David Hilbert was a German mathematician and one of the most influential and universal mathematicians of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Hilbert discovered and developed a broad range of fundamental ideas in many areas, including invariant theory, calculus of variations, commutative algebra, algebraic number theory, the foundations of geometry, spectral theory of operators and its application to integral equations, mathematical physics, foundations of mathematics. Hilbert warmly defended Georg Cantor's set theory and transfinite numbers. A famous example of his leadership in mathematics is his 1900 presentation of a collection of problems that set the course for much of the mathematical research of the 20th century. Hilbert and his students contributed to establishing rigor and developed important tools used in modern mathematical physics. Hilbert is known as one of the founders of proof theory and mathematical logic, as well as for being among the first to distinguish between mathematics and metamathematics.
Hilbert, the first of two children of Otto and Maria Therese Hilbert, was born in the Province of Prussia, Kingdom of Prussia, either in Königsberg or in Wehlau near Königsberg where his father worked at the time of his birth. In late 1872, Hilbert entered the Friedrichskolleg Gymnasium. Upon graduation, in autumn 1880, Hilbert enrolled at the University of Königsberg, the "Albertina". In early 1882, Hermann Minkowski, returned to Königsberg and entered the university. Hilbert developed a lifelong friendship with the gifted Minkowski. In 1884, Adolf Hurwitz arrived from Göttingen as an Extraordinarius. An intense and fruitful scientific exchange among the three began, Minkowski and Hilbert would exercise a reciprocal influence over each other at various times in their scientific careers. Hilbert obtained his doctorate in 1885, with a dissertation, written under Ferdinand von Lindemann, titled Über invariante Eigenschaften spezieller binärer Formen, insbesondere der Kugelfunktionen. Hilbert remained at the University of Königsberg as a Privatdozent from 1886 to 1895.
In 1895, as a result of intervention on his behalf by Felix Klein, he obtained the position of Professor of Mathematics at the University of Göttingen. During the Klein and Hilbert years, Göttingen became the preeminent institution in the mathematical world, he remained there for the rest of his life. Among Hilbert's students were Hermann Weyl, chess champion Emanuel Lasker, Ernst Zermelo, Carl Gustav Hempel. John von Neumann was his assistant. At the University of Göttingen, Hilbert was surrounded by a social circle of some of the most important mathematicians of the 20th century, such as Emmy Noether and Alonzo Church. Among his 69 Ph. D. students in Göttingen were many who became famous mathematicians, including: Otto Blumenthal, Felix Bernstein, Hermann Weyl, Richard Courant, Erich Hecke, Hugo Steinhaus, Wilhelm Ackermann. Between 1902 and 1939 Hilbert was editor of the Mathematische Annalen, the leading mathematical journal of the time. "Good, he did not have enough imagination to become a mathematician".
Around 1925, Hilbert developed pernicious anemia, a then-untreatable vitamin deficiency whose primary symptom is exhaustion. Those forced out included Hermann Weyl, Emmy Noether and Edmund Landau. One who had to leave Germany, Paul Bernays, had collaborated with Hilbert in mathematical logic, co-authored with him the important book Grundlagen der Mathematik; this was a sequel to the Hilbert-Ackermann book Principles of Mathematical Logic from 1928. Hermann Weyl's successor was Helmut Hasse. About a year Hilbert attended a banquet and was seated next to the new Minister of Education, Bernhard Rust. Rust asked whether "the Mathematical Institute suffered so much because of the departure of the Jews". Hilbert replied, "Suffered? It doesn't exist any longer, does it!" By the time Hilbert died in 1943, the Nazis had nearly restaffed the university, as many of the former faculty had either been Jewish or married to Jews. Hilbert's funeral was attended by fewer than a dozen people, only two of whom were fellow academics, among them Arnold Sommerfeld, a theoretical physicist and a native of Königsberg.
