The Euphrates is the longest and one of the most important rivers of Western Asia. Together with the Tigris, it is one of the two defining rivers of Mesopotamia. Originating in eastern Turkey, the Euphrates flows through Syria and Iraq to join the Tigris in the Shatt al-Arab, which empties into the Persian Gulf; the Ancient Greek form Euphrátēs was adapted from Old Persian Ufrātu, itself from Elamite ú-ip-ra-tu-iš. The Elamite name is derived from a name spelt in cuneiform as, which read as Sumerian language is "Buranuna" and read as Akkadian language is "Purattu". In Akkadian the river was called Purattu, perpetuated in Semitic languages and in other nearby languages of the time; the Elamite and Sumerian forms are suggested to be from an unrecorded substrate language. Tamaz V. Gamkrelidze and Vyacheslav Ivanov suggest the Proto-Sumerian *burudu "copper" as an origin, with an explanation that Euphrates was the river by which the copper ore was transported in rafts, since Mesopotamia was the center of copper metallurgy during the period.
The earliest references to the Euphrates come from cuneiform texts found in Shuruppak and pre-Sargonic Nippur in southern Iraq and date to the mid-3rd millennium BCE. In these texts, written in Sumerian, the Euphrates is called Buranuna; the name could be written KIB. NUN. or dKIB. NUN, with the prefix "d" indicating that the river was a divinity. In Sumerian, the name of the city of Sippar in modern-day Iraq was written UD. KIB. NUN, indicating a strong relationship between the city and the river; the Euphrates is the longest river of Western Asia. It emerges from the confluence of the Kara Su or Western Euphrates and the Murat Su or Eastern Euphrates 10 kilometres upstream from the town of Keban in southeastern Turkey. Daoudy and Frenken put the length of the Euphrates from the source of the Murat River to the confluence with the Tigris at 3,000 kilometres, of which 1,230 kilometres is in Turkey, 710 kilometres in Syria and 1,060 kilometres in Iraq; the same figures are given by Mikhailova. The length of the Shatt al-Arab, which connects the Euphrates and the Tigris with the Persian Gulf, is given by various sources as 145–195 kilometres.
Both the Kara Su and the Murat Su rise northwest from Lake Van at elevations of 3,290 metres and 3,520 metres amsl, respectively. At the location of the Keban Dam, the two rivers, now combined into the Euphrates, have dropped to an elevation of 693 metres amsl. From Keban to the Syrian–Turkish border, the river drops another 368 metres over a distance of less than 600 kilometres. Once the Euphrates enters the Upper Mesopotamian plains, its grade drops significantly; the Euphrates receives most of its water in the form of rainfall and melting snow, resulting in peak volumes during the months April through May. Discharge in these two months accounts for 36 percent of the total annual discharge of the Euphrates, or 60–70 percent according to one source, while low runoff occurs in summer and autumn; the average natural annual flow of the Euphrates has been determined from early- and mid-twentieth century records as 20.9 cubic kilometres at Keban, 36.6 cubic kilometres at Hīt and 21.5 cubic kilometres at Hindiya.
However, these averages mask the high inter-annual variability in discharge. The discharge regime of the Euphrates has changed since the construction of the first dams in the 1970s. Data on Euphrates discharge collected after 1990 show the impact of the construction of the numerous dams in the Euphrates and of the increased withdrawal of water for irrigation. Average discharge at Hīt after 1990 has dropped to 356 cubic metres per second; the seasonal variability has changed. The pre-1990 peak volume recorded at Hīt was 7,510 cubic metres per second, while after 1990 it is only 2,514 cubic metres per second; the minimum volume at Hīt remained unchanged, rising from 55 cubic metres per second before 1990 to 58 cubic metres per second afterward. In Syria, three rivers add their water to the Euphrates; these rivers rise in the foothills of the Taurus Mountains along the Syro–Turkish border and add comparatively little water to the Euphrates. The Sajur is the smallest of these tributaries; the Balikh receives most of its water from a karstic spring near'Ayn al-'Arus and flows due south until it reaches the Euphrates at the city of Raqqa.
