Ensenada, Baja California
Ensenada is a coastal city in Mexico, the third-largest in Baja California. Lying 125 kilometres south of San Diego on the Baja California Peninsula, it is locally referred to as La Cenicienta del Pacífico, "The Cinderella of the Pacific."One of the first settlements founded in the Californias, Ensenada has emerged as a cruise ship destination, aerospace center, a jumping-off point for Valle de Guadalupe, a local wine region. It is said that the first Vitis vinifera made it to the region's San Ignacio Mission in 1703, when Jesuit Padre Juan de Ugarte planted the first vineyards there. Situated on the coastline of Bahía de Todos Santos—an inlet of the Pacific Ocean on the peninsula's Gold Coast—the Port of Ensenada is an important commercial and tourist port; the city is home to a navy base, army base, Ensenada Airport, a military airfield which doubles as an airport of entry into Mexico. Ensenada is the municipal seat and cultural and commercial center of Ensenada Municipality, one of five into which the state is divided.
As of 2015, the municipality had a population of 519,813. Ensenada is backed by small mountain ranges. Proximity to the Pacific and a warm Mediterranean latitude create mild year-round weather; the rainy season during the winter is short and the area is prone to prolonged droughts, which can threaten its grape harvests. The National Park Constitution of 1857 created the Sierra de Juarez and San Pedro Martir National Parks, which maintain one of the best astronomical observatories in the country. Ensenada is part of UNESCO´s Creative Cities Network since 2015; when the first European explorers arrived in the region, the Yuman People inhabited the region, of which tribal groups such as the Kiliwa and Kumeyaay still exist. These semi-nomadic indigenous people lived in the bay area and interior valleys of the Sierra de Juárez and San Pedro Mártir. Bahia Todos Santos, which Ensenada now borders, was first reached by sea by the Spanish explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo on the vessels El Salvador and Victoria.
The city was founded September 1542 under the name San Mateo. In 1602, while mapping the coast of the Californias in search of safe harbors for returning Spanish galleons from Manila to Acapulco, Sebastián Vizcaíno renamed the city to Ensenada de Todos Santos. Ensenada means "bay" or "cove"; the first permanent settlement was established by the Jesuits during the 18th century. After the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1768, the Dominicans took over the representation of Europe in what is now Ensenada. In 1805, José Manuel Ruiz Carillo obtained permission to establish himself in Ensenada, being appointed governor of Baja California and building in Ensenada a house that survived until the final part of that century, despite being taken by William Walker, the self-declared "president" of the Republic of Lower California, in 1853–54. In 1882, Ensenada was designated the capital of Baja California, attempts at developing the area were made by the English Mexican Land and Colonization Company; these were interrupted by the Mexican Revolution.
In 1915, the capital was transferred to Mexicali, in 1930 the population of Ensenada was only 5,000. During the early part of the twentieth century, the city's name was shortened from Ensenada de Todos Santos to Ensenada, a change made in order to avoid confusion with Todos Santos in Baja California Sur; the twentieth-century development of Ensenada was assisted by prohibition, which sent Americans and Canadians south of their border in search of entertainment and alcohol, developing first Tijuana Rosarito, Ensenada as tourist destinations. The Hotel Riviera del Pacífico was opened in 1930 placing Ensenada on the international glamor map and was visited several times by President Miguel Aleman, international artists and political personalities, it flourished only in the early 1950s, at which time Ensenada's population had risen to 20,000. The hotel closed in 1964, it was reopened as a cultural center and museum. By this time, other hotels had opened, the population and economy of Ensenada had grown and diversified towards their present status.
On January 26 of 2007 Pope Benedict XVI created the Diocese of Ensenada with territory taken from the Archdiocese of Tijuana and Mexicali Diocese, making it a suffragan of the Metropolitan Church of Tijuana. Ensenada is predominantly a mid-rise building beach city; the only high-rise building within its city limits is the Villa Marina Hotel, though new buildings and resorts in northwestern Ensenada such as Entremar, La Costa, Viento add to the city's skyline and form the majority of the city's highrise buildings. Emblematic sites representative of Ensenada such as the Civic Plaza, containing sculptures of Mexican heroes Benito Juarez, Venustiano Carranza and Miguel Hidalgo, the enormous Mexican flag, the malecon - and Naval cruise terminal are found on and near the coast of the bay. Several marinas including Ensenada Cruiseport Village, Hotel Coral & Marina, Punta Morro Resort are located on the city's coast; the Bajamar Oceanfront Golf Resort at Baja Mar is located nearby to the north, is a prominent seaside resort of Baja California.
Many of the terrestrial or marine species inhabiting the surrounding the Greater Ensenada area in the Baja California islands are unique. Guadalupe Island, off the coast of the city, is one of the best places in the world for observing the great white shark; the island has been a wildlife sanctuary since 1975. The city's offshore is host to an array of aquatic ma
Tijuana is the largest city of both Baja California State and the Baja Peninsula. It is part of the San Diego–Tijuana transborder urban agglomeration and the larger Southern California megalopolis; as the 6th-largest city in Mexico and center of the 6th-largest metro area in Mexico, Tijuana exerts a strong influence in education and politics – across Mexico, in transportation and art – across both Californias, in manufacturing and as a migration hub – across the North American continent. One of the fastest-growing metropolitan areas in Mexico, Tijuana maintains global city status; as of 2015, the city of Tijuana had a population of 1,641,570. Tijuana is located on the Gold Coast of Baja California, is the municipal seat and the cultural and commercial center of Tijuana Municipality. Tijuana covers 70 % of 80 % of its population. A dominant manufacturing center of the North American continent, the city maintains facilities of many multinational conglomerate companies. In the early 21st century, Tijuana became the medical-device manufacturing capital of North America.
Tijuana is a growing cultural center and has been recognized as an important new cultural mecca. The city is the most visited border city in the globe. More than fifty million people cross the border between these two cities every year; this metropolitan crossing makes the San Ysidro Port of Entry the busiest land-border crossing in the world. It is estimated that the two border crossing stations between the cities proper of San Diego and Tijuana account for 300,000 daily border crossings alone. Tijuana is the westernmost city in Mexico. According to the 2015 census, the Tijuana metropolitan area was the fifth-largest in Mexico, with a population of 1,840,710, but rankings vary, the city itself was 6th largest and the municipality 3rd largest nationally; the international metropolitan region was estimated at about 5,158,459 in 2016, making it the third-largest metropolitan area in the former Californias region, 19th largest metropolitan area in the Americas, the largest bi-national conurbation, shared between US and Mexico.
Tijuana is becoming more suburbanized like San Diego. Tijuana traces its modern history to the arrival of Spanish explorers in the 16th century who were mapping the coast of the Californias; as the American conquest of northern Mexico ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Tijuana's new international position on the border gave rise to a new economic and political structure. The city was founded on July 1889 as urban development began. Known by its supposed initials, T. J. and nicknamed Gateway to Mexico, the city has served as a tourist center dating back to the 1880s. The city’s name comes from the rancho that Santiago Argüello Moraga established in 1829 on his Mexican land grant, naming it Rancho Tía Juana; the first Spanish mission call the settlement variously as'La Tía Juana','Tiguana','Tiuana','Tiwana','Tijuan','Ticuan', as well as'Tijuana'. While the Mexican city standardized to "Tijuana", the American term for both the river and a U. S. settlement, now part of San Ysidro remained "Tia Juana" until the mid-20th century.
The accepted theory among historians is that Tía Juana, as Argüello named his rancho, is derived from the word "Tiwan" in the language of the Kumeyaay – the original aboriginal inhabitants of the San Diego-Tijuana region. Urban legend, states that Tía Juana, which means Aunt Jane in Spanish, was a real person whose inn provided food and lodging to travelers. There is however no record of such an inn. In Spanish, the name is pronounced "Tee-HWAH-nah" /tiˈxwana/ – with three syllables, the "j" in Mexican Spanish pronounced as a guttural "h" sound. In English, the name is pronounced "Tee-HWAH-nuh" /tiːˈhwɑːnə/ but the incorrect pronunciation "Tee-uh-WAH-nuh" /tiːəˈwɑːnə/, based on the obsolete "Tía Juana", persists outside the San Diego area. In Southern California, Tijuana is referred to as "TJ" or T. J. Baja Californians have adopted this pronunciation as Tiyei. In Spanish the demonym for someone from Tijuana is Tijuanense, while in English the demonym is Tijuanan. A common slang term used for a person from Tijuana is Tijuanero.
The nickname Tijuas is popular among residents and visitors alike. Due to a recent increase in violence in the city, a new term is developing; the phrase Yo Tijuaneo, ¿y tú? translates to I Tijuanate, you?. This term comes from a new popular local verb Tijuanear meaning to Tijuana, describing the cosmopolitan aspects of living in the city and crossing the border; the land was inhabited by the Kumeyaay, a tribe of Yuman-speaking hunter-gatherers. Europeans arrived in 1542, when the explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo toured the coastline of the area, which Sebastián Vizcaíno mapped in 1602. In 1769, Juan Crespí documented more details about the area, called the Valley of Tijuana. Junípero Serra founded the first mission of Alta California in nearby San Diego. Further settlement took place near the end of the mission era when José María de Echeandía, governor of the Baja California and Alta California, awarded a large land grant to Santiago Argüello in 1829; this large cattle ranch, Rancho Tía Juana, covered 100 km2.
Although "Tia Juana" means "Aunt Jane" in Spanish, the name was an adaptation of
Mexicali is the capital city of the Mexican state of Baja California and seat of the Municipality of Mexicali. The City of Mexicali has a population of 689,775, according to the 2010 census, while the population of the entire metropolitan area reaches 996,826; the city maintains a educated and skilled population, as it has modernized and become an important population center in the desert region. Mexicali's economy has been based on agricultural products, they remain a large sector of the economy. However, its economy has gone from being agricultural to include industry maquiladoras—duty-free factories in which parts from the United States are imported and returned to the United States as finished products. International companies including Honeywell, GKN Aerospace, Kellogg's, Gulfstream, UTC Aerospace Systems, SunPower, Rockwell Collins, LG Electronics, National Oilwell Varco, Autolite, Nestlé, Coca-Cola, Robert Bosch, Goodrich Corporation have built maquiladora plants in the city. Mexicali became the national center for the aerospace industry in Mexico when Rockwell Collins established an operation there in 1966.
Rockwell Collins is the oldest company under the maquiladora program nationwide. Founded on March 14, 1903, Mexicali is situated on the Mexico–United States border adjacent to its sister city Calexico, with which it forms a dual-state, international population center, Calexico–Mexicali; the Spaniards arrived in the area after crossing the Sonoran Desert's "Camino del Diablo" or Devil's Road. This led to the evangelization of the area by Catholic missionaries and to the reduction of native populations in the region. Nowadays, indigenous Cocopah people still inhabit a small government-protected corner of the Colorado River delta near the junction of the Hardy and the Colorado; the Cocopah work on agricultural ejidos or fishing. The early European presence in this area was limited to Anza's and subsequent Spanish expeditions across the Colorado Desert and subsequent travelers on the Sonora Road opened by them; the presence of the Jesuits who attempted to establish a mission in what is now Fort Yuma.
They left after a revolt by the Yuma in 1781. After this, the Spanish had little to do with the northeastern corner of the Baja California Peninsula, perceiving it as an untamable, flood-prone desert delta. In the 1820s, the Mexican authorities reopened the Sonoran Road and restored peaceful relations with the Yuma People; the Sonoran Road provided a route for American fur trappers, American troops of Kearny and Cooke passing through the area during the Mexican–American War. The annexation of most of Alta California soon was followed by the California Gold Rush that saw a flood of gold seekers from Mexico on the Sonora Road from Sonora, from the United States via the Southern Emigrant Trail. Herds of cattle and sheep were driven into California across this desert trail also; this route became a U. S. Mail and stagecoach route in 1857 when the San Antonio-San Diego Mail Line and in 1858 Butterfield Overland Mail route passed along the Alamo and New Rivers and established stations there including its New River Station in the vicinity of a Laguna along the New River in what is now Colonia Hidalgo, Mexicali in 1858.
This mail route remained in use until 1877 when the Southern Pacific Railroad came to Yuma making it obsolete. In the mid-19th century, a geologist working for the Southern Pacific Railroad came to the delta area, discovering what the native Yumans had known for centuries: that the thick river sediment deposits made the area prime farming land; these sediments extended far to the west of the river itself, accumulating in a shallow basin below the Sierra de Cucapá. However, from this time period until the 1880s, the area was completely unpopulated due to its harsh climate. In 1888, the federal government granted a large part of northern Baja state, including Mexicali, to Guillermo Andrade, with the purpose of colonizing the area on the created border with the United States. However, around 1900, the only area with any real population, aside from the Cocopah, were concentrated in Los Algodones, to the east of Mexicali. In 1900, the U. S.-based California Development Company received permission from the government of Díaz to cut a canal through the delta's Arroyo Alamo, to link the dry basin with the Colorado River.
To attract farmers to the area, the developers named it the "Imperial Valley". In 1903, the first 500 farmers arrived; the concentration of small housing units that straddled the border was called Calexico on the U. S. side and Mexicali on the Mexican side. Led by Los Angeles Times publisher Harry Chandler, one company controlled 800,000 hectares of land in northern Baja California by 1905, began to build the irrigation system for the Valley. However, instead of using Mexican labor to dig the ditches, Chandler brought in thousands of Chinese laborers. Mexicali became; the Mexican side was named Mexicali by Coronel Agustín Sanguinéz. The area belonged to the municipality of Ensenada; the town of Mexicali was created on 14 March 1903 when Manuel Vizcarra was named as the town's first authority and Assistant Judge. On January 29, 1911, Mexicali was "liberated" by the Liberal Party of Mexico during the Mexican Revolution. Mayor Baltazar Aviléz declared the municipality of Mexicali on November 4, 1914 and called
In the United States, a SWAT team is a law enforcement unit which uses specialized or military equipment and tactics. First created in the 1960s to handle riot control or violent confrontations with criminals, the number and usage of SWAT teams increased in the 1980s and 1990s during the War on Drugs and in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks. In the United States as of 2005, SWAT teams were deployed 50,000 times every year 80% of the time to serve search warrants, most for narcotics. SWAT teams are equipped with military-type hardware and trained to deploy against threats of terrorism, for crowd control, hostage taking, in situations beyond the capabilities of ordinary law enforcement, sometimes deemed "high-risk". Other countries have developed their own paramilitary police units which are described as or comparable to SWAT forces. SWAT units are equipped with specialized firearms including submachine guns, assault rifles, breaching shotguns, sniper rifles, riot control agents, stun grenades.
In addition, they may use specialized equipment including heavy body armor, ballistic shields, entry tools, armored vehicles, night vision devices, motion detectors for covertly determining the positions of hostages or hostage takers, inside enclosed structures. The United States National Tactical Officers Association definition of SWAT is: SWAT: A designated law enforcement team whose members are recruited, trained and assigned to resolve critical incidents involving a threat to public safety which would otherwise exceed the capabilities of traditional law enforcement first responders and/or investigative units. According to the Historical Dictionary of Law Enforcement, the term "SWAT" was used as an acronym for the "Special Weapons and Tactics" established as a 100-man specialized unit in 1964 by the Philadelphia Police Department in response to an alarming increase in bank robberies; the purpose of this unit was to react and decisively to bank robberies while they were in progress, by utilizing a large number of specially trained officers who had at their disposal a great amount of firepower.
The tactic worked and was soon to resolve other types of incidents involving armed criminals. Los Angeles Police Department Inspector Daryl Gates has said that he first envisioned "SWAT" as an acronym for "Special Weapons Attack Team" in 1967, but accepted "Special Weapons and Tactics" on the advice of his deputy chief, Edward M. Davis; the LAPD promoted. After the racially charged Watts riots in Los Angeles in August 1965, the LAPD began considering tactics it could use when faced with urban unrest, rioting, or widespread violence. Daryl Gates, who led the LAPD response to the riots, would write that police at the time didn't face a single mob, but rather "people attacking from all directions." New York University professor Christian Parenti has written that SWAT teams were conceived of as an "urban counterinsurgency bulwark."Another reason for the creation of SWAT teams was the fear of lone or barricaded gunmen who might outperform police in a shootout, as happened in Austin with Charles Whitman.
After the LAPD's establishment of its own SWAT team, many law enforcement agencies across the United States established their own specialized units under various names. Gates explained in his autobiography Chief: My Life in the LAPD that he neither developed SWAT tactics nor the associated and distinctive equipment. While the public image of SWAT first became known through the LAPD because of its proximity to the mass media and the size and professionalism of the Department itself, the first actual SWAT-type operations were conducted north of Los Angeles in the farming community of Delano, California on the border between Kern and Tulare Counties in the San Joaquin Valley. At the time, the United Farm Workers union led by César Chavez was staging numerous protests in Delano in a strike that would last over five years. Though the strike never turned violent, the Delano Police Department responded by forming ad-hoc SWAT-type units involving crowd and riot control, sniper skills and surveillance.
Television news stations and print media carried live and delayed reportage of these events across the United States. Personnel from the LAPD, having seen these broadcasts, contacted Delano and inquired about the program. One officer obtained permission to observe the Delano Police Department's special weapons and tactics units in action, afterwards, he took what he had learned back to Los Angeles, where his knowledge was used and expanded on to form the LAPD's own first SWAT unit. John Nelson was the officer who conceived the idea to form a specially trained and equipped unit in the LAPD, intended to respond to and manage critical situations involving shootings while minimizing police casualties. Inspector Gates approved this idea, he formed a small select group of volunteer officers; this first SWAT unit consisted of fifteen teams of four men each, making a total staff of sixty. These officers were given special status and benefits, were required to attend special monthly training sessions.
The unit served as a security unit for police facilities during civil unrest. The LAPD SWAT units were organized as "D Platoon" in the Metro division. Early police powers and tactics used by SWAT teams were aided by legislation passed in 1967-8 with the help of Republican House representative Donald Santarelli; the legislation was promoted within the context of fears over the Civil Rights Movement, race riots, the Black Panther Party, the
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
The Chicago Tribune is a daily newspaper based in Chicago, United States, owned by Tribune Publishing. Founded in 1847, self-styled as the "World's Greatest Newspaper", it remains the most-read daily newspaper of the Chicago metropolitan area and the Great Lakes region, it is the eighth-largest newspaper in the United States by circulation. Traditionally published as a broadsheet, on January 13, 2009, the Tribune announced it would continue publishing as a broadsheet for home delivery, but would publish in tabloid format for newsstand, news box, commuter station sales; this change, proved to be unpopular with readers and in August 2011, the Tribune discontinued the tabloid edition, returning to its traditional broadsheet edition through all distribution channels. The Tribune's masthead is notable for displaying the American flag, in reference to the paper's motto, "An American Paper for Americans"; the motto is no longer displayed on the masthead. The Tribune was founded by James Kelly, John E. Wheeler, Joseph K. C.
