Ji Gong, born Li Xiuyuan and known as "Chan Master Daoji" was a Chan Buddhist monk who lived in the Southern Song. He purportedly possessed supernatural powers, which he used to help the poor and stand up to injustice. However, he was known for his wild and eccentric behaviour, for violating Buddhist monastic rules by consuming alcohol and meat. By the time of his death, Ji Gong had become a folk hero in Chinese culture and minor deity in Chinese folk religion, he is mentioned by Buddhists in folktales and kōans, sometimes invoked by oracles to assist in worldly affairs. Li Xiuyuan was born to Li Maochun. After the death of his parents, at the age of 18, Li was sent to Hangzhou and was ordained as a monk in Lingyin Temple, he was given the monastic name Daoji. Unlike traditional Buddhist monks, Daoji did not like following traditional monastic codes, he had a penchant for eating meat and drinking wine. However, Daoji was always ready to lend a helping hand to ordinary people, he would treat the sick and fight against injustice.
The monks and fed up with his behaviour, expelled Daoji from the monastery. From on, Daoji roamed the streets and helped people whenever he could. According to legend, while cultivating the Buddha's teaching, Daoji attained supernatural powers. Many who noticed his eccentric yet benevolent and compassionate nature began to think that he was an incarnate of a bodhisattva, or a reincarnate of an arhat, he was recognised by people as the incarnate of the Taming Dragon Arhat, one of the Eighteen Arhats. When Daoji last stay was at Jingci Monastery and moved to Heaven on the 14th day of the 5th Lunar month, syncretic Taoism began to revere Daoji as a deity. Not long after that, Buddhism began to recognise Daoji's compassionate efforts and he is involved in many classic kōans. A new Buddhist movement, the Hong Kong-based Tung Cheng Yuen Buddhist Association, worship him. Yiguandao has adopted him into their pantheon of deities, citing Zhang Tianran, contemporary founder of the Yiguandao, as his reincarnation.
Ji Gong can be seen smiling in tattered monastic robes, carries a bottle of wine in his right hand, a fan in his left hand. He wears a hat with the Chinese character Fo, meaning "Buddha", he can be seen holding his shoes in his right hand. Because of his carefree nature, he is ever shown with a serious facial expression. Ji Gong has been portrayed by numerous actors in films and television series from as early as 1939. Chinese novel Ji Gong Quan Zhuang by Guo Xiaoting. Adventures of the Mad Monk Ji Gong: The Drunken Wisdom of China's Most Famous Chan Buddhist Monk, Guo Xiaoting. Tuttle Publishing, 2014; the Living Buddha, a 1939 Hong Kong film starring Yee Chau-sui. Ji Gong, Reincarnated Buddha, 1949 Hong Kong film starring Yee Chau-sui. How the Monk Chai Kung Thrice Insulted Wah Wan-Lung, a 1950 Hong Kong film starring Yee Chau-sui; the Mischievous Magic Monk, a 1954 Hong Kong film starring Hung Boh. A New Tale of the Monk Jigong, a 1954 Hong Kong film starring Leung Sing-bo. Ji Gong Sets the Fire on the Impenetrable Pi-pa Spirit, a 1958 Hong Kong film starring Leung Sing-bo.
Ji Gong, the Living Buddha, a 1964 Hong Kong film starring Sun Ma Sze Tsang. A Modern Ji Gong, a 1965 Hong Kong film starring Sun Ma Sze Tsang. Ji Gong Raids a 1965 Hong Kong film starring Sun Ma Sze Tsang. Ji Gong Is After a 1965 Hong Kong film starring Sun Ma Sze Tsang. Ji Gong and the 8 Immortals, a 1966 Hong Kong film starring Sun Ma Sze Tsang; the Magnificent Monk, a 1969 Hong Kong film starring Cheung Kwong-chiu. The Living Buddha Chikung, a 1975 Hong Kong film starring Yueh Yang; the Mad Monk, a 1977 Hong Kong film produced by the Shaw Brothers Studio. The Mad Monk Strikes Again, a 1978 Hong Kong film produced by the Shaw Brothers Studio, starring Julie Yeh Feng. Xin Ji Gong Huo Fo, a 1982 Taiwanese film starring Hsu Pu-liao; the Mad Monk, a 1993 Hong Kong film starring Stephen Chow. Ji Gong: Gu Cha Fengyun, a 2010 Chinese film starring You Benchang. Ji Gong: Cha Yi You Dao, a 2010 Chinese film starring You Benchang. Xianglong Luohan, a 1984 Taiwanese television series produced by CTV. Ji Gong, a 1985 Chinese television series produced by Shanghai TV and Hangzhou TV, starring You Benchang.