In terms of length
A villa was an ancient Roman upper-class country house. Since its origins in the Roman villa, the idea and function of a villa has evolved considerably. After the fall of the Roman Republic, villas became small farming compounds, which were fortified in Late Antiquity, sometimes transferred to the Church for reuse as a monastery, they re-evolved through the Middle Ages into elegant upper-class country homes. In modern parlance, "villa" can refer to various types and sizes of residences, ranging from the suburban semi-detached double villa to residences in the wildland–urban interface; the villa urbana, a country seat that could be reached from Rome or another city for a night or two the villa rustica, the farm-house estate, permanently occupied by the servants who had charge of the estate, which would centre on the villa itself only seasonally occupied. The Roman villae rusticae at the heart of latifundia were the earliest versions of what and elsewhere became called plantations. Not included as villae were the domus, a city house for the élite and privileged classes.
In Satyricon, Petronius described the wide range of Roman dwellings. Another type of villae is a seaside villa, located on the coast. A concentration of Imperial villas existed on the Gulf of Naples, on the Isle of Capri, at Monte Circeo and at Antium. Examples include the Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum. Wealthy Romans escaped the summer heat in the hills round Rome around Tibur (Tivoand Frascati, such as at Hadrian's Villa. Cicero possessed no fewer than seven villas, the oldest of, near Arpinum, which he inherited. Pliny the Younger had three or four, of which the example near Laurentium is the best known from his descriptions. Roman writers refer with satisfaction to the self-sufficiency of their latifundium villas, where they drank their own wine and pressed their own oil; this was an affectation of urban aristocrats playing at being old-fashioned virtuous Roman farmers, it has been said that the economic independence of rural villas was a symptom of the increasing economic fragmentation of the Roman Empire.
Archaeologists have meticulously examined numerous Roman villas in England. Like their Italian counterparts, they were complete working agrarian societies of fields and vineyards even tileworks or quarries, ranged round a high-status power centre with its baths and gardens; the grand villa at Woodchester preserved its mosaic floors when the Anglo-Saxon parish church was built upon its site. Grave-diggers preparing for burials in the churchyard as late as the 18th century had to punch through the intact mosaic floors; the more palatial villa rustica at Fishbourne near Winchester was built as a large open rectangle, with porticos enclosing gardens entered through a portico. Towards the end of the 3rd century, Roman towns in Britain ceased to expand: like patricians near the centre of the empire, Roman Britons withdrew from the cities to their villas, which entered on a palatial building phase, a "golden age" of villa life. Villae rusticae are essential in the Empire's economy. Two kinds of villa-plan in Roman Britain may be characteristic of Roman villas in general.
The more usual plan extended wings of rooms all opening onto a linking portico, which might be extended at right angles to enclose a courtyard. The other kind featured an aisled central hall like a basilica, suggesting the villa owner's magisterial role; the villa buildings were independent structures linked by their enclosed courtyards. Timber-framed construction fitted with mortises and tenons and dowelled together, set on stone footings, were the rule, replaced by stone buildings for the important ceremonial rooms. Traces of window glass have been found, as well as ironwork window grilles. With the decline and collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the fourth and fifth centuries, the villas were more and more isolated and came to be protected by walls. In England the villas were abandoned and burned by Anglo-Saxon invaders in the fifth century, but the concept of an isolated, self-sufficient agrarian working community, housed close together, survived into Anglo-Saxon culture as the vill, with its inhabitants - if formally bound to the land - as villeins.
In regions on the Continent and territorial magnates donated large working villas and overgrown abandoned ones to individual monks. In this way, the Italian villa system of late Antiquity survived into the early Medieval period in the form of monasteries that withstood the disruptions of the Gothic War and the Lombards. About 529 Benedict of Nursia established his influential monastery of Monte Cassino in the ruins of a villa at Subiaco that had belonged to Nero. From the sixth to the eighth century, Gallo-Roman villas in the Merovingian royal fisc were donated as sites for monasteries under royal patronage in Gaul - Saint-Maur-des-Fossés and Fleury Abbey provide examples. In Germany a famous example is Echternach. Kintzheim was Villa Regis, the "villa of the king". Around 590, Saint Eligius was born in a placed Gallo-Roman family at the'villa' of Chaptelat near Limoges, in Aquitaine; the abbey at Stavelot was founded ca 650 on the domain of a former villa near Liège and the abbey of Vézelay had a similar founding.
In post-Roman times a villa re
Ariadne, in Greek mythology, was a Cretan princess. She is associated with mazes and labyrinths because of her involvement in the myths of the Minotaur and Theseus. Ariadne was the daughter of Minos—the King of Crete and a son of Zeus—and Pasiphaë—Minos' queen and a daughter of Helios. Others called daughter of Asterius, husband-king of Europa. Ariadne was the sister of Acacallis, Deucalion, Glaucus and Catreus. Through her mother, Pasiphaë, she was the half-sister of the Minotaur. Ariadne married Dionysus and became the mother of Oenopion, the personification of wine, Thoas, Phanus, Phliasus, Ceramus, Euanthes and Tauropolis. Minos put Ariadne in charge of the labyrinth. In other stories, she became the bride of the god Dionysus, with the question of her being mortal or a goddess varying in those accounts. Since ancient Greek myths are passed down through oral tradition, many variations of this and other myths exist. According to an Athenian version of the legend, Minos attacked Athens after his son was killed there.
The Athenians asked for terms, were required to sacrifice seven young men and seven maidens to the Minotaur every seven or nine years. One year, the sacrificial party included Theseus, the son of King Aegeus, who volunteered to come and kill the Minotaur. Ariadne fell in love at first sight, helped him by giving him a sword and a ball of thread, so that he could find his way out of the Minotaur's labyrinth, she eloped with Theseus after he achieved his goal, but according to Homer "he had no joy of her, for ere that, Artemis slew her in seagirt Dia because of the witness of Dionysus". Most accounts claim that Ariadne was abandoned by Theseus, but in some versions she is mortally wounded by Perseus. Homer does not expand on the nature of Dionysus's accusation, but the Oxford Classical Dictionary speculates that she was married to Dionysus when she ran away with Theseus. In Hesiod and most other accounts, Theseus abandoned Ariadne sleeping on Naxos, Dionysus rediscovered and wedded her. In a few versions of the myth, Dionysus appeared to Theseus as they sailed away from Crete, saying that he had chosen Ariadne as his wife and demanding that Theseus leave her on Naxos for him.
The vase-painters of Athens showed Athena leading Theseus from the sleeping Ariadne to his ship. With Dionysus, she bore him famous children including Oenopion and Thoas, her wedding diadem was set in the heavens as the constellation Corona Borealis. Ariadne remained faithful to Dionysus but was killed by Perseus at Argos. In other myths she hanged herself from a tree, like Erigone and the hanging Artemis, a Mesopotamian theme; some scholars have posited, due to her thread-spinning and winding associations, that she was a weaving goddess, like Arachne, supporting this theory with the mytheme of the Hanged Nymph. Dionysus brought her and his mother Semele back, they joined the gods in Olympus. Karl Kerenyi and Robert Graves theorize that Ariadne was a Great Goddess of Crete, "the first divine personage of Greek mythology to be recognized in Crete", once archaeology had begun. Kerenyi observes that her name is an epithet and claims that she was the "Mistress of the Labyrinth", both a winding dance-ground and in the Greek view a prison with the dreaded Minotaur at its centre.
Kerenyi notes a Linear B inscription from Knossos, "to all the gods, honey... to the mistress of the labyrinth honey" in equal amounts, suggesting to him that the Mistress of the Labyrinth was a Great Goddess in her own right. Professor Barry Powell has suggested. Plutarch, in his vita of Theseus, which treats him as a historical individual, reports that in the Naxos of his day, an earthly Ariadne was separate from a celestial one: Some of the Naxians have a story of their own, that there were two Minoses and two Ariadnes, one of whom, they say, was married to Dionysos in Naxos and bore him Staphylos and his brother, the other, of a time, having been carried off by Theseus and abandoned by him, came to Naxos, accompanied by a nurse named Korkyne, whose tomb they show. In a kylix by the painter Aison Theseus drags the Minotaur from a temple-like labyrinth, but the goddess who attends him, in this Attic representation, is Athena. An ancient cult of Aphrodite-Ariadne was observed at Amathus, according to the obscure Hellenistic mythographer Paeon of Amathus.