Forrest, publishing the first edition on June 10, 1847. Numerous changes in ownership and editorship took place over the next eight years; the Tribune was not politically affiliated, but tended to support either the Whig or Free Soil parties against the Democrats in elections. By late 1853, it was running xenophobic editorials that criticized foreigners and Roman Catholics. About this time it became a strong proponent of temperance; however nativist its editorials may have been, it was not until February 10, 1855 that the Tribune formally affiliated itself with the nativist American or Know Nothing party, whose candidate Levi Boone was elected Mayor of Chicago the following month. By about 1854, part-owner Capt. J. D. Webster General Webster and chief of staff at the Battle of Shiloh, Dr. Charles H. Ray of Galena, through Horace Greeley, convinced Joseph Medill of Cleveland's Leader to become managing editor. Ray became editor-in-chief, Medill became the managing editor, Alfred Cowles, Sr. brother of Edwin Cowles was the bookkeeper.
Each purchased one third of the Tribune. Under their leadership, the Tribune distanced itself from the Know Nothings, became the main Chicago organ of the Republican Party. However, the paper continued to print anti-Catholic and anti-Irish editorials, in the wake of the massive Famine immigration from Ireland; the Tribune absorbed three other Chicago publications under the new editors: the Free West in 1855, the Democratic Press of William Bross in 1858, the Chicago Democrat in 1861, whose editor, John Wentworth, left his position when elected as Mayor of Chicago. Between 1858 and 1860, the paper was known as the Chicago Tribune. On October 25, 1860, it became the Chicago Daily Tribune. Before and during the American Civil War, the new editors supported Abraham Lincoln, whom Medill helped secure the presidency in 1860, pushed an abolitionist agenda; the paper remained a force in Republican politics for years afterwards. In 1861, the Tribune published new lyrics by William W. Patton for the song "John Brown's Body".
These rivaled the lyrics published two months by Julia Ward Howe. Medill served as mayor of Chicago for one term after the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. Under the 20th-century editorship of Colonel Robert R. McCormick, who took control in the 1920s, the paper was isolationist and aligned with the Old Right in its coverage of political news and social trends, it used the motto "The American Paper for Americans". Through the 1930s to the 1950s, it excoriated the Democrats and the New Deal of Franklin D. Roosevelt, was resolutely disdainful of the British and French, enthusiastic for Chiang Kai-shek and Sen. Joseph McCarthy; when McCormick assumed the position of co-editor in 1910, the Tribune was the third-best-selling paper among Chicago's eight dailies, with a circulation of only 188,000. The young cousins added features such as advice columns and homegrown comic strips such as Little Orphan Annie and Moon Mullins, they promoted political "crusades", with their first success coming with the ouster of the Republican political boss of Illinois, Sen. William Lorimer.
At the same time, the Tribune competed with the Hearst paper, the Chicago Examiner, in a circulation war. By 1914, the cousins succeeded in forcing out Managing Editor William Keeley. By 1918, the Examiner was forced to merge with the Chicago Herald. In 1919, Patterson left the Tribune and moved to New York to launch his own newspaper, the New York Daily News. In a renewed circulation war with Hearst's Herald-Examiner, McCormick and Hearst ran rival lotteries in 1922; the Tribune won the battle. In 1922, the Chicago Tribune hosted an international design competition for its new headquarters, the Tribune Tower; the competition worked brilliantly as a publicity stunt, more than 260 entries were received. The winner was a neo-Gothic design by New York architects John Mead Howells and Raymond Hood; the newspaper sponsored a pioneering attempt at Arctic aviation in 1929, an attempted round-trip to Europe across Greenland and Iceland in a Sikorsky amphibious aircraft. But, the aircraft was destroyed by ice on July 15, 1929, near Ungava Bay at the tip of Labrador, Canada.
The crew were rescued by the Canadian science ship CSS Acadia. The Tribune's reputation for innovation extended to radio—it bought an early station, WDAP, in 1924 and renamed it WGN, the station call letters standing for the paper's self-description as the "Worl