hazardous chemicals into the water stream flushing them down a drain that leads directly to the municipal sewer.
If a liquid is used as the working fluid, the strength of the vacuum produced is limited by the vapor pressure of the liquid. If a gas is used, this restriction does not exist; the industrial steam ejector uses steam as a working fluid. In order to avoid using too much steam, a single steam-ejector stage is not used to generate vacuum below 10 kPa. To generate higher vacuum, multiple stages are used. Condensers may be used between stages to reduce the load on the stages. Steam ejectors with two, four and six stages may be used to produce vacuums down to 2.5 kPa, 300 Pa, 40 Pa, 4 Pa, 0.4 Pa, respectively. The air ejector or Venturi pump is similar to the steam ejector but uses high-pressure air as the working fluid, they are called vacuum ejectors and they generate vacuum by changing the pressure of the compressed air. Multistage air ejectors can be used, but since air cannot be condensed at room temperature, an air ejector is limited to two stages. Diffusion pump Injector Vacuum pump Water eductor
The Saab 900 is a compact luxury automobile, produced by Saab from 1978 until 1998 in two generations. The first generation from 1978 to 1993 is known as the "classic" and the generation from 1994 to 1998 is known as the "new generation"; the "classic" Saab 900 was based on the Saab 99 chassis, though with a longer front end to meet U. S. frontal crash regulations. The 900 was produced in 2- and 4-door sedan, 3- and 5-door hatchback configurations and, from 1986, as a cabriolet model. There were single- and twin-Zenith carburettor, fuel-injection, turbocharged engines, including both Full Pressure Turbo, and, in European models during the early 1990s, Low Pressure Turbos; the Saab 900 is a front-engine, front-wheel-drive compact car with a longitudinally mounted, 45-degree slanted, inline four-cylinder engine, double wishbone front suspension and beam-axle rear suspension. It was introduced on 12 May 1978, for the 1979 model year. Sales commenced in the fall of 1978. Like its predecessor the 99, the 900 contained a number of unusual design features that distinguish it from most other cars.
First, the engine was installed "backwards", with power delivered from the crank at the front of the car. Second, the transmission, technically a transaxle, bolted directly to the bottom of the engine to form the oil pan. Thus, power from the crank would be delivered out of the engine at the front transferred down and back to the transmission below, via a set of chain-driven primary gears. In similar fashion, Minis had their gearbox mounted directly below the engine. Refined over several decades of two-digit Saab models, the 900's double wishbone suspension design provided excellent handling and road feel; the rear suspension comprised a typical beam axle design, stabilized with a Panhard rod. However, the attachment points between the axle and chassis made up an unusual configuration that, in essence, consists of two Watt's linkages at either end of the axle: A lower control arm attaches the axle to the bottom of the vehicle, while an upper link attaches at the top but faces towards the rear, unlike a typical four-link design with both lower and upper links facing forward.
Early models did not have sway bars. S. and other markets, became standard on all trim levels by the late 1980s. The sway bars decreased body roll, but at the expense of some ride comfort and when driven aggressively, increased inside wheel spin; the front and rear bars' diameters were unchanged throughout the model's run. The 900 utilized a curved front windshield, providing the best driver visibility, calling attention to the marque's aircraft legacy. Underscoring their aircraft lineage, the 900's dashboard was curved to enable easy reach of all controls and featured gauges lit up from the front. Saab engineers placed all controls and gauges in the dashboard according to their frequency of use and/or importance so that the driver need only divert his gaze from the road for the shortest possible time and by the smallest angle; this is. In keeping with the paradigm of its predecessor, the 99 model, the 900 employed a door design unique in automotive manufacturing, with an undercutting sweep to meet the undercarriage, forming a tight, solid unit when the door was closed.
This feature eliminated the stoop in the cabin at the footing of the door, as seen in automobiles of other manufacturers, thereby preventing water and debris from collecting and entering the cabin or initiating corrosion, as well as enabling passengers to enter and exit the cabin without need to step over several inches of ledge. The 900 underwent minor cosmetic design changes for 1987, including restyled front-end and bumpers that went from a vertical to a more sloped design. Being a small car factory, for economic reasons, Saab kept the basic undercarriage more or less unchanged throughout the 900's production run; the Saab 900 could be ordered with different options. One sought-after option was called the Aero or, as it was known in the U. S. "Special Performance Group". The Aero/SPG incorporated a body skirt; each of these features could, of course, be ordered independently from Saab's Accessories Catalog for fitment to standard models. Another desirable UK option at this time was the fitment of distinctive Minilite alloy wheels.
