Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.7 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, the territory of Austria covers 83,879 km2. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps, only 32% of the country is below 500 m. The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects of German as their native language, other local official languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene. The origins of modern-day Austria date back to the time of the Habsburg dynasty, from the time of the Reformation, many northern German princes, resenting the authority of the Emperor, used Protestantism as a flag of rebellion. Following Napoleons defeat, Prussia emerged as Austrias chief competitor for rule of a greater Germany, Austrias defeat by Prussia at the Battle of Königgrätz, during the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, cleared the way for Prussia to assert control over the rest of Germany.
In 1867, the empire was reformed into Austria-Hungary, Austria was thus the first to go to war in the July Crisis, which would ultimately escalate into World War I. The First Austrian Republic was established in 1919, in 1938 Nazi Germany annexed Austria in the Anschluss. This lasted until the end of World War II in 1945, after which Germany was occupied by the Allies, in 1955, the Austrian State Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state, ending the occupation. In the same year, the Austrian Parliament created the Declaration of Neutrality which declared that the Second Austrian Republic would become permanently neutral, Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy comprising nine federal states. The capital and largest city, with a population exceeding 1.7 million, is Vienna, other major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is one of the richest countries in the world, with a nominal per capita GDP of $43,724, the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2014 was ranked 21st in the world for its Human Development Index.
Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, joined the European Union in 1995, Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, and adopted the euro currency in 1999. The German name for Austria, Österreich, meant eastern realm in Old High German, and is cognate with the word Ostarrîchi and this word is probably a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976, the word Austria is a Latinisation of the German name and was first recorded in the 12th century. Accordingly, Norig would essentially mean the same as Ostarrîchi and Österreich, the Celtic name was eventually Latinised to Noricum after the Romans conquered the area that encloses most of modern-day Austria, around 15 BC. Noricum became a Roman province in the mid-first century AD, heers hypothesis is not accepted by linguists. Settled in ancient times, the Central European land that is now Austria was occupied in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes, the Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province
The Online Computer Library Center is a US-based nonprofit cooperative organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the worlds information and reducing information costs. It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services, the group first met on July 5,1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization. The group hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The goal of network and database was to bring libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the worlds information in order to best serve researchers and scholars. The first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26,1971 and this was the first occurrence of online cataloging by any library worldwide.
Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data, between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States. As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside of Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with networks, organizations that provided training, support, by 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on OCLC Members Council, in early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world.
WorldCat has holding records from public and private libraries worldwide. org, in October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. The Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988, a browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013, it was replaced by the Classify Service. S. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users and this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. OCLC has produced cards for members since 1971 with its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, e. g. CONTENTdm for managing digital collections, OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years.
In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications and these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organizations website. The most recent publications are displayed first, and all archived resources, membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding
Recent African origin of modern humans
According to this model, modern humans evolved in East Africa, and started to disperse through the world roughly 50,000 to 100,000 years ago. The single-origin hypothesis is cited as having the scientific consensus as of the mid-2000s, in the 2010s, the discovery of evidence of archaic admixture of modern humans outside of Africa with Neanderthals and Denisovans has complicated the picture. As of 2011, it likely that there were two waves of migration out of Africa. The first took place between 130, 000–115,000 years ago via northern Africa, and appears to have died out or retreated. A second dispersal took place via the so-called Southern Route, following the coastline of Asia. Europe was populated by an offshoot which settled the Near East. Anatomically modern humans originated in Africa by about 200,000 years ago, in the Recent African Origin scenario, migration within and out of Africa eventually replaced the earlier dispersed H. erectus. Homo sapiens idaltu, found at site Middle Awash in Ethiopia, beginning about 100,000 years ago, evidence of more sophisticated technology and artwork begins to emerge and by 50,000 years ago, fully modern behaviour becomes more prominent.
Stone tools show regular patterns that are reproduced or duplicated with more precision while tools made of bone, fossils of early Homo sapiens were found in Qafzeh cave in Israel and have been dated to 80,000 to 100,000 years ago. A fossil of a modern human dated to 54,700 years ago was found in Manot Cave in Israel, named Manot 1, fossils from Lake Mungo, have been dated to about 42,000 years ago. The Tianyuan cave remains in Chinas Liujiang region have a date range between 38,000 and 42,000 years ago. The Tianyuan specimens are most similar in morphology to Minatogawa Man, anatomically modern humans originated in Africa by about 200,000 years ago. The first dispersal took place between 130, 000–115,000 years ago via northern Africa, but died out or retreated, chinese researchers question this extinction, claiming that modern humans were present in China already 80,000 years ago. A second dispersal took place via the so-called Southern Route, either before or after the Toba event and this dispersal followed the southern coastline of Asia, crossing about 250 kilometres of sea, and colonized Australia by around 50,000 years ago.
The early northern Africa dispersal took place between 130, 000–115,000 years ago, fossils of early Homo sapiens were found in Qafzeh cave in Israel and have been dated 80,000 to 100,000 years ago. These humans seem to have become extinct or retreated back to Africa 70,000 to 80,000 years ago. Hua Liu et al. analyzed autosomal microsatellite markers dating to about 56,000 years ago and they interpret the paleontological fossil as an isolated early offshoot that retracted back to Africa. According to Kuhlwilm and his co-authors, Neanderthals received gene flow from modern humans around 100,000 years ago, chinese research questions the extinction of this early dispersal
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
The leopard /ˈlɛpərd/ is one of the five big cats in the genus Panthera. It is a member of the family Felidae with a range in sub-Saharan Africa. Fossil records suggest that in the Late Pleistocene it occurred in Europe, compared to other members of Felidae, the leopard has relatively short legs and a long body with a large skull. It is similar in appearance to the jaguar, but has a smaller, lighter physique. Its fur is marked with similar to those of the jaguar, but the leopards rosettes are smaller and more densely packed. Both leopards and jaguars that are melanistic are known as black panthers, the leopard is listed as vulnerable on the IUCN Red List because leopard populations are threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation, and are declining in large parts of the global range. In Hong Kong, Kuwait, Libya and most likely in Morocco, leopards are hunted illegally, and their body parts are smuggled in the wildlife trade for medicinal practices and decoration. The common name leopard /ˈlɛ.
pərd/ is a Greek compound of λέων leōn, the name reflects the fact that in antiquity, a leopard was believed to be a hybrid of a lion and a panther. The Greek word is related to Sanskrit पृदाकु pṛdāku, and probably derives from a Mediterranean language, the name was first used in the 13th century. Other vernacular names for the leopard include graupanther and several names such as tendwa in India. The term black panther refers to leopards with melanistic genes, the scientific name of the leopard is Panthera pardus. The generic name Panthera derives from Latin via Greek πάνθηρ, the term panther, whose first recorded use dates back to the 13th century AD, generally refers to the leopard, and less often to the cougar and the jaguar. Alternative origins suggested for Panthera include an Indo-Iranian word meaning white-yellow or pale, in Sanskrit, this could have been derived from पाण्डर pāṇḍara, which in turn comes from पुण्डरीक puṇḍárīka. The specific name pardus is derived from the Greek πάρδος, the leopard is one of the five extant species of the genus Panthera, which includes the jaguar, the lion, the snow leopard and the tiger.
This genus, along with the genus Neofelis - which consists of the clouded leopard, the leopard was first described by Swedish zoologist Carl Linnaeus in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae. Linnaeus named the leopard as Felis pardus, placing it in the genus Felis along with the cat, the jaguar, the Eurasian lynx, the lion, the ocelot. In the 18th and 19th centuries, most naturalists and taxonomists followed his example, in 1816, Lorenz Oken proposed a definition of the genus Panthera, with a subgenus Panthera using F. pardus as a type species. Okens classification, was not widely accepted, and until the early 20th century continued using Felis or Leopardus when describing leopard subspecies, in 1916, British zoologist Reginald Innes Pocock accorded Panthera generic rank defining Panthera pardus as species
The mandible, lower jaw or jawbone is the largest and lowest bone in the face. It forms the lower jaw and holds the teeth in place. The mandible sits beneath the maxilla, the bone is formed from a fusion of left and right processes, and the point where these sides join, the mandibular symphysis, is still visible as a faint ridge in the midline. Like other symphyses in the body, this is a midline articulation where the bones are joined by fibrocartilage, the body of the mandible is curved somewhat like a horseshoe and has two surfaces and two borders. From the outside, the mandible is marked in the midline by a faint ridge and this ridge divides below and encloses a triangular eminence, the mental protuberance, the base of which is depressed in the center but raised on either side to form the mental tubercle. On either side of the symphysis, just below the teeth, is a depression, the incisive fossa, which gives origin to the mentalis. Below the second premolar tooth, on side, midway between the upper and lower borders of the body, is the mental foramen, for the passage of the mental vessels.
From the inside, the mandible appears concave, near the lower part of the symphysis is a pair of laterally placed spines, termed the mental spines, which give origin to the genioglossus. Immediately below these is a pair of spines, or more frequently a median ridge or impression. In some cases the mental spines are fused to form a single eminence, in others they are absent, above the mental spines a median foramen and furrow are sometimes seen, they mark the line of union of the halves of the bone. Below the mental spines, on side of the middle line, is an oval depression for the attachment of the anterior belly of the digastric. Above the anterior part of line is a smooth triangular area against which the sublingual gland rests, and below the hinder part. To the outer lip of the border, on either side. The ramus of the mandible has four sides, two surfaces, four borders, and two processes. On the outside, the ramus is flat and marked by oblique ridges at its lower part, on the inside, the mandible presents about its center the oblique mandibular foramen, for the entrance of the inferior alveolar vessels and nerve.
Behind this groove is a surface, for the insertion of the internal pterygoid muscle. The mandibular canal runs obliquely downward and forward in the ramus, and horizontally forward in the body, on arriving at the incisor teeth, it turns back to communicate with the mental foramen, giving off two small canals which run to the cavities containing the incisor teeth. In the posterior two-thirds of the bone the canal is situated nearer the surface of the mandible
Flowstones are composed of sheetlike deposits of calcite or other carbonate minerals, formed where water flows down the walls or along the floors of a cave. They are typically found in caves, in limestone, where they are the most common speleothem. However, they may form in any type of cave where water enters that has picked up dissolved minerals, flowstones are formed via the degassing of vadose percolation waters. Flowstone may form on manmade structures as a result of calcium hydroxide being leached from concrete and these secondary deposits created outside the cave environment, which mimic the shapes and forms of speleothems, are classified as calthemites and are associated with concrete degradation. Flowing films of water that move along floors or down positive-sloping walls build up layers of carbonate, gypsum. The flowstone forms when thin layers of these deposits build on each other, there are two common forms of flowstones and travertine. Tufa is usually formed via the precipitation of carbonate, and is spongy or porous in nature.
Travertine is a calcium carbonate deposit often formed in creeks or rivers, its nature is laminated, the deposits may grade into thin sheets called draperies or curtains where they descend from overhanging portions of the wall. Some draperies are translucent, and some have brown and beige layers that look much like bacon, though flowstones are among the largest of speleothems, they can still be damaged by a single touch. The oil from human fingers causes the water to avoid the area. Flowstone derived from concrete, lime or mortar, can form on manmade structures, carbon dioxide is absorbed into the hyperalkaline leachate solution as it emerges from the concrete. This facilitates the chemical reactions which deposits calcium carbonate on vertical or sloping surfaces, concrete derived secondary deposits are classified as calthemites. These calcium carbonate deposits mimic the forms and shapes of speleothems and it is most likely that calthemite flowstone is precipitated from leachate solution as calcite, in preference to the other, less stable polymorphs and vaterite.
Other trace elements such as iron from rusting reinforcing or copper oxide from pipework may be transported by the leachate and this may cause the calthemites to take on colours of the leached oxides. Cave onyx is any of various kinds of flowstone considered desirable for ornamental architectural purposes, there are a number of US caves called Onyx Cave because of the presence in them of such deposits
A number of varieties of Homo are grouped into the broad category of archaic humans in the period beginning 500,000 years ago. It typically includes Homo neanderthalensis, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo heidelbergensis and this category is contrasted with anatomically modern humans, which include the subspecies Homo sapiens sapiens and Homo sapiens idaltu. Modern humans are theorized to have evolved from humans, who in turn evolved from Homo erectus. Varieties of archaic humans are sometimes included under the binomial name Homo sapiens because their size is very similar to that of modern humans. Archaic humans had a brain size averaging 1200 to 1400 cubic centimeters, archaics are distinguished from anatomically modern humans by having a thick skull, prominent supraorbital ridges and the lack of a prominent chin. Anatomically modern humans appear from about 200,000 years ago and after 70,000 years ago, non-modern varieties of Homo are certain to have survived until after 30,000 years ago, and perhaps until as recent as 10,000 years ago.
Which of these, if any, are included under the archaic human is a matter of definition. Nonetheless, according to recent genetic studies, modern humans may have bred with at least two groups of ancient humans and Denisovans. New evidence suggests another group may have been extant as recently as 11,500 years ago, chris Stringer of the Natural History Museum in London has suggested that these people could be a result of mating between Denisovans and modern humans. Other scientists remain skeptical, suggesting that the features are within the variations expected for human populations. The category archaic human lacks a single, agreed upon definition, according to one definition, Homo sapiens is a single species comprising several subspecies that include the archaics and modern humans. Under this definition, modern humans are referred to as Homo sapiens sapiens, for example, the Neanderthals are Homo sapiens neanderthalensis, and Homo heidelbergensis is Homo sapiens heidelbergensis. Other taxonomists prefer not to consider archaics and modern humans as a single species, in this case the standard taxonomy is used, i. e.
Homo rhodesiensis, or Homo neanderthalensis. The evolutionary dividing lines that separate humans from archaic Homo sapiens. However, these modern humans do possess a number of archaic traits, such as moderate. The emergence of humans is sometimes used as an example of punctuated equilibrium. This occurs when a species undergoes significant biological evolution within a short period. Subsequently, the species undergoes very little change for long periods until the next punctuation, the brain size of archaic humans expanded significantly from 900 cm2 in erectus to 1,300 cm2
The caves in the area have been undergone systematic exploration since 1949. Scladina Cave was discovered in 1971 by cavers of the CAS, in 1978 the Scientific Council of the Prehistory Department of the University of Liège began to direct the excavations. Since the site has yielded numerous artifacts of Mousterian Neanderthal origin, amidst assemblages of stone tools, after the initially clearing of the entrance the excavations uncovered two strata of Neanderthal occupation, the oldest dating back 130,000 years. The sediments yielded artifacts and Mousterian stone tools, the earliest were attributed to the Middle Palaeolithic, two Neanderthal occupation sites were identified, one dated to be 130,000 years old and the other 40,000 years. Modern humans infrequently occupied the site between 32,000 and 9,000 years ago and used the site as a place during the late Neolithic. Continued excavations since 1978 have produced a stream of findings that culminated in the discovery of the remarkable Sclayn child fossils in 1993.
Sclayn cave site has been classified as a heritage site of Wallonia on 27 May 2009 and is since open to the public. Dated to be around 127,000 years old, the first fragment of the now nearly complete mandible, was found on 16 July 1993, a maxillary fragment and several teeth of the child were excavated in subsequent campaigns. A genetic sample was successfully extracted from one of the molars at a laboratory for ancient DNA and analyzed at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. Initially it was suggested that the Scladina child was 2 to 4 years older than current estimates, some scholars, though debate universal periods of anterior tooth growth, as it is known that anterior tooth growth takes longer in great apes than in humans and varies among human populations. The study of the turned out to support the idea that extremely prolonged duration of human development is unique to Homo sapiens. This trend suggests to scientists the necessary prevalence of differing patterns of behavioral and social development as well.
Neanderthal diet consisted to over 70% of meat, unlike that of contemporary Homo sapiens hunter-gatherer societies, although some cooked vegetables are evident. Provisioning techniques, made superior by extensive use, aided early Homo in pursuits of worldwide expansion. One large game evident in the diets of Scladina Neanderthals is bear, several bear bones were found amongst other stone tools and modifiers within the Scladina cave site. Wear marks on the bones,4 of the 6 bear bone tools which originated from a single femur, the idea is to correctly inform about prehistory, deemed to be still perceived as nebulous and mythical by the general public. The site and its center are open to the public all year round. Private groups, school classes are permanently granted access to the cave, the laboratory, list of human evolution fossils Scladina Cave Archaeological Center The Scladina cave Archéologie Andennaise SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION of tooth development
The Bornean orangutan is a species of orangutan native to the island of Borneo. Together with the Sumatran orangutan, it belongs to the genus of great apes native to Asia. Like the other apes, orangutans are highly intelligent, displaying advanced tool use. Orangutans share approximately 97% of their DNA with humans, the Bornean orangutan is a critically endangered species, with deforestation, palm oil plantations and hunting posing a serious threat to its continued existence. The Bornean orangutan and the Sumatran orangutan diverged about 400,000 years ago, the two orangutan species were considered merely subspecies until 1996, they were elevated to species following sequencing of their mitochondrial DNA. The population currently listed as P. p. wurmbii may be closer to the Sumatran orangutan than to the Bornean orangutan, if this is confirmed, P. abelii would be a subspecies of P. wurmbii. In addition, the locality of P. pygmaeus has not been established beyond doubt. Bradon-Jones et al. considered P. morio to be a synonym of P.
pygmaeus, the Bornean orangutan is the third-heaviest living primate after the two species of gorilla, and the largest truly arboreal animal alive today. Body weights broadly overlap with the considerably taller Homo sapiens, by comparison, the Sumatran orangutan is similar in size but, on average, is marginally lighter in weight. A survey of wild orangutans found that weigh on average 75 kg, ranging from 50–100 kg, and 1. 2–1.4 m long, females average 38.5 kg, ranging from 30–50 kg. While in captivity, orangutans can grow considerably overweight, up to more than 165 kg, the heaviest known male orangutan in captivity was an obese male named Andy, who weighed 204 kg in 1959 when he was 13 years old. The Bornean orangutan has a body shape with very long arms that may reach up to 1.5 metres in length. It has a coarse, reddish coat and prehensile, grasping hands, the Bornean orangutan lives in tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests in the Bornean lowlands, as well as mountainous areas up to 1,500 metres above sea level.
This species lives throughout the canopy of primary and secondary forests and it can be found in the two Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak, and three of the four Indonesian Provinces of Kalimantan. In history, orangutans ranged throughout Southeast Asia and into southern China, as well as on the island of Java and they primarily inhabit peat swamp forests, tropical health forests, and mixed dipterocarp forests. Bornean orangutan are more solitary than their Sumatran relatives, two or three orangutans with overlapping territories may interact, but only for short periods of time. Although orangutans are not territorial, adult males will display threatening behaviors upon meeting other males, males are considered the most solitary of the orangutans. The Bornean orangutan has a lifespan of 35–45 years in the wild, despite being arboreal, the Bornean orangutan travels on the ground more than its Sumatran counterpart