Hutu Shenxian, a 1986 Taiwanese television series produced by TTV. Buddha Jih, a 1986 Hong Kong television series divided into a 2 part series, produced by ATV, starring Lam Kwok-hung. Daxiao Ji Gong, a 1987 Taiwanese television series produced by CTS. Kuaile Shenxian, a 1987 Taiwanese television series produced by TTV. Ji Gong, a 1988 Chinese television series produced by Shanghai TV and Hangzhou TV, starring You Benchang and Lü Liang. Ji Gong Huo Fo, a 1989 Chinese television series produced by CTPC and Ningbo Film Company, starring You Benchang. Ji Gong Xin Zhuan, a 1991 Taiwanese television series produced by CTV. Ji Gong, a 1995 Taiwanese television series produced by TTV; the Legends of Jigong, a 1996 Singaporean television series produced by TCS
Lu Zhongyi was the seventeenth patriarch of Yiguan Dao. His religious titles were Tung Li Zu and Jin Gong Zu Shi. Lu is, according to Yiguan Dao doctrine, the incarnation of Maitreya, he was born on the 24th day of 4th Lunar month in 1849, in Jining, Shandong province, China. He was said to be illiterate, his father died when he was young, left with his mother and sister Lu ZhongJie, he joined the army at age 22 and became an officer in the Manzhou DongBei government. In 1895, at the age of 46 he was said to have a dream from God instructing him to become the student of the 16th patriarch Liu Qingxu, he became the 17th patriarch of Yiguan Dao in 1905 in Qingzhou. Yiguan Dao followers believe that he is the first leader of the "White Sun" Era, the last era of the Three Stages Final Kalpa, thus he is the incarnation of savior Maitreya or Hotei. In 1918, Lu brought I-Kuan Tao to his hometown Jining, within a few years, Lu managed to attract some 25 disciples, among them Zhang Tianran and Sun Suzhen.
Lu died on the 2nd day of the 2nd lunar month in 1925. Thus, Lu's younger sister Lu Zhong Jie, believed to be the incarnation of bodhisattva Guan Yin, took over the leadership for 6 years. Zhang Tianran and Sun Suzhen became the successor through spirit writing by the Heavenly Mother. However, the other seven major disciples of Lu once refused his succession. In 1930 Zhang was bestowed the leadership as the 18th patriarch of Yiguan Dao in Jinan. Zhang Tianran I Kuan Tao Budai List of Buddha claimants Patriarchs of I Kuan Tao History of Lu Zhong Yi according to I Kuan Tao Founding father of I Kuan Tao Thomas DuBois. 2005. The Sacred Village: Social Change and Religious Life in Rural North China. University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 0-8248-2837-2 David Jordan & Daniel Overmyer. 1985. The Flying Phoenix: Aspects of Chinese Sectarianism in Taiwan. Princeton University Press. Soo Khin Wah. 1997. A Study of the Yiguan Dao and its Development in Peninsular Malaysia. Ph. D. dissertation, University of British Columbia
Mysticism is the practice of religious ecstasies, together with whatever ideologies, rites, myths and magic may be related to them. It may refer to the attainment of insight in ultimate or hidden truths, to human transformation supported by various practices and experiences; the term "mysticism" has Ancient Greek origins with various determined meanings. Derived from the Greek word μύω, meaning "to close" or "to conceal", mysticism referred to the biblical liturgical and contemplative dimensions of early and medieval Christianity. During the early modern period, the definition of mysticism grew to include a broad range of beliefs and ideologies related to "extraordinary experiences and states of mind". In modern times, "mysticism" has acquired a limited definition, with broad applications, as meaning the aim at the "union with the Absolute, the Infinite, or God"; this limited definition has been applied to a wide range of religious traditions and practices, valuing "mystical experience" as a key element of mysticism.
Broadly defined, mysticism can be found in all religious traditions, from indigenous religions and folk religions like shamanism, to organised religions like the Abrahamic faiths and Indian religions, modern spirituality, New Age and New Religious Movements. Since the 1960s scholars have debated the merits of perennial and constructionist approaches in the scientific research of "mystical experiences"; the perennial position is now "largely dismissed by scholars", most scholars using a contextualist approach, which takes the cultural and historical context into consideration. "Mysticism" is derived from the Greek μυω, meaning "I conceal", its derivative μυστικός, meaning'an initiate'. The verb μυώ has received a quite different meaning in the Greek language; the primary meanings it has are "induct" and "initiate". Secondary meanings include "introduce", "make someone aware of something", "train", "familiarize", "give first experience of something"; the related form of the verb μυέω appears in the New Testament.
As explained in Strong's Concordance, it properly means shutting the eyes and mouth to experience mystery. Its figurative meaning is to be initiated into the "mystery revelation"; the meaning derives from the initiatory rites of the pagan mysteries. Appearing in the New Testament is the related noun μυστήριον, the root word of the English term "mystery"; the term means a mystery or secret, of which initiation is necessary. In the New Testament it takes the meaning of the counsels of God, once hidden but now revealed in the Gospel or some fact thereof, the Christian revelation and/or particular truths or details of the Christian revelation. According to Thayer's Greek Lexicon, the term μυστήριον in classical Greek meant "a hidden thing", "secret". A particular meaning it took in Classical antiquity was a religious secret or religious secrets, confided only to the initiated and not to be communicated by them to ordinary mortals. In the Septuagint and the New Testament the meaning it took was that of a hidden purpose or counsel, a secret will.
It is sometimes used for the hidden wills of humans, but is more used for the hidden will of God. Elsewhere in the Bible it takes the meaning of the hidden sense of things, it is used behind images seen in visions and dreams. The Vulgate translates the Greek term to the Latin sacramentum; the related noun μύστης means the person initiated to the mysteries. According to Ana Jiménez San Cristobal in her study of Greco-Roman mysteries and Orphism, the singular form μύστης and the plural form μύσται are used in ancient Greek texts to mean the person or persons initiated to religious mysteries; these followers of mystery religions belonged to a select group, where access was only gained through an initiation. She finds that the terms were associated with the term βάκχος, used for a special class of initiates of the Orphic mysteries; the terms are first found connected in the writings of Heraclitus. Such initiates are identified in texts with the persons who have been purified and have performed certain rites.
A passage of the Cretans by Euripides seems to explain that the μύστης who devotes himself to an ascetic life, renounces sexual activities, avoids contact with the dead becomes known as βάκχος. Such initiates were believers in the god Dionysus Bacchus who took on the name of their god and sought an identification with their deity; until the sixth century the practice of what is now called mysticism was referred to by the term contemplatio, c.q. theoria. According to Johnson, "oth contemplation and mysticism speak of the eye of love, looking at, gazing at, aware of divine realities." According to Peter Moore, the term "mysticism" is "problematic but indispensable." It is a generic term which joins together into one concept separate practices and ideas which developed separately, According to Dupré, "mysticism" has been defined in many ways, Merkur notes that the definition, or meaning, of the term "mysticism" has changed through the ages. Moore further notes that the term "mysticism" has become a popular label for "anything nebulous, occult, or supernatural."Parsons warns that "what might at times seem to be a straightforward phenomenon exhibiting an unambiguous commonality has become, at least within the academic study of religion and controversial on multiple levels".
Because of its Christian overtones, the lack of similar terms in other cultures, some scholars regard the term "mysticism" to be inadequ
Shanghai is one of the four municipalities under the direct administration of the central government of the People's Republic of China, the largest city in China by population, the second most populous city proper in the world, with a population of 24.18 million as of 2017. It is a transport hub, with the world's busiest container port. Located in the Yangtze River Delta, it sits on the south edge of the estuary of the Yangtze in the middle portion of the East China coast; the municipality borders the provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang to the north and west, is bounded to the east by the East China Sea. As a major administrative and trading city, Shanghai grew in importance in the 19th century due to trade and recognition of its favourable port location and economic potential; the city was one of five treaty ports forced open to foreign trade following the British victory over China in the First Opium War. The subsequent 1842 Treaty of Nanking and 1844 Treaty of Whampoa allowed the establishment of the Shanghai International Settlement and the French Concession.
The city flourished as a centre of commerce between China and other parts of the world, became the primary financial hub of the Asia-Pacific region in the 1930s. During the World War II, the city was the site of the major Battle of Shanghai. After the war, with the Communist Party takeover of the mainland in 1949, trade was limited to other socialist countries, the city's global influence declined. In the 1990s, the economic reforms introduced by Deng Xiaoping resulted in an intense re-development of the city, aiding the return of finance and foreign investment to the city, it has since re-emerged as a hub for international finance. Shanghai has been described as the "showpiece" of the booming economy of mainland China; the two Chinese characters in the city's name are 上 and 海, together meaning "Upon-the-Sea". The earliest occurrence of this name dates from the 11th-century Song dynasty, at which time there was a river confluence and a town with this name in the area. There are disputes as to how the name should be understood, but Chinese historians have concluded that during the Tang dynasty Shanghai was on the sea.
Shanghai is abbreviated 沪 in Chinese, a contraction of 沪渎, a 4th- or 5th-century Jin name for the mouth of Suzhou Creek when it was the main conduit into the ocean. This character appears on all motor vehicle license plates issued in the municipality today. Another alternative name for Shanghai is Shēn or Shēnchéng, from Lord Chunshen, a 3rd-century BC nobleman and prime minister of the state of Chu, whose fief included modern Shanghai. Sports teams and newspapers in Shanghai use Shen in their names, such as Shanghai Shenhua F. C. and Shen Bao. Huating was another early name for Shanghai. In AD 751, during the mid-Tang dynasty, Huating County was established by the Governor of Wu Commandery Zhao Juzhen at modern-day Songjiang, the first county-level administration within modern-day Shanghai. Today, Huating appears as the name of a four-star hotel in the city; the city has various nicknames in English, including "Pearl of the Orient" and "Paris of the East". During the Spring and Autumn period, the Shanghai area belonged to the Kingdom of Wu, conquered by the Kingdom of Yue, which in turn was conquered by the Kingdom of Chu.
During the Warring States period, Shanghai was part of the fief of Lord Chunshen of Chu, one of the Four Lords of the Warring States. He ordered the excavation of the Huangpu River, its former or poetic name, the Chunshen River, gave Shanghai its nickname of "Shēn". Fishermen living in the Shanghai area created a fish tool called the hù, which lent its name to the outlet of Suzhou Creek north of the Old City and became a common nickname and abbreviation for the city. During the Tang and Song dynasties, Qinglong Town in modern Qingpu District was a major trading port. Established in 746, it developed into what contemporary sources called a "giant town of the Southeast", with thirteen temples and seven pagodas; the famous Song scholar and artist Mi Fu served as its mayor. The port had a thriving trade with provinces along the Yangtze River and the Chinese coast, as well as foreign countries such as Japan and Silla. By the end of the Song dynasty, the center of trading had moved downstream of the Wusong River to Shanghai, upgraded in status from a village to a market town in 1074, in 1172 a second sea wall was built to stabilize the ocean coastline, supplementing an earlier dike.
From the Yuan dynasty in 1292 until Shanghai became a municipality in 1927, central Shanghai was administered as a county under Songjiang Prefecture, whose seat was at the present-day Songjiang District. Two important events helped promote Shanghai's development in the Ming dynasty. A city wall was built for the first time in 1554 to protect the town from raids by Japanese pirates, it measured 10 metres high and 5 kilometres in circumference. During the Wanli reign, Shanghai received an important psychological boost from the erection of a City God Temple in 1602; this honour was reserved for prefectural capitals and not given to a mere county seat such as Shang
Jiangxi is a province in the People's Republic of China, located in the southeast of the country. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze river in the north into hillier areas in the south and east, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, Hubei to the northwest; the name "Jiangxi" derives from the circuit administrated under the Tang dynasty in 733, Jiangnanxidao. The abbreviation for Jiangxi is "赣", for the Gan River which runs across from the south to the north and flows into the Yangtze River. Jiangxi is alternately called Ganpo Dadi which means the "Great Land of Gan and Po". Jiangxi is centered on the Gan River valley, which provided the main north-south transport route of south China; the corridor along the Gan River is one of the few traveled routes through the otherwise mountainous and rugged terrain of the south-eastern mountains. This open corridor was the primary route for trade and communication between the North China Plain and the Yangtze River valley in the north and the territory of modern Guangdong province in the south.
As a result, Jiangxi has been strategically important throughout much of China's history. Jiangxi was outside the sphere of influence of early Chinese civilization during the Shang dynasty, it is that peoples collectively known as the Baiyue inhabited the region. During the Spring and Autumn period, the northern part of modern Jiangxi formed the western frontier of the state of Wu. After Wu was conquered by the state of Yue in 473 BC, the state of Chu took over northern Jiangxi and there may have been some Yue influence in the south. Chu subjugated Yue in 333 BC. In 223 BC, when Qin conquered Chu, a majority of the Jiangxi area was recorded to be put under Jiujiang Commandary situated in Shouchun; however the commandary ended shortly when Qin falls. Yuzhang Commandery was established in Jiangxi at the beginning of the Han dynasty before the death of Xiang Yu in 202 BC, it's the first commandery set up by Chinese dynasty in Jiangxi, it was named after the original name of Gan River. "Gan" has become the abbreviation of the province.
In 201, eight counties were added to the original seven of Qin, three more were established in years. Throughout most of the Han dynasty the commandery's eighteen counties covered most of the modern province of Jiangxi; the county seats of Nanchang, Yudu, Luling among others were located at the sites of modern major cities. Other counties, have been moved or abolished in centuries. Under the reign of Emperor Wu of the Han dynasty, Yuzhang Commandery was assigned to Yangzhou Province, as part of a trend to establish provinces all across China. In 291 AD, during the Western Jin dynasty, Jiangxi became. During the Southern and Northern Dynasties, Jiangxi was under the control of the southern dynasties, the number of zhou grew. During the Sui dynasty, there were seven commanderies and twenty-four counties in Jiangxi. During the Tang dynasty, another commandery and fourteen counties were added. Commanderies were abolished, becoming zhou. Circuits were established during the Tang dynasty as a new top-level administrative division.
At first Jiangxi was part of the Jiangnan Circuit. In 733, this circuit was divided into eastern halves. Jiangxi was found in the western half, called Jiangnanxi Circuit; this is the source of the modern name "Jiangxi". The Tang dynasty collapsed in 907, heralding the division of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. Jiangxi first belonged to Wu to Southern Tang. Both states were based in modern-day Nanjing, further down the Yangtze River. During the Song dynasty, Jiangnanxi Circuit was reestablished with nine prefectures and four army districts. During the Yuan dynasty, the circuit was divided into thirteen different circuits, Jiangxi Province was established for the first time; this province included the majority of modern Guangdong. Jiangxi acquired its modern borders during the Ming dynasty. There has been little change to the borders of Jiangxi since. After the fall of the Qing dynasty, Jiangxi became one of the earliest bases for the Communists and many peasants were recruited to join the growing people's revolution.
The Nanchang Uprising took place in Jiangxi on August 1927, during the Chinese Civil War. The Communist leadership hid in the mountains of southern and western Jiangxi, hiding from the Kuomintang's attempts to eradicate them. In 1931, the Chinese Soviet Republic's government was established in Ruijin, sometimes called the "Former Red Capital", or just the "Red Capital". In 1935, after complete encirclement by the Nationalist forces, the Communists broke through and began the Long March to Yan'an. Mountains surround Jiangxi on three sides, with the Mufu Mountains, Jiuling Mountains, Luoxiao Mountains on the west; the southern half of the province is hilly with valleys interspersed. The highest point
Chengdu romanized as Chengtu, is a sub-provincial city which serves as the capital of Sichuan province, People's Republic of China. It is one of the three most populous cities in Western China, the other two being Chongqing and Xi'an; as of 2014, the administrative area housed 14,427,500 inhabitants, with an urban population of 10,152,632. At the time of the 2010 census, Chengdu was the 5th-most populous agglomeration in China, with 10,484,996 inhabitants in the built-up area including Xinjin County and Deyang's Guanghan City. Chengdu is considered a World City with a "Beta +" classification according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network; the surrounding Chengdu Plain is known as the "Country of Heaven" and the "Land of Abundance". Its prehistoric settlers included the Sanxingdui culture. Founded by the state of Shu prior to its incorporation into China, Chengdu is unique as a major Chinese settlement that has maintained its name unchanged throughout the imperial and communist eras.
It was the capital of Liu Bei's Shu during the Three Kingdoms Era, as well as several other local kingdoms during the Middle Ages. It is now one of the most important economic, commercial, cultural and communication centers in Western China. Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport, a hub of Air China and Sichuan Airlines is one of the 30 busiest airports in the world, Chengdu railway station is one of the six biggest in China. Chengdu hosts many international companies and more than 12 consulates. More than 260 Fortune 500 companies have established branches in Chengdu; the name Chengdu is attested in sources dating back to shortly after its founding. It has been called the only major city in China to have remained at an unchanged location with an unchanged name throughout the imperial and communist eras, although it had other names, for example it was known as Xijing in the 17th century; the Song-era geographical work A Universal Geography of the Taiping Era states that the ninth king of Shu's Kaiming dynasty named his new capital Chengdu after a statement by King Tai of Zhou that a settlement needed "one year to become a town, two to become a city, three to become a metropolis".
There are, several versions of why the capital had been moved from nearby Pi County and modern scholars sometimes theorize that the name was a transcription of an earlier name into Chinese characters. The present spelling is based on pinyin romanization, its former status as the seat of the Chengdu Prefecture prompted Marco Polo's spellings Sindafu, Sin-din-fu, &c. and the Protestant missionaries' romanization Ching-too Foo. Although the official name of the city has remained constant, the surrounding area has sometimes taken other names, including Yizhou. Chinese nicknames for the city include the Turtle City, variously derived from the old city walls' shape on a map or a legend that Zhang Yi had planned their course by following a turtle's tracks; the city logo adopted in 2011 is inspired by the Golden Sun Bird, an ancient artifact unearthed in 2001 from the Jinsha Ruins. Archaeological discoveries at the Sanxingdui and Jinsha sites have established that the area surrounding Chengdu was inhabited over four thousand years ago.
At the time of China's Xia and Zhou dynasties, it represented a separate ancient bronze-wielding culture which—following its partial sinification—became known to the Chinese as Shu. In the early 4th century BC, the ninth king of Shu's Kaiming dynasty relocated from nearby Pi County, giving his new capital the name Chengdu. Shu was conquered by Qin in the settlement re-founded by the Qin general Zhang Yi. Although he had argued against the invasion, the settlement thrived and the additional resources from Sichuan helped enable the First Emperor of Qin to unify the Warring States which had succeeded the Zhou. Under the Han, the brocade produced in Chengdu was exported throughout China. A "Brocade Official" was established to oversee its supply. After the fall of the Eastern Han, Liu Bei ruled Shu, the southwestern of the Three Kingdoms, from Chengdu, his minister Zhuge Liang called the area the "Land of Abundance". Under the Tang, Chengdu was considered the second most prosperous city in China after Yangzhou.
Both Li Bai and Du Fu lived in the city. Li Bai praised it as "lying above the empyrean"; the city's present Caotang was constructed in 1078 in honor of an earlier, more humble structure of that name erected by Du Fu in 760, the second year of his 4-year stay. The Taoist Qingyang Gong was built in the 9th century. Chengdu was the capital of Wang Jian's Former Shu from 907 to 925, when it was conquered by the Later Han; the Later Shu was founded with its capital at Chengdu. Its King Mengchang beautified the city by ordering hibiscus to be planted upon the city walls; the Song conquered the city in 965 and used it for the introduction of the first used paper money in the world. Su Shi praised it as "the southwestern metropolis". At the fall of the Song, a rebel leader set up a short-lived
Tianjin romanized as Tientsin, is a coastal metropolis in northern China and one of the nine national central cities of the People's Republic of China, with a total population of 15,621,200 as of 2016 estimation. Its built-up area, made up of 12 central districts, was home to 12,491,300 inhabitants in 2016 and is the world's 29th-largest agglomeration and 11th-most populous city proper, it is governed as one of the four municipalities under the direct administration of central government of the PRC and is thus under direct administration of the central government. Tianjin borders Hebei Province and Beijing Municipality, bounded to the east by the Bohai Gulf portion of the Yellow Sea. Part of the Bohai Economic Rim, it is the largest coastal city in northern China. In terms of urban population, Tianjin is the fourth largest in China, after Shanghai and Guangzhou. In terms of administrative area population, Tianjin ranks fifth in Mainland China; the walled city of Tianjin was built in 1404. As a treaty port since 1860, Tianjin has been a major gateway to Beijing.
During the Boxer Rebellion the city was the seat of the Tianjin Provisional Government. Under the Qing dynasty and the Republic of China, Tianjin became one of the largest cities in the region. At that time, numerous European-style buildings and mansions were constructed in concessions, many of which are well-preserved today. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, Tianjin suffered a depression due to the policy of the central government and Tangshan earthquake, but recovered from 1990s. Nowadays Tianjin is a dual-core city, with its main urban area located along the Hai River, which connects to the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers via the Grand Canal; as of the end of 2010, around 285 Fortune 500 companies have set up base in Binhai. Since 2010, Tianjin's Yujiapu Financial District has become known as China's Manhattan. Tianjin is the pinyin romanization of the Chinese characters 天津, which mean "Heavenly Ford" or "Ford of Heaven"; the origin of the name is obscure. One folk etymology is that it was an homage to the patriotic Chu poet Qu Yuan, whose "Li Sao" includes the verse "...departing from the Ford of Heaven at dawn...".
Another is that it honors a former name of the Girl, a Chinese constellation recorded under the name Tianjin in the Astronomical Record section of the Book of Sui. A third is; the most common are that it was bestowed by the Yongle Emperor of the Ming, who crossed Tianjin's Gu River on his way south to overthrow his nephew the Jianwen Emperor. The land where Tianjin is located today was created in ancient times by sedimentation of various rivers entering the sea at Bohai Gulf, including the Yellow River, which entered the open sea in this area at one point; the opening of the Grand Canal during the Sui dynasty prompted the development of Tianjin into a trading center. During the Qing dynasty Tianjin was promoted to a prefecture or Zhou in 1725 with Tianjin County established under the prefecture in 1731, it was upgraded to an urban prefecture or Fu before becoming a relay station under the command of the Viceroy of Zhili. In 1856, Chinese soldiers boarded The Arrow, a Chinese-owned ship registered in Hong Kong flying the British flag and suspected of piracy, of being engaged in the opium trade.
They imprisoned them. In response, the British and French sent gunboats under the command of Admiral Sir Michael Seymour to capture the Taku forts near Tianjin in May 1858. At the end of the first part of the Second Opium War in June of the same year, the British and French prevailed, the Treaty of Tientsin were signed, which opened Tianjin to foreign trade; the treaties were ratified by the Xianfeng Emperor in 1860, Tianjin was formally opened to Great Britain and France, thus to the outside world. Between 1895 and 1900, Britain and France were joined by Japan and Russia, by countries without Chinese concessions such as Austria-Hungary and Belgium, in establishing self-contained concessions in Tianjin, each with its own prisons, schools and hospitals; these nations left many architectural reminders of their rule, notably churches and thousands of villas. The presence of foreign influence in Tianjin was not always peaceful. In June 1870, the orphanage held by the Wanghailou Church, in Tianjin, built by French Roman Catholic missionaries, was accused of the kidnapping and brainwashing of Chinese children.
On June 21, the magistrate of Tianjin County initiated a showdown at the church that developed into violent clashes between the church's Christian supporters and non-Christian Tianjin residents. The furious protestors burned down Wanghailou Church and the nearby French consulate and killed eighteen foreigners including ten French nuns, the French consul, merchants. France and six other Western nations complained to the Qing government, forced to pay compensation for the incident. In 1885 Li Hongzhang founded the Tianjin Military Academy for Chinese army officers, with German advisers, as part of his military reforms; the move was supported by Anhui Army commander Zhou Shengchuan. The academy was to serve Anhui Green Standard Army officers. Various practical military and science subjects were taught at the academy; the instructors were Germa