News of his death only became known to the wider world six months. The epitaph on his tombstone in Göttingen consists of the famous lines he spoke at the conclusion of his retirement address to the Society of German Scientists and Physicians on 8 September 1930; the words were given in response to the Latin maxim: "Ignoramus et ignorabimus" or "We do not know, we shall not know": Wir müssen wissen. Wir werden wissen. In English: We mus
Christian Felix Klein was a German mathematician and mathematics educator, known for his work with group theory, complex analysis, non-Euclidean geometry, on the associations between geometry and group theory. His 1872 Erlangen Program, classifying geometries by their basic symmetry groups, was an influential synthesis of much of the mathematics of the time. Felix Klein was born on 25 April 1849 to Prussian parents. Klein's mother was Sophie Elise Klein, he attended the Gymnasium in Düsseldorf studied mathematics and physics at the University of Bonn, 1865–1866, intending to become a physicist. At that time, Julius Plücker had Bonn's professorship of mathematics and experimental physics, but by the time Klein became his assistant, during 1866, Plücker's interest was geometry. Klein received his doctorate, supervised by Plücker, from the University of Bonn during 1868. Plücker died during 1868. Klein was the obvious person to complete the second part of Plücker's Neue Geometrie des Raumes, thus became acquainted with Alfred Clebsch, who had relocated to Göttingen during 1868.
Klein visited Clebsch the next year, along with visits to Paris. During July 1870, at the beginning of the Franco-Prussian War, he was in Paris and had to leave the country. For a brief time he served as a medical orderly in the Prussian army before being appointed lecturer at Göttingen during early 1871. Erlangen appointed Klein professor during 1872. For this, he was endorsed by Clebsch, who regarded him as to become the best mathematician of his time. Klein did not desire a school at Erlangen where there were few students, so he was pleased to be offered a professorship at Munich's Technische Hochschule during 1875. There he and Alexander von Brill taught advanced courses to many excellent students, Adolf Hurwitz, Walther von Dyck, Karl Rohn, Carl Runge, Max Planck, Luigi Bianchi, Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro. During 1875 Klein married Anne Hegel, the granddaughter of the philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. After five years at the Technische Hochschule, Klein was appointed to a chair of geometry at Leipzig.
There his colleagues included Walther von Dyck, Eduard Study and Friedrich Engel. Klein's years at Leipzig, 1880 to 1886, fundamentally changed his life. During 1882, his health collapsed. Nonetheless his research continued. Klein accepted a professorship at the University of Göttingen during 1886. From until his 1913 retirement, he sought to re-establish Göttingen as the world's main mathematics research center, yet he never managed to transfer from Leipzig to Göttingen his own primacy as a developer of geometry. At Göttingen, he taught a variety of courses concerning the interface between mathematics and physics, such as mechanics and potential theory; the research facility Klein established at Göttingen served as a model for the best such facilities throughout the world. He introduced weekly discussion meetings, created a mathematical reading room and library. During 1895, Klein hired David Hilbert away from the University of Königsberg. With Klein's editorship, Mathematische Annalen became one of the best mathematics journals in the world.
Founded by Clebsch, only with Klein's management did it first rival surpass Crelle's Journal based in the University of Berlin. Klein established a small team of editors who met making democratic decisions; the journal specialized in complex analysis, algebraic geometry, invariant theory. It provided an important outlet for real analysis and the new group theory. During 1893 in Chicago, Klein was a major speaker at the International Mathematical Congress held as part of the World's Columbian Exposition. Due to Klein's efforts, Göttingen began admitting women during 1893, he supervised the first Ph. D. thesis in mathematics written at Göttingen by a woman. During 1897 Klein became a foreign member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Sciences. About 1900, Klein began to become interested in mathematical instruction in schools. During 1905, he was decisive in formulating a plan recommending that analytic geometry, the rudiments of differential and integral calculus, the function concept be taught in secondary schools.
This recommendation was implemented in many countries around the world. During 1908, Klein was elected president of the International Commission on Mathematical Instruction at the Rome International Congress of Mathematicians. With his guidance, the German part of the Commission published many volumes on the teaching of mathematics at all levels in Germany; the London Mathematical Society awarded Klein its De Morgan Medal during 1893. He was elected a member of the Royal Society during 1885, was awarded its Copley Medal during 1912, he retired the next year due to ill health, but continued to teach mathematics at his home for some years more. Klein was one of the 93 signatories of the Manifesto of the Ninety-Three, a document penned in support of the German invasion of Belgium in the early stages of World War I. Klein had the title of Geheimrat, he died in Göttingen during 1925. Klein's dissertation
Niels Henrik David Bohr was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922. Bohr was a philosopher and a promoter of scientific research. Bohr developed the Bohr model of the atom, in which he proposed that energy levels of electrons are discrete and that the electrons revolve in stable orbits around the atomic nucleus but can jump from one energy level to another. Although the Bohr model has been supplanted by other models, its underlying principles remain valid, he conceived the principle of complementarity: that items could be separately analysed in terms of contradictory properties, like behaving as a wave or a stream of particles. The notion of complementarity dominated Bohr's thinking in both philosophy. Bohr founded the Institute of Theoretical Physics at the University of Copenhagen, now known as the Niels Bohr Institute, which opened in 1920. Bohr mentored and collaborated with physicists including Hans Kramers, Oskar Klein, George de Hevesy, Werner Heisenberg.
He predicted the existence of a new zirconium-like element, named hafnium, after the Latin name for Copenhagen, where it was discovered. The element bohrium was named after him. During the 1930s, Bohr helped refugees from Nazism. After Denmark was occupied by the Germans, he had a famous meeting with Heisenberg, who had become the head of the German nuclear weapon project. In September 1943, word reached Bohr that he was about to be arrested by the Germans, he fled to Sweden. From there, he was flown to Britain, where he joined the British Tube Alloys nuclear weapons project, was part of the British mission to the Manhattan Project. After the war, Bohr called for international cooperation on nuclear energy, he was involved with the establishment of CERN and the Research Establishment Risø of the Danish Atomic Energy Commission and became the first chairman of the Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics in 1957. Bohr was born in Copenhagen, Denmark, on 7 October 1885, the second of three children of Christian Bohr, a professor of physiology at the University of Copenhagen, Ellen Adler Bohr, who came from a wealthy Danish Jewish family prominent in banking and parliamentary circles.
He had an elder sister, a younger brother Harald. Jenny became a teacher, while Harald became a mathematician and Olympic footballer who played for the Danish national team at the 1908 Summer Olympics in London. Bohr was a passionate footballer as well, the two brothers played several matches for the Copenhagen-based Akademisk Boldklub, with Bohr as goalkeeper. Bohr was educated at Gammelholm Latin School. In 1903, Bohr enrolled as an undergraduate at Copenhagen University, his major was physics, which he studied under Professor Christian Christiansen, the university's only professor of physics at that time. He studied astronomy and mathematics under Professor Thorvald Thiele, philosophy under Professor Harald Høffding, a friend of his father. In 1905, a gold medal competition was sponsored by the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters to investigate a method for measuring the surface tension of liquids, proposed by Lord Rayleigh in 1879; this involved measuring the frequency of oscillation of the radius of a water jet.
Bohr conducted a series of experiments using his father's laboratory in the university. To complete his experiments, he had to make his own glassware, creating test tubes with the required elliptical cross-sections, he went beyond the original task, incorporating improvements into both Rayleigh's theory and his method, by taking into account the viscosity of the water, by working with finite amplitudes instead of just infinitesimal ones. His essay, which he submitted at the last minute, won the prize, he submitted an improved version of the paper to the Royal Society in London for publication in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. Harald became the first of the two Bohr brothers to earn a master's degree, which he earned for mathematics in April 1909. Niels took another nine months to earn his. Students had to submit a thesis on a subject assigned by their supervisor. Bohr's supervisor was Christiansen, the topic he chose was the electron theory of metals. Bohr subsequently elaborated his master's thesis into his much-larger Doctor of Philosophy thesis.
He surveyed the literature on the subject, settling on a model postulated by Paul Drude and elaborated by Hendrik Lorentz, in which the electrons in a metal are considered to behave like a gas. Bohr extended Lorentz's model, but was still unable to account for phenomena like the Hall effect, concluded that electron theory could not explain the magnetic properties of metals; the thesis was accepted in April 1911, Bohr conducted his formal defence on 13 May. Harald had received his doctorate the previous year. Bohr's thesis was groundbreaking, but attracted little interest outside Scandinavia because it was written in Danish, a Copenhagen University requirement at the time. In 1921, the Dutch physicist Hendrika Johanna van Leeuwen would independently derive a theorem from Bohr's thesis, today known as the Bohr–van Leeuwen theorem. In 1910, Bohr met the sister of the mathematician Niels Erik Nørlund. Bohr resigned his membership in the Church of Denmark on 16 April 1912, he and Margrethe were married in a civil ceremony at the town hall in Slagelse on 1 August.
Years his brother Harald left the church before getting married. Bohr and Margrethe had six sons; the oldest, died in a boating acciden
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
European Mathematical Society
The European Mathematical Society is a European organization dedicated to the development of mathematics in Europe. Its members are different mathematical societies in Europe, academic institutions and individual mathematicians; the current president is Pavel Exner, Scientific Director of the Doppler Institute for Mathematical Physics and Applied Mathematics in Prague. The Society seeks to serve all kinds of mathematicians in universities, research institutes and other forms of higher education, its aims are to Promote mathematical research, both pure and applied and advise on problems of mathematical education, Concern itself with the broader relations of mathematics to society, Foster interaction between mathematicians of different countries, Establish a sense of identity amongst European mathematicians, Represent the mathematical community in supra-national institutions. The EMS is itself an Affiliate Member of the International Mathematical Union and an Associate Member of the International Council for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.
The precursor to the EMS, the European Mathematical Council was founded in 1978 at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Helsinki. This informal federation of mathematical societies was chaired by Sir Michael Atiyah; the European Mathematical Society was founded on 28 October 1990 in Mądralin near Warsaw, with Friedrich Hirzebruch as founding President. The EMS had 27 member societies; the first European Congress of Mathematics was held at the Sorbonne and Panthéon-Sorbonne universities in Paris in 1992, is now held every 4 years at different locations around Europe, organised by the EMS. The next ECM will be in 2020 in Portoroz in Slovenia. Friedrich Hirzebruch, 1990 - 1994 Jean-Pierre Bourguignon, 1995 - 1998 Rolf Jeltsch, 1999 - 2002 John Kingman, 2003 - 2006 Ari Laptev, 2007 - 2010 Marta Sanz-Solé, 2011 - 2014 Pavel Exner, 2015 - 2018 Volker Mehrmann, 2019 - 2023 The governing body of the EMS is its Council, which comprises delegates representing all of the societies which are themselves members of the EMS, along with delegates representing the institutional and individual EMS members.
The Council meets every 2 years, appoints the President and Executive Committee who are responsible for the running of the society. Besides the Executive Committee, the EMS has standing committees on: Applied Mathematics, Developing Countries, Mathematical Education, ERCOM, European Solidarity, Meetings and Electronic Dissemination, Raising Public Awareness of Mathematics, Women in Mathematics; the EMS's rules are set down in its Bylaws. The EMS is headquartered at the University of Helsinki; the European Congress of Mathematics is held every four years under the Society's auspices, at which ten EMS Prizes are awarded to "recognize excellent contributions in Mathematics by young researchers not older than 35 years". Since 2000, the Felix Klein Prize has been awarded to "a young scientist or a small group of young scientists for using sophisticated methods to give an outstanding solution, which meets with the complete satisfaction of industry, to a concrete and difficult industrial problem."
Since 2012, the Otto Neugebauer Prize has been awarded to a researcher or group of researchers'"for original and influential work in the field of history of mathematics that enhances our understanding of either the development of mathematics or a particular mathematical subject in any period and in any geographical region". Here are the awardees so far. EMS Prizes: Richard Borcherds F – Jens Franke – Alexander Goncharov – Maxim Kontsevich F – François Labourie – Tomasz Łuczak – Stefan Müller – Vladimír Šverák – Gábor Tardos – Claire Voisin EMS Prizes: Alexis Bonnet – Timothy Gowers F – Annette Huber-Klawitter – Aise Johan de Jong – Dmitry Kramkov – Jiří Matoušek – Loïc Merel – Grigori Perelman F, declined – Ricardo Pérez-Marco – Leonid Polterovich EMS Prizes: Semyon Alesker – Raphaël Cerf – Dennis Gaitsgory – Emmanuel Grenier – Dominic Joyce – Vincent Lafforgue – Michael McQuillan – Stefan Nemirovski – Paul Seidel – Wendelin Werner FFelix Klein Prize: David C. Dobson EMS Prizes: Franck Barthe – Stefano Bianchini – Paul Biran – Elon Lindenstrauss F – Andrei Okounkov F – Sylvia Serfaty – Stanislav Smirnov F – Xavier Tolsa – Warwick Tucker – Otmar Venjakob Felix Klein Prize: Not Awarded EMS Prizes: Artur Avila F – Alexei Borodin – Ben J. Green – Olga Holtz – Boáz Klartag – Alexander Kuznetsov – Assaf Naor – Laure Saint-Raymond – Agata Smoktunowicz – Cédric Villani FFelix Klein Prize: Josselin Garnier EMS Prizes: Simon Brendle - Emmanuel Breuillard - Alessio Figalli F - Adrian Ioana - Mathieu Lewin - Ciprian Manolescu - Grégory Miermont - Sophie Morel - Tom Sanders - Corinna Ulcigrai - Felix Klein Prize: Emmanuel Trélat Otto Neugebauer Prize: Jan P. Hogendijk EMS Prizes: Sara Zahedi - Mark Braverman - Vincent Calvez - Guido de Philippis - Peter Scholze F - Péter Varjú
Jews or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites and Hebrews of historical Israel and Judah. Jewish ethnicity and religion are interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish people, while its observance varies from strict observance to complete nonobservance. Jews originated as an ethnic and religious group in the Middle East during the second millennium BCE, in the part of the Levant known as the Land of Israel; the Merneptah Stele appears to confirm the existence of a people of Israel somewhere in Canaan as far back as the 13th century BCE. The Israelites, as an outgrowth of the Canaanite population, consolidated their hold with the emergence of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah; some consider that these Canaanite sedentary Israelites melded with incoming nomadic groups known as'Hebrews'. Though few sources mention the exilic periods in detail, the experience of diaspora life, from the Ancient Egyptian rule over the Levant, to Assyrian captivity and exile, to Babylonian captivity and exile, to Seleucid Imperial rule, to the Roman occupation and exile, the historical relations between Jews and their homeland thereafter, became a major feature of Jewish history and memory.