According to the myth, current at Amathus, the second most important Cypriote cult centre of Aphrodite, Theseus's ship was swept off course and the pregnant and suffering Ariadne put ashore in the storm. Theseus, attempting to secure the ship, was inadvertently swept out to sea, thus being absolved of abandonment; the Cypriote women cared for Ariadne, memorialized in a shrine. Theseus, overcome with grief upon his return, left money for sacrifices to Ariadne and ordered two cult images, one of silver and one of bronze, set up. At the observation in her honour on th
Shapur I known as Shapur the Great, was the second shahanshah of the Sasanian Empire. The dates of his reign are given as 240/42 – 270, but it is that he reigned as co-regent prior to his father's death in 242. Shapur I's rule was marked by successful military and political struggles in the Caucasus, against the Kushan Empire in the east, two wars with the Roman Empire. Shapur I's support for Zoroastrianism caused a rise in the position of the clergy, his religious tolerance accelerated the spread of Manichaeanism and Christianity in Persia, he is noted in the Jewish tradition. The name Shapur combines the words šāh and pūr, thus meaning the "king's son"; the name derives from Old Iranian *xšāyaθiyahyā-puθra-, appears in Manichaean sources as Shabuhr, while it is attested in Latin sources as Sapores and Sapor, which Shapur is known by in modern sources. Shapur was the son of the founder of the Sasanian dynasty and whom Shapur succeeded, his mother was Lady Myrōd, according to legend, was an Arsacid princess.
The Talmud cites a nickname for her, "Ifra Hurmiz", after her bewitching beauty. Shapur had a brother named Ardashir, who would serve as governor of Kirman. Shapur may have had another brother with the same name, who served as governor of Adiabene. Shapur accompanied his father's campaigns against the Parthians, who still controlled much of the Iranian plateau through a system of vassal states, in which the Persian kingdom had itself been a part. Before an assembly of magnates, Ardashir "judged him the gentlest, wisest and ablest of all his children" and nominated him as his successor. Shapur appears as heir apparent in Ardashir's investiture inscriptions at Naqsh-e Rajab and his capital, Gor; the Iranian historian Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari observed of Shapur before his ascension to the Sasanian throne:, "The Iranians had well-tried Shapur before his accession and while his father still lived on account of his intelligence and learning as well as his outstanding boldness, logic, affection for the subject of people and kindheartedness."
The Cologne Mani-Codex indicates that, by 240, Ardashir and Shapur were reigning together. In a letter from the Roman Emperor Gordian III to his senate, dated to 242, the "Persian Kings" are referred to in the plural. Synarchy is evident in the coins of this period that portray Ardashir facing his youthful son and bear a legend that indicates Shapur as king; the date of Shapur's coronation remains debated: 240 is noted, but Ardashir lived until 242. The year 240 marks the seizure and subsequent destruction of Hatra, about 100 km southwest of Nineveh and Mosul in present-day Iraq. According to legend, al-Nadirah, the daughter of the king of Hatra, betrayed her city to the Sasanians, who killed the king and had the city razed; the Eastern provinces of the fledgling Sasanian Empire bordered on the land of the Kushans and the land of the Sakas. The military operations of Shapur’s father Ardashir I had led to the local Kushan and Saka kings offering tribute, satisfied by this show of submission, Ardashir seems to have refrained from occupying their territories.
Al-Tabari alleges he rebuilt the ancient city of Zrang in Sakastan, but the only early Sasanian period founding of a new settlement in the East of which we are certain is the building by Shapur I of Nishapur - “Beautifull by Shapur” - in Dihistan. Soon after the death of his father in 241 CE, Shapur felt the need to cut short the campaign they had started in Roman Syria, reassert Sasanian authority in the East because the Kushan and Saka kings were lax in abiding to their tributary status. However, he first had to fight “The Medes of the Mountains” - as we will see in the mountain range of Gilan on the Caspian coast - and after subjugating them, he appointed his son Bahram as their king, he marched to the East and annexed most of the land of the Kushans, appointing his son Narseh as Sakanshah - king of the Sakas - in Sistan. Shapur could now proudly proclaim that his empire stretched all the way to Peshawar, his relief in Rag-i-Bibi in present-day Afghanistan confirms this claim, he seems to have garrisoned the Eastern territories with POW’s from his previous campaign against the Medes of the Mountains.
Agathias claims Bahram II campaigned in the land of the Sakas and appointed his brother Hormizd as its king. When Hormizd revolted, the Panegyrici Latini list his forces as the Rufii and the Geli. Since the Gilaks are out of place among these easterners, as we know that Shapur I had to fight the Medes of the Mountains first before marching to the land of the Kushans, it is conceivable those Gilaks were the descendants of warriors captured during Shapur I's North-western campaign, forcibly drafted into the Sasanian army, settled as a hereditary garrison in Merv, Nishapur, or Zrang after the conclusion of Shapur's north-eastern campaign, the usual Sasanian practise with prisoners of war. Ardashir I had, towards the end of his reign, renewed the war against the Roman Empire, Shapur I had conquered the Mesopotamian fortresses Nisibis and Carrhae and had advanced into Syria. In 242, the Romans under the father-in-law of their child-
Legio IV Scythica
Legio quarta Scythica was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded c. 42 BC by the general Mark Antony, for his campaign against the Parthian Empire, hence its other cognomen, Parthica. The legion was still active in Syria in the early 5th century. In its first years, the whereabouts of IV Scythica are uncertain, although it is probable that it took part in Antony's campaign against the Parthians; the name suggests. After the battle of Actium and Antony's suicide, Octavian transferred IV Scythica to the Danube province of Moesia; the legion is reported to have taken part in civilian tasks, such as the building and keeping of roads. In his youth, future emperor Vespasian served in this legion. King Vologases I of Parthia invaded Armenia, a client kingdom of Rome, in 58. Nero ordered the new legate of Cappadocia, to manage the matter. Corbulo brought IIII Scythica from Moesia, with III Gallica and VI Ferrata defeated the Parthians, restoring Tigranes VI on Armenian throne. In 62, IIII Scythica and XII Fulminata, commanded by the new legate of Cappadocia, Lucius Caesennius Paetus, were defeated by the Parthians at the Battle of Rhandeia and forced to surrender.
The legions were removed from the war theatre to Zeugma. This city would be the base camp of IIII Scythica for the next century. In 69, the legion, like the rest of the Eastern army, sided with Vespasian immediately. Despite the demonstrated loyalty, IV Scythica was not involved in actual fighting because it was not considered a high quality legion; this has to do with another defeat years earlier in the Jewish rebellion. It took part in the war against the Parthians between 161-166 Between AD181 and AD183 Septimius Severus acted as the commander of the Eastern legions, relied on the power of said legions to become emperor; the Legion's former commander, now Emperor, led another campaign against the Parthians. The legion disappears from the sources after AD219, when their commander, Gellius Maximus, rebelled against Emperor Elagabalus and proclaimed himself emperor, but was defeated by Elagabalus. However, according to Notitia Dignitatum, in the early 5th century, IIII Scythica was still in Syria, camped in Orese.
Quintus Varius Nepos was a military tribune for Legio IV Scythica at one point. - Caio Sempronio Marci filio Galeria Fido Calagorritano / tribuno militum legionis IIII Scythicae tribuno militum. Tarragona, Spain. CIL II 4427. - D M / Ael Verecundinus | leg IIII / Scy hastatus rior natus / in Dacia ad Vatabos mil ann XXI / primum exactus librarius / frum speculator evocatus | et | frum / vixit ann XXXVI Ael Rufinus lib ex bon/is eius fecit. Epigraphic Database Heidelberg HD053009; the legion's symbol was a capricorn. The Legion appeared in Harry Sidebottom's historical fiction series Warrior Of Rome. List of Roman legions Siege of Dura-Europos livius.org account of Legio IV Scythica
A seal is a device for making an impression in wax, paper, or some other medium, including an embossment on paper, is the impression thus made. The original purpose was to authenticate a document, a wrapper for one such as a modern envelope, or the cover of a container or package holding valuables or other objects; the seal-making device is referred to as the seal matrix or die. If the impression is made purely as a relief resulting from the greater pressure on the paper where the high parts of the matrix touch, the seal is known as a dry seal. In most traditional forms of dry seal the design on the seal matrix is in intaglio and therefore the design on the impressions made is in relief; the design on the impression will reverse that of the matrix, important when script is included in the design, as it often is. This will not be the case if paper is embossed from behind, where the matrix and impression read the same way, both matrix and impression are in relief; however engraved gems were carved in relief, called cameo in this context, giving a "counter-relief" or intaglio impression when used as seals.
The process is that of a mould. Most seals have always given a single impression on an flat surface, but in medieval Europe two-sided seals with two matrices were used by institutions or rulers to make two-sided or three-dimensional impressions in wax, with a "tag", a piece of ribbon or strip of parchment, running through them; these "pendent" seal impressions dangled below the documents they authenticated, to which the attachment tag was sewn or otherwise attached. Some jurisdictions consider rubber stamps or specified signature-accompanying words such as "seal" or "L. S." to be the legal equivalent of, i.e. an effective substitute for, a seal. In the United States, the word "seal" is sometimes assigned to a facsimile of the seal design, which may be used in a variety of contexts including architectural settings, on flags, or on official letterheads. Thus, for example, the Great Seal of the United States, among other uses, appears on the reverse of the one-dollar bill. S. states appear on their respective state flags.
In Europe, although coats of arms and heraldic badges may well feature in such contexts as well as on seals, the seal design in its entirety appears as a graphical emblem and is used as intended: as an impression on documents. The study of seals is known as sigillography or sphragistics. Seals were used in the earliest civilizations and are of considerable importance in archaeology and art history. In ancient Mesopotamia carved or engraved cylinder seals in stone or other materials were used; these could be rolled along to create an impression on clay, used as labels on consignments of trade goods, or for other purposes. They are hollow and it is presumed that they were worn on a string or chain round the neck. Many have only images very finely carved, with no writing, while others have both. From ancient Egypt seals in the form of signet-rings, including some with the names of kings, have been found. Seals have come to light in South Arabia datable to the Himyarite age. One example shows a name written in Aramaic engraved in reverse so as to read in the impression.
From the beginning of the 3rd millennium BC until the Middle Ages, seals of various kinds were in production in the Aegean islands and mainland Greece. In the Early Minoan age these were formed of soft stone and ivory and show particular characteristic forms. By the Middle Minoan age a new set for seal forms and materials appear. Hard stone requires new rotary carving techniques; the Late Bronze Age is the time par excellence of the lens-shaped seal and the seal ring, which continued into the Archaic and Hellenistic periods, in the form of pictorial engraved gems. These were a major luxury art form and became keenly collected, with King Mithridates VI of Pontus the first major collector according to Pliny the Elder, his collection fell as booty to Pompey the Great. Engraved gems continued to be collected until the 19th century. Pliny explained the significance of the signet ring, how over time this ring was worn on the little finger. Known as yinzhang in China, injang in Korea, inshō in Japan, ấn giám in Vietnam, seals have been used in East Asia as a form of written identification since the Qin dynasty.
The seals of the Han dynasty were impressed in a soft clay, but from the Tang dynasty a red ink made from cinnabar was used. In modern times, seals known as "chops" in local colloquial English, are still used instead of handwritten signatures to authenticate official documents or financial transactions. Both individuals and organizations have official seals, they have multiple seals in different sizes and styles for different situations. East Asian seals bear the names of the people or organizations represented, but they can bear poems or personal mottoes. Sometimes both types of seals, or large seals that bear both names and mottoes, are used to authenticate official documents. Seals are so important in East Asia that for
Philip the Arab
Marcus Julius Philippus known by his nickname Philip the Arab, was Roman Emperor from February 244 to September 249. He was born in the Roman province of Arabia, in a city situated in modern-day Syria, he went on to become a major figure in the Roman Empire. After the death of Gordian III in February 244, Praetorian prefect, achieved power, he negotiated peace with the Persian Sassanid Empire. During his reign, the city of Rome celebrated its millennium. Among early Christian writers, Philip had the reputation of being sympathetic to the Christian faith. For this reason, it was claimed by some that he had converted to Christianity, which would have made him the first Christian emperor, he tried to celebrate Easter with Christians in Antioch, but the bishop Saint Babylas made him stand with the penitents. Philip and his wife received letters from Origen. Philip was betrayed and killed at the Battle of Verona in September 249 following a rebellion led by his successor, Gaius Messius Quintus Decius.
