Azpeitia is a town and municipality within the province of Gipuzkoa, in the Basque Country of Spain, located on the Urola river a few kilometres east of Azkoitia. Its population is 14,580, it is located 41 kilometres southwest of Donostia/San Sebastián. Azpeitia is the birthplace of Ignatius of Loyola; the house of his birth is now preserved as a part of large Jesuit compound, the Sanctuary of Loyola, a major attraction of tourists and pilgrims alike. It is the birthplace of Renaissance composer Juan de Anchieta. Azpeitia lies at the foot of the massive Izarraitz towering over the town and much visited by the townspeople. Azpeitia Railway Museum is located in the town. Azpeitia was incorporated in 1310 by a royal decree of King Fernando IV, its original name was “Garmendia de Iraurgi” and a year it was renamed “Salvatierra de Iraurgi”. The name “Azpeitia” is first found in 1397. During the 13th and 14th centuries there were many battles and wars among prominent families in the town between the Oñatz and Gamboa families.
In 1766, there was revolt in the town against King Carlos V’s policy of liberalizing the selling and buying of wheat and a rebellious town council was established. However, the revolt was suppressed by troops sent from San Sebastian; the steel and wood industries have been the main industries in Azpeitia. The Sanctuary of Loyola is its major local tourist attraction, together with the Basque Railway Museum, he was born in Loyola, Azpeitia, in 1491 and died in Rome in 1556. His family was part of the aristocracy of Biscay; as a young man he worked in the service of the viceroy of Navarre. He was injured in both legs during the defence of Pamplona in 1521. Afterwards, during his convalescence, he started reading religious books; this had a big impact on his life. He travelled to Catalonia, first to the monastery of Montserrat in 1522 and to Manresa, where he retired to a cave to meditate for a year. Afterwards he wrote The Book of Spiritual Exercises. After various journeys to Rome, Alcalá de Henares and Salamanca, he went to Paris in 1528, where he studied philosophy and theology.
Together with some other students he founded the core of the Society of Jesus, which received Papal approval in 1540 and chose St. Ignatius as its superior general. Afterwards, the Jesuits spread all over the world, starting in Europe and to the Americas; when he died, St Ignatius was canonised by the Roman Catholic Church. The museum is situated in the old Urola railway station, on a line which connected Zumaia and Zumárraga; the Basque Railway Museum has one of the best railway collections in Europe, with vehicles of all types: steam locomotives and electric. In addition, the museum offers one of the most complete sets of machine tools in the Basque Country from the old Urola Railway garage; this installation is preserved just as it was inaugurated in 1925, with an old electric motor that drives its 16 machines through a complex system of pulleys and belts. The line is no longer operative. However, the train between Azpeitia and Lasao is an important tourist attraction; the amazing facilities of the old electrical transformer plant with its original equipment rectification, mercury vapor, reflect the most modern technology of a century ago.
On the first floor of the central building of the old station at Azpeitia, there is an exceptional sample of the uniforms used in the railroads since the late nineteenth century to the AVE. On the second floor is a great collection of railway clocks. Nowadays, the train museum is operated by Eusko Tren, a public railway company run by the Basque government; this line is no longer operated as a service. A recent study supported by the Basque government, "Azpeitia 1936-1945" examines daily life in the period and an index of Azpeitians of the time with a summary of their political activities during and after the Civil War, it contains reproductions of many of the historical documents of the time. In Azpeitia, the main opposing sides were the Carlists, who supported the Nationalists, the Basque Nationalists from EAJ-PNV. There were falangists and left-wing militants and some anarchists. Nationalist troops entered Azpeitia in September, 1936. Shortly afterwards, a new council was created dominated by traditionalists.