Prior to World War II, the worldwide Jewish population reached a peak of 16.7 million, representing around 0.7% of the world population at that time. 6 million Jews were systematically murdered during the Holocaust. Since the population has risen again, as of 2016 was estimated at 14.4 million by the Berman Jewish DataBank, less than 0.2% of the total world population. The modern State of Israel is the only country, it defines itself as a Jewish and democratic state in the Basic Laws, Human Dignity and Liberty in particular, based on the Declaration of Independence. Israel's Law of Return grants the right of citizenship to Jews who have expressed their desire to settle in Israel. Despite their small percentage of the world's population, Jews have influenced and contributed to human progress in many fields, both and in modern times, including philosophy, literature, business, fine arts and architecture, music and cinema, science and technology, as well as religion. Jews have played a significant role in the development of Western Civilization.
The English word "Jew" continues Iewe. These terms derive from Old French giu, earlier juieu, which through elision had dropped the letter "d" from the Medieval Latin Iudaeus, like the New Testament Greek term Ioudaios, meant both "Jew" and "Judean" / "of Judea"; the Greek term was a loan from Aramaic Y'hūdāi, corresponding to Hebrew יְהוּדִי Yehudi the term for a member of the tribe of Judah or the people of the kingdom of Judah. According to the Hebrew Bible, the name of both the tribe and kingdom derive from Judah, the fourth son of Jacob. Genesis 29:35 and 49:8 connect the name "Judah" with the verb yada, meaning "praise", but scholars agree that the name of both the patriarch and the kingdom instead have a geographic origin—possibly referring to the gorges and ravines of the region; the Hebrew word for "Jew" is יְהוּדִי Yehudi, with the plural יְהוּדִים Yehudim. Endonyms in other Jewish languages include the Yiddish ייִד Yid; the etymological equivalent is in use in other languages, e.g. يَهُودِيّ yahūdī, al-yahūd, in Arabic, "Jude" in German, "judeu" in Portuguese, "Juif" /"Juive" in French, "jøde" in Danish and Norwegian, "judío/a" in Spanish, "jood" in Dutch, "żyd" in Polish etc. but derivations of the word "Hebrew" are in use to describe a Jew, e.g. in Italian, in Persian and Russian.
The German word "Jude" is pronounced, the corresponding adjective "jüdisch" is the origin of the word "Yiddish". According to The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, fourth edition, It is recognized that the attributive use of the noun Jew, in phrases such as Jew lawyer or Jew ethics, is both vulgar and offensive. In such contexts Jewish is the only acceptable possibility; some people, have become so wary of this construction that they have extended the stigma to any use of Jew as a noun, a practice that carries risks of its own. In a sentence such as There are now several Jews on the council, unobjectionable, the substitution of a circumlocution like Jewish people or persons of Jewish background may in itself cause offense for seeming to imply that Jew has a negative connotation when used as a noun. Judaism shares some of the characteristics of a nation, an ethnicity, a religion, a culture, making the definition of, a Jew vary depending on whether a religious or national approach to identity is used.
In modern secular usage Jews include three groups: people who were born to a Jewish family regardless of whether or not they follow the religion, those who have some Jewish ancestral background or lineage, people without any Jewish ancestral background or lineage who have formally converted to Judaism and therefore are followers of the religion. Historical definitions of Jewish identity have traditionally been based on halakhic definitions of matrilineal descent, halakhic conversions; these definitions of, a Jew date back to the codification of the Oral