Little is known about political career. He was born in what is today Shahba, about 90 kilometres southeast of Damascus, in the Trachonitis district. At the time this was in the Roman province of Arabia, Glen Bowersock believes that Philip was indeed of Arab origin, he was the son of a local citizen, Julius Marinus of some importance. Allegations from Roman sources that Philip had a humble origin or that his father was a leader of brigands are not accepted by modern historians. While the name of Philip's mother is unknown, he did have a brother, Gaius Julius Priscus, an equestrian and a member of the Praetorian Guard under Gordian III. In 234, Philip married daughter of a Roman Governor, they had three children, a son named Marcus Julius Philippus Severus, born in 238, a daughter called Julia Severa or Severina, known from numismatic evidence but is never mentioned by the ancient Roman sources and a son named Quintus Philippus Severus, born in 247. Philip's rise to prominence began through the intervention of his brother Priscus, an important official under the emperor Gordian III.
His big break came in 243, during Gordian III's campaign against Shapur I of Persia, when the Praetorian prefect Timesitheus died under unclear circumstances. At the suggestion of his brother Priscus, Philip became the new Praetorian prefect, with the intention that the two brothers would control the young Emperor and rule the Roman world as unofficial regents. Following a military defeat, Gordian III died in February 244 under circumstances that are still debated. While some claim that Philip conspired in his murder, other accounts state that Gordian died in battle. Whatever the case, Philip assumed the purple robe following Gordian's death. According to Edward Gibbon: His rise from so obscure a station to the first dignities of the empire seems to prove that he was a bold and able leader, but his boldness prompted him to aspire to the throne, his abilities were employed to supplant, not to serve, his indulgent master. Philip was not willing to repeat the mistakes of previous claimants, was aware that he had to return to Rome in order to secure his position with the senate.
However, his first priority was to conclude a peace treaty with Shapur I of Persia, withdraw the army from a disastrous situation. Although Philip was accused of abandoning territory, the actual terms of the peace were not as humiliating as they could have been. Philip retained Timesitheus’ reconquest of Osroene and Mesopotamia, but he had to agree that Armenia lay within Persia’s sphere of influence, he had to pay an enormous indemnity to the Persians of 500,000 gold denarii. Philip issued coins proclaiming that he had made peace with the Persians. Leading his army back up the Euphrates, south of Circesium Philip erected a cenotaph in honor of Gordian III, but his ashes were sent ahead to Rome, where he arranged for Gordian III’s deification. Whilst in Antioch, he left his brother Priscus as extraordinary ruler of the Eastern provinces, with the title of rector Orientis. Moving westward, he gave his brother-in-law Severianus control of the provinces of Moesia and Macedonia, he arrived in Rome in the late summer of 244, where he was confirmed Augustus.
Before the end of the year, he nominated his young son Caesar and heir, his wife, Otacilia Severa, was named Augusta, he deified his father Marinus though the latter had never been emperor. While in Rome, Philip claimed an official victory over the Persians with the titles of Parthicus Adiabenicus, Persicus Maximus and Parthicus Maximus. In an attempt to shore up his regime, Philip put a great deal of effort in maintaining good relations with the Senate, from the beginning of his reign, he reaffirmed the old Roman virtues and traditions, he ordered an enormous building program in his home town, renaming it Philippopolis, raising it to civic status, while he populated it with statues of himself and his family. This creation of a new city, piled on top of the massive tribute owed to the Persians, as well as the necessary donative to the army to secure its acceptance of his accession, meant Philip was short of money. To pay for it, he ruthlessly increased levels of taxation, while at the same time he ceased paying subsidies to the tribes north of the Danube that were vital for keeping the peace on the frontiers.