Azpeita has always been characterized by a wide use of the Basque language, but its use diminished after Franco´s victory. Franco himself visited Azpeitia in 1939 and in 1945, its building process started in 1320. It was the property of one of the most powerful Basque families of the Oñatz family. In 1456, the upper part of the tower was destroyed by order of Henry IV, it was repaired in 1535. In 1750, numerous baroque elements typical of the time were added and the tower, now a palace, acquired its current appearance. Nowadays, the palace is Azpeitia´s local public library, it is situated halfway between Loyola. It was built in early 14th centuries, it contains a polychrome Gothic carving of Our Lady of Olatz, for whom it is said that San Ignatius felt a special devotion. The private boards of Gipuzkoa held their meetings here until the beginning of the 18th century. In 1535, after completing his studies in Paris, when Íñigo de Loyola arrived in Azpeitia, he was ill. However, instead of residing in the family tower house, he chose to stay in this hospital and leprosarium, together with the poorest patients.
He used to preach there. He is said to have walked the streets begging for food and help for th
A municipality is a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished from the county, which may encompass rural territory or numerous small communities such as towns and hamlets; the term municipality may mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district; the term is derived from French Latin municipalis. The English word municipality derives from the Latin social contract municipium, referring to the Latin communities that supplied Rome with troops in exchange for their own incorporation into the Roman state while permitting the communities to retain their own local governments. A municipality can be any political jurisdiction from a sovereign state, such as the Principality of Monaco, to a small village, such as West Hampton Dunes, New York.
The territory over which a municipality has jurisdiction may encompass only one populated place such as a city, town, or village several of such places only parts of such places, sometimes boroughs of a city such as the 34 municipalities of Santiago, Chile. Powers of municipalities range from virtual autonomy to complete subordination to the state. Municipalities may have the right to tax individuals and corporations with income tax, property tax, corporate income tax, but may receive substantial funding from the state. In various countries, municipalities are referred to as "communes", notably in Romance languages such as French commune, Italian comune, Romanian comună, Spanish comuna, in Germanic languages such as German Kommune, Swedish kommun, Faroese kommuna, Norwegian, Danish kommune. However, in Moldova and Romania exist both municipalities and communes, a commune may be part of a municipality. Similar terms include Spanish ayuntamiento called municipalidad, Polish gmina, Dutch/Flemish Gemeente and Luxembourgish Gemeng.
In Australia, the term local government area is used in place of the generic municipality. Here, the "LGA Structure covers only incorporated areas of Australia. Incorporated areas are designated parts of states and territories over which incorporated local governing bodies have responsibility." In Canada, municipalities are local governments established through provincial and territorial legislation within general municipal statutes. Types of municipalities within Canada include cities, district municipalities, municipal districts, parishes, rural municipalities, townships and villes among others; the Province of Ontario has different tiers of municipalities, including lower and single tiers. Types of upper tier municipalities in Ontario include regional municipalities. Nova Scotia has regional municipalities, which include cities, districts, or towns as municipal units. In India, a Municipality or Nagar Palika is an urban local body that administers a city of population 100,000 or more. However, there are exceptions to that, as Municipality were constituted in urban centers with population over 20,000, so all the urban bodies which were classified as Municipality were reclassified as Municipality if their population was under 100,000.
Under the Panchayati Raj system, it interacts directly with the state government, though it is administratively part of the district it is located in. Smaller district cities and bigger towns have a Municipality. Municipality are a form of local self-government entrusted with some duties and responsibilities, as enshrined in the Constitutional Act,1992. In the United Kingdom, the term was used until the 1972 Local Government Act came into effect in 1974 in England and Wales, until 1975 in Scotland and 1976 in Northern Ireland, "both for a city or town, organized for self-government under a municipal corporation, for the governing body itself; such a corporation in Great Britain consists of a head as a mayor or provost, of superior members, as aldermen and councillors". Since local government reorganisation, the unit in England, Northern Ireland and Wales is known as a district, in Scotland as a council area. A district can retain its district title. In Jersey, a municipality refers to the honorary officials elected to run each of the 12 parishes into which it is subdivided.