These had the words'Minilite' and'Saab' cast in raised lettering. Power output varied by model year and market, but 900S and 900 Turbo models produced after 1985 were fitted with a 16-valve engine, while the basic 900 kept the earlier 8-valve engine. A 1989 Saab 900 SPG owned by Peter Gilbert of Wisconsin, was driven over a million miles, before being donated to The Wisconsin Automotive Museum. Peter Gilbert claimed a million miles out of the turbocharging unit in addition to the engine itself. Saab gave Mr Gilbert a Saab 9-5 Aero; the 1979 900 was available in three versions: The GL had the single-carb 100 PS engine, the GLs had twin carburetors for 108 PS, the EMS and GLE had fuel injection for 118 PS, the 900 Turbo produced 145 PS. The only bodywork available was the three or five-door hatchback style, seen as more modern at the time; the EMS was only availab
The Volvo 164 is a 4-door, 6-cylinder luxury sedan unveiled by Volvo at the Paris Motor Show early in October 1968 and first sold as a 1969 model. 46,008 164s were built before the car was succeeded by the 264 in 1975. The 164 was Volvo's first venture into the luxury segment since the end of PV 60 production in 1950, was the first six-cylinder Volvo since the PV800 last produced in 1958. Jan Wilsgaard designed what would become the 164 in the late 1950s as a concept car called the P358 and powered by a V8 engine; the front styling was inspired both by the Wolseley 6/99 and the Volvo P1900. In 1968 Volvo introduced the 164 as a luxury version of their 140 series; the wings, the grille, the front bumper, the bonnet, the headlamp bezels, the front indicators were all unique to the 164. The interior featured leather seating surfaces. Introduced the same year as the BMW E3, the 164 was Volvo's answer to the Mercedes-Benz 250 and Jaguar XJ6. Despite being heavy, the 164 gave favourable fuel economy compared to other 6-cylinder European cars of similar dimensions such as the BMW 530.in 1972 an update saw the introduction of fuel injection to the 164 with the B30E and B30F engines which utilised Bosch D-Jetronic injection.
For 1972 the dash was revised with he introduction of a centre console and some of the dash switches, as well as the clock, were moved to it as well as being redesigned. The flush mounted pull style door handles appeared for the 1972 model year. In 1973 the 164 received a major facelift including new rear and side lamps, a new grille and front bumper, a new instrument cluster and dashboard which included air ducts. In 1974 the doors were revised and strengthened and the vent wings were eliminated due to the panel vents introduced in 1973, the 164 became one of the earliest cars to offer heated seats; the instrument cluster changed with the introduction of the bulb failure indicator and the fuel gauge received revised markings with the 1/2 mark moved to the centre of the gauge and the red reserve section shrinking significantly. Underneath, the floor pan was revised and the fuel tank was moved from the boot floor to closer to the rear axle for better protection in the case of an accident. A limited edition of the 164, the 164TE was made only in 1974 and only for 3 markets, Great Britain and Australia.
The 164TE had extra accessories fitted as standard, being air conditioning, 4 speaker 8 track player with radio, headlight wipe/wash system, rear head rests, rear reading lamps and a carpeted boot with lighting. This more upmarket version was only available in 3 colours, being metallic light blue, metallic copper and metallic teal. For 1975, the PRV engine was not available for the American market so the 164 was produced for one more year for the American and Japanese markets only although a few were sold; the 164 received new larger 6-panel rear lamps sometime during the 1975 model year, electronic ignition, new seats, electric windows in the front, a new style of badging, extensive changes to the rear suspension, the parking brake handle was moved from outboard to inboard of the driving seat. Due to much of the changes coming from the 200 series, as the 200 series switched to metric bolt patterns, the 164 uses both imperial and metric bolt patterns on the car. For 1975 the 164 was replaced by the 264, powered by the PRV 2.7-liter V6 engine.
The 164 was powered by a 3-litre overhead-valve B30 engine, a 6-cylinder derivative of the B20 4-cylinder engine that powered most other Volvo models. 1969–1971 models were all equipped with dual Zenith Stromberg 175CD2SE constant-depression carburettors. In 1972, Bosch's first volume-production electronic fuel injection system, D-Jetronic, was offered as optional equipment. Carburettors were dropped and "D-Jet" became standard equipment for the 1974 model year. Cars equipped with the fuel injection were badged as the "E" standing for einspritzung. Like other fuel-injected Volvos, the 164E models gave improved performance and driveability with less toxic exhaust than their carburettored counterparts. Performance: Volvo 164E 160hk/DIN. Acc 0–100 km/h 8,7 sec. Acc 0–160 km/h 24,4 sec. Top speed 193,5 km/h. Volvo 164E AUT 160hk/DIN. Acc 0–100 km/h 11,9 sec. Acc 0–160 km/h 35,2 sec. Top speed 188 km/h. References: Autozeitung nr 8-1972 and Autozeitung nr 1-1973. Transmission options included a manual 4-speed M400 gearbox, known as the M410 when equipped with the optional electrically operated Laycock de Normanville overdrive.
Both the M400 and M410 had Volvo's "remote control" shift mechanism, which used a conventionally short, vertical shift stick placed between the front seats. A 3-speed automatic transmission, the BW35 made by Borg-Warner, was offered; the automatic shift selector was mounted on the steering column from 1969 through 1971, on the floor from 1972 through 1975. Despite its rough operation and inefficiency, the BW35 was popular in the North American and Australian markets; the 164 was offered only as a 4-door sedan, shares many body and chassis components with the 144. Despite strenuous calls from Volvo dealers for a 6-cylinder Volvo station wagon, including a prototype built in Melbourne, Australia in 1972 [and, now u
SU carburettors are a brand of carburettor of the constant depression type. The design remained in quantity production for much of the twentieth century; the S. U. Carburetter Company Limited manufactured dual-choke updraught carburettors for aero-engines such as the Rolls-Royce Merlin and Rolls-Royce Griffon. Herbert Skinner, pioneer motorist and an active participant in the development of the petrol engine, invented his Union carburettor in 1904, his much younger brother Carl Skinner a motoring enthusiast, had joined the Farman Automobile Co in London in 1899. He helped Herbert to develop the carburettor. Herbert's son could remember his mother sewing the first leather bellows, it would be given on loan to The Science Museum, South Kensington in 1934. In 1905 Herbert applied for a patent, granted in early 1906. Carl sold his interest in footwear business Lilley & Skinner and became a partner in G Wailes & Co of Euston Road, manufacturers of their carburettor. Herbert continued to develop and patent improvements through to the 1920s including the replacement of the leather bellows by a brass piston though he was a full-time director and divisional manager of Lilley & Skinner.
S. U. Company Limited —Skinner-Union— was incorporated in August 1910 to acquire Herbert's carburettor inventions and it began manufacture of the carburettors in a factory at Prince of Wales Road, Kentish Town in North London. Sales were slow. Following the outbreak of war in 1914 carburettor production nearly stopped with the factory making machine gun parts and some aircraft carburettors. With peace in 1918 production resumed but sales remained slow and the company was not profitable so Carl Skinner approached his customer, W. R. Morris, managed to sell him the business. Carl Skinner became a director of Morris's held empire and remained managing director of S. U. until he retired in 1948 aged 65. Production was moved to the W R Morris owned Wolseley factory at Birmingham. In 1936 W R Morris sold many of his held businesses including S. U. to his listed company, Morris Motors. Manufacture continued, now by The S. U. Carburetter Company Limited, incorporated 15 September 1936 as part of the Morris Organization known as the Nuffield Organization.
The S. U. Carburetter Company Limited of 1936 was voluntarily liquidated in December 1994. In 1996 the name and rights were acquired by Burlen Fuel Systems Limited of Salisbury which incorporated an new company with the name The S. U. Carburetter Company Limited which continues to manufacture carburettors and components for the classic car market. S. U. carburettors were used not only in Morris's Morris and MG products but Rolls-Royce, Rover, Turner, Jaguar and Swedish Volvo, Saab 99 automobiles for much of the twentieth century. S. U. produced carburettors for aircraft engines including the early versions of the Rolls-Royce Merlin, but these were of the conventional fixed-jet updraught type rather than the firm's patented constant-depression design. They remained on production cars through to 1993 in the Mini and the Maestro by which time the company had become part of the Rover Group. Hitachi built carburettors based on the SU design which were used on the Datsun 240Z, Datsun 260Z and other Datsun Cars.
While these appear the same, only their needles are interchangeable. SU carburettors featured a variable venturi controlled by a piston; this piston has a tapered, conical metering rod that fits inside an orifice which admits fuel into the airstream passing through the carburettor. Since the needle is tapered, as it rises and falls it opens and closes the opening in the jet, regulating the passage of fuel, so the movement of the piston controls the amount of fuel delivered, depending on engine demand; the exact dimensions of the taper are tailored during engine development. The flow of air through the venturi creates a reduced static pressure in the venturi; this pressure drop is communicated to the upper side of the piston via an air passage. The underside of the piston is open to atmospheric pressure; the difference in pressure between the two sides of the piston lifts the piston. Opposing this are the weight of the piston and the force of a spring, compressed by the piston rising; because the spring is operating over a small part of its possible range of extension, its force is constant.
Under steady state conditions the upwards and downwards forces on the piston are equal and opposite, the piston does not move. If the airflow into the engine is increased - by opening the throttle plate, or by allowing the engine revs to rise with the throttle plate at a constant setting - the pressure drop in the venturi increases, the pressure above the piston falls, the piston is pushed upwards, increasing the size of the venturi, until the pressure drop in the venturi returns to its nominal level. If the airflow into the engine is reduced, the piston will fall; the result is that the pressure drop in the venturi remains the same regardless of the speed of the airflow - hence the name "constant depression" for carburettors operating on this principle - but the piston rises and falls according to the rate of air delivery. Since the position of the piston controls the position of the needle in the jet and thus the open area of the jet, while the depression in the venturi sucking fuel out of the jet remains constant, the rate of fuel delivery is always a definite function of the rate of air delivery.
The precise nature of the function is determined by the profile of the needle. With appropriate selection of the needle, the fuel delivery can be m
A dashpot is a mechanical device, a damper which resists motion via viscous friction. The resulting force is proportional to the velocity, but acts in the opposite direction, slowing the motion and absorbing energy, it is used in conjunction with a spring. The process and instrumentation diagram symbol for a dashpot is. Two common types of dashpots exist - rotary. Linear dashpots are specified by stroke and damping coefficient. Rotary dashpots will have damping coefficients in torque per angular velocity. A less common type of dashpot is an eddy current damper, which uses a large magnet inside a tube constructed of a non-magnetic but conducting material. Like a common viscous damper, the eddy current damper produces a resistive force proportional to velocity. Dashpots use a one-way mechanical bypass to permit fast unrestricted motion in one direction and slow motion using the dashpot in the opposite direction; this permits, for example, a door to be opened without added resistance, but to close using the dashpot.
For hydraulic dashpots this unrestricted motion is accomplished using a one-way check-valve that allows fluid to bypass the dashpot fluid constriction. Non-hydraulic dashpots may use a ratcheting gear to permit free motion in one direction. A dashpot is a common component in a door closer to prevent it from slamming shut. A spring applies force to close the door, the dashpot forces fluid to flow through an orifice between reservoirs, which slows the motion of the door. Consumer electronics use dashpots where it is undesirable for a media access door or control panel to pop open when the door latch is released; the dashpot provides a steady, gentle motion until the access door has opened. Dashpots are used in dampers and shock absorbers; the hydraulic cylinder in an automobile shock absorber is a dashpot. They are used on carburetors, where the return of the throttle lever is cushioned just before the throttle closes is allowed to close to reduce emissions; the British SU carburettor's main piston carries a stepped needle.
This needle is held in the fuel flow orifice. The manifold vacuum causes this piston to rise allowing more fuel into the airflow; the SU's dashpot has a fixed hydraulic piston. A valve in the piston disables the damping as the main piston returns. Large forces and high speeds can be controlled by dashpots. For example, they are used to arrest the steam catapults on aircraft carrier decks. Relays can be made to have a long delay by utilizing a piston filled with fluid, allowed to escape slowly. Electrical switchgear may use dashpots in their overcurrent sensing mechanism to reduce reaction speed to brief events, thus making them less sensitive to false-triggering during transients whilst still remaining sensitive to sustained overloads. Another use is for delaying the opening of an electrical circuit; such a dashpot timer might be used for example for timed staircase lighting. Anti-stall mechanisms in internal combustion engines are aimed to prevent stalling of the engine at low rpm. Anti-stall mechanisms use dashpots to arrest the final closing movement of the throttle.
Dashpots are used to form models of materials that exhibit viscoelastic behavior, such as muscle tissue. Maxwell and Kelvin–Voigt models of viscoelasticity use springs and dashpots in series and parallel circuits respectively. Models containing dashpots add a viscous, time dependent, element to the behavior of solids allowing complex behaviors like creep and stress relaxation to be modeled. Staircase timer Julius O. Smith III. "Dashpot". Physical Audio Signal Processing. CCRMA,Stanford University's. Retrieved 18 February 2014