This is the highest level of regional government in this jurisdiction. In Trinidad and Tobago, "municipality" is understood as a city, town, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. A town may be awarded borough status and on may be upgraded to city status. Chaguanas, San Fernando, Port of Spain and Point Fortin are the 5 current municipalities in Trinidad and Tobago. In the United States, "municipality" is understood as a city, village, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. In a state law contex
Aretxabaleta is a town in the province of Gipuzkoa, in the Autonomous Community of Basque Country, northern Spain. It is located on the Bergara road adjacent to its larger northern neighbor, the city of Arrasate, the smaller Eskoriatza to the south. In the past, the Basque name "Aretxabaleta" was used, both in Spanish and in English with the Spanish spelling, Arechavaleta; the local government decided to change the spelling to the Basque "Aretxabaleta" on June 4, 1979. Their decision was authorized by Spanish central government on March 3, 1981. Official Website Information Basque. ARETXABALETA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Information available in Spanish
Eibar is a city and municipality within the province of Gipuzkoa, in the Basque Country of Spain. It is the head town of one of the comarcas of Gipuzkoa. Eibar has 27,138 inhabitants, its chief industry is metal manufacturing, has been known since the 16th century for the manufacture of armaments finely engraved small arms. It was the home of Serveta scooters, it is home to the SD Eibar football team in La Liga. Eibar lies at an altitude of 121m above sea level, in the west of the province of Gipuzkoa, right next to Biscay. Eibar has an oceanic climate; the town lies in a narrow valley in a mountainous area, the highest mountains are between 700 and 800 metres high. Eibar is traversed by river Ego, a tributary of the Deba. Apart from the urban area, the municipality consists of five rural neighbourhoods: Otaola-Kinarraga, Arrate and Gorosta; the city was chartered by Alfonso XI of Castile in 1346, receiving the name of Villanueva de San Andrés de Heybar. The feudal families that dominated the territory engaged in the War of the Bands.
Eibar, like the rest of settlements in the valley, had an industry based on finery forges and the manufacture of arms. In 1766, Eibar got engaged in a social revolt known as the Machinada, years in 1794, it was attacked by the French, who destroyed the town. In the 19th century, industrialisation transformed the production systems in the city and was accompanied by an important social movement. In the Carlist Wars, Eibar sided with the Liberals. Labour movement and socialism became strong in Eibar. In 1931, Eibar was the first city in Spain to proclaim the Second Spanish Republic. In the Spanish Civil War, Eibar was destroyed; the rebuilding brought important industrial development and a demographic increase, as Eibar reached nearly 40,000 inhabitants in a few years. Due to the lack of space for enlargements, several factories moved to Álava; the industrial crisis in the 1980s made Eibar lose a great part of its population. At the beginning of the 21st century, Eibar's economy is based on industry and services.
Church of San Andrés, built during the 16th and 17th centuries, it has a Gothic style with Renaissance and Baroque elements. Sanctuary of the Virgin of Arrate, from the beginning of the 17th century. Hermitage of Azitain, it contains an odd 17th-century beardless Christ. Palace of Unzueta, from the 17th century. Palace of Aldatze, from the 17th century. Palace of Markeskua, from the 16th century. City Hall, built in concrete over the river Ego, designed by architect Ramón Cortázar and inaugurated on 14 September 1901. Coliseo Theatre, inaugurated in 1947 and refurbished in 2007. RoadEibar is traversed by the AP-8 motorway connecting Bilbao and the French border, the N-634 road running pararell to it; the AP-1 motorway connects Vitoria-Gasteiz. AP-8 and AP-1 meet at the Maltzaga motorway junction located in the east of Eibar. Regular and frequent bus services under Lurraldebus connect Eibar to neighbouring towns, San Sebastián, Vitoria-Gasteiz and Bilbao Airport. BizkaiBus provides frequent bus services to and from Bilbao.
ALSA runs a daily service to and from Madrid-Barajas Madrid. Eibar has an urban bus service called Udalbus. Railway Eibar is located on the Bilbao-San Sebastián narrow gauge railway line. Trains operated by Euskotren run and to Bilbao-Matiko station and Donostia-Amara station. Services are more frequent in the Ermua-Eibar-Elgoibar section; the Industrial Technical Engineering School of Eibar is part of the University of the Basque Country. The Escuela de Armería, founded in 1913, is the oldest vocational training school in Spain. FootballEibar is home to SD Eibar; the team plays at the Ipurua Municipal Stadium. Basque pelotaThe Astelena fronton, nicknamed the Cathedral of Basque Hand-pelota, is a regular venue of the hand-pelota professional circuit competitions the Bare-handed Pelota First League, the Bare-handed Pelota First League Doubles and the Cuatro y Medio Euskadi Championship. CyclingSince 2009, the city hosts an annual stage finish in the Tour of Basque Country after the riders have climbed the Alto de Arrate.
Before 2009, this was a traditional finish in the Euskal Bizikleta, which originated in Eibar as Bicicleta Eibarresa. The Arrate-finish has been included in the Vuelta a España in 1972, 1974 and 2012. Francisco de Ibarra and conqueror Martín Ignacio de Loyola and navigator Ignacio de Soroeta, Governor of Paraguay Juan Antonio Mogel, writer Ignacio Zuloaga, painter Ciriaco Errasti, footballer Baltasar Albéniz, football manager Roberto Etxebarria Arruti, footballer Miguel Gallastegui, Basque pelotari Alberto Ormaetxea and football manager Luis Aranberri and journalist Javier Aguirresarobe, cinematographer Koldo Zuazo, linguist Enrique Zuazua, mathematician Maite Zúñiga, athlete Pedro Horrillo, cyclist Markel Susaeta, footballer Jon Errasti, footballer Markel Alberdi, swimmer Mikel Oyarzabal, footballer Official website eibar.org Eibar's pages EIBAR in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Mondragón known as Arrasate/Mondragón is a town and municipality in Gipuzkoa province, Basque Country, Spain. Its population in 2015 was 21,933; the town is best known as the birthplace of the Mondragón Cooperative Corporation, the world's largest worker cooperative, whose foundation was inspired in the 1940s by the Catholic priest José María Arizmendiarrieta. In 2002 the MCC contributed 3.7% towards the total GDP of the Basque Country and 7.6% to the industrial GDP. The valley of the High Deba where the town is located enjoyed a high level of employment in the 1980s while the rest of the Basque industrial areas suffered from the steel crisis. Noted poverty expert and sociology professor Barbara J. Peters of Southampton College, Long Island University, has studied the incorporated and resident-owned town of Mondragón. "In Mondragón, I saw no signs of poverty. I saw no signs of extreme wealth," Peters said. "I saw people looking out for each other….. It's a caring form of capitalism.”The spa at Santa Águeda was the location of the 1897 murder of Spanish politician Antonio Cánovas del Castillo by Michele Angiolillo.
Mondragón serves as base of Mondragón University, a private university created in 1997, connected with the MCC companies. All of the university's graduates find their first job within three months after completing their studies due to this strong link. Mondragón University is divided into engineering and enterprise faculties; the faculty of engineering is in Mondragon and Goierri. The humanities faculty is in Eskoriatza and the enterprise faculty is in Bidasoa and Oñati; the student enrollment is 3,500 and is growing. The majority of the students are from Gipuzkoa and surrounding villages, although in the last few years, the number of students from Bilbao, San Sebastián and the Basque Country capital, Vitoria-Gasteiz, has increased significantly. Pierre Boutron's French language film Fiesta!, adapted from a novel written by José Luis de Vilallonga, was set in Mondragón during the Spanish Civil War. Excavating at the Artazu VII site located in the Kobate Quarry in Arrasate. General information of Arrasate/Mondragón Pictures of Arrasate/Mondragón in FLICKR Municipality pages in Basque and Spanish Mondragon University homepage ARRASATE/MONDRAGÓN in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Information available in Spanish
Bergara is a town and municipality located in the province of Gipuzkoa, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, in the north of Spain. An Enlightened center of education operated by the Real Sociedad Bascongada de Amigos del País, it was the place where brothers Juan José and Fausto Elhuyar discovered wolfram. During the Carlist Wars, it operated as the royal court of the Carlists, it was there where the agreement symbolized in the Vergara Embrace between Rafael Maroto and Baldomero Espartero, Prince of Vergara ended one of the period wars. Official Website Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Bergara Laboratorium - European Physical Society Historic Site
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia