Haixinsha Island (Tianhe District)
Haixinsha Island is an island in Guangzhou, China. It is located to the south of Zhujiang New Town, newly developed CBD of the city, to the north of Canton Tower and to the east of Er Sha Island; the island had been used as garrison and warehouses of the People's Liberation Army until the local government decided it was to be redeveloped and used as the venue of the opening and closing ceremonies of the 2010 Asian Games. The island sat at a strategic point of the new city centre, bordered by the new CBD on the north and the Pearl River on the south. Besides allocating a piece of land to the military, local government compensated another ¥1 billion in order to acquire land of the island. A viewing stand which seated 35,000 in three tiers of seating, was erected on western end in November 2010 for the opening ceremony. Other infrastructures include an apm station and a large underground complex linked directly to the CBD; the future of the island is a subject of heated debate at the moment. When construction first started, the government claimed the area would serve as a civic square after the Asian Games.
However after the games was finished, the whole island was turned into an Asian Games park, which charged an entry fee. Although the park attracted tourists, the entry fee affected people who used the metro station as all entrances and exits of the station were located within the park; this sparked a public outcry and the entry fee was lifted in September 2012. Moreover, the viewing stand was supposed to be a temporary structure which should be demolished, but in 2012, it was reported that a local real estate company was planning to turn it into a luxury hotel with a rooftop swimming pool. Haixinsha Island: another island with the same name in Haizhu District, Guangzhou
Nei Lingding Island
Nei or Inner Lingding Island romanized as Lintin or Lin Tin Island, is an island in the Pearl River estuary in the southeastern Chinese province of Guangdong. Although it is located closer to the eastern shore of the estuary, it was until 2009 administratively part of the prefecture-level city of Zhuhai, whose main administrative center is located on the west shore of the river; the jurisdiction of Nei Lingding Island was handed over to Shenzhen in 2009. In May 1513, the Portuguese explorer Jorge Álvares arrived at an island near the coast of China they called "Tamão"; this was the first contact of Europeans with China via the sea route around the Cape of Good Hope. Tamão was fortified by Simão de Andrade and assaulted by the Chinese during the expulsion of the Portuguese in the 1520s. Nei Lingding Island, the main island standing in the mouth of the Pearl River, 6 km off the mainland, is identified by J. M. Braga to be the Tamão of the Portuguese sources, is followed by Western scholarship.
As of 1814 Nei Lingding was called the "outer anchorage" for European ships traveling to Guangzhou. They would have to stop at the island, have their cargo inspected and measured by the Chinese customs officials stationed at the island, pay customs duties. In 1821, when the Chinese government prohibited importation of opium into the country's ports, Lintin became a base for drug smugglers. Edmund Roberts visited the island in 1832, noted that there were "seven to eight ships" smuggling opium, including American boats. From the 1830s until the cession of Hong Kong in the 1840s, Lintin Island was the main base for British merchants in the Pearl River Delta area; the island was a stopping point during monsoon season for ship repair. Ships would stay on the island upwards of six months; as of 1814, the population was approximated at less than 60. As of 1821, just under 2,000; when Edmund Roberts visited in 1832, he noted a population of 5,000. Since 1984, a part of the island forms the "Neilingding Island and Futian Nature Reserve".
The reserve covers 7.8 square kilometres, including 4.5 square kilometres of land area and 3 square kilometres of mangrove forest, was created to protect some 300 rhesus macaques and other animals, such as pangolins and pythons. Wai Lingding Island lies some 40 kilometres to the southeast, in the Wanshan Archipelago
Zhuhai is a prefecture-level city on the southern coast of Guangdong province in China. Located in the Pearl River Delta, Zhuhai borders Jiangmen to the northwest, Zhongshan to the north, Macau to the south. Zhuhai was one of the original Special Economic Zones established in the 1980s. Zhuhai is one of China's premier tourist destinations, being called the Chinese Riviera. While the city is located in the traditionally Cantonese-speaking region of Guangdong Province, a significant portion of population is now made up of Mandarin speaking economic migrants from inland provinces; the core of Zhuhai in the northeastern portion of the administrative division, is part of the Guangzhou-Shenzhen built-up area on the mouth of the river delta, the biggest built-up area in the world with more than 44,478,513 inhabitants at the 2010 census, encompassing Shenzhen, Foshan, Macao, main part of Guangzhou, small parts of Jiangmen and Huizhou cities. According to a report released in 2014 by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Zhuhai is the most livable city in China.
Zhuhai borders the Macau Special Administrative Region, is 140 kilometres southwest of Guangzhou. Its territory includes a coastline of 690 kilometres; the islands within the prefecture-level city of Zhuhai include a number of near-shore islands connected to the mainland by bridges or causeways, as well as some islands in the open South China Sea. Some of the latter are geographically closer to Hong Kong than to the Zhuhai mainland; the jurisdiction of Nei Lingding Island, located in the Pearl River estuary was transferred from Zhuhai to Shenzhen in 2009. Zhuhai has a humid subtropical climate affected by the East Asian Monsoon and moderated by the South China Sea, with long and humid summers with frequent thunderstorms, short and dry winters. Average highs in January and July are 32 °C respectively. Snowfalls are unknown and a frost has never been recorded in the city centre. Conversely, extreme heat waves do not occur. Zhuhai became a city in 1979, a year before it was designated as one of the first Special Economic Zones of China.
To neighboring Shenzhen, which became the first Special Economic Zone of China in 1978, the implementation of Zhuhai as an SEZ was due to its strategic position facing Macau, a capitalist trading center similar to Shenzhen's position with Hong Kong. The establishment of Zhuhai as an SEZ allowed the Chinese Central Government and economy to have easier access to the Macau and global market; as a result, Zhuhai is now a major city in the Pearl River Delta region according to the new general urban plan approved by the State Council. The implementation of Special Economy Zone intended for the city to become a key port city and education city and tourism city, as a regional hub for transportation; the outstanding geographic location, a wide range of supporting infrastructure and a deep-water port serve as a major attraction for foreign capital. Utilized foreign investment reached US$10.344 billion in 2008. Among the top 500 enterprises worldwide, 19 of them have investment projects in Zhuhai such as ExxonMobil, BP, Siemens and Matsushita.
Hong Kong is the largest overseas investor in Zhuhai, accounting for 22% of total utilized foreign investment in 2002. Industrial development in Zhuhai focuses on five new high-tech and heavy industries including electronics, computer software and pharmacy, machinery and equipment as well as petrochemical industries. Aiming to strengthen the existing industrial base as well as to provide a better environment for the development of new high-tech industries, the local government has taken the initiative in developing five economic zones: Zhuhai High-Tech Industrial Development ZoneAs one of the four earliest Special Economic Zones in China, Zhuhai SEZ was set up in the year 1980 and granted with a local legislative right. Zhuhai hi-tech zone is located in the north of Zhuhai, close to downtown. Furthermore, technological resources are centralized in our zone; the hi-tech zone is the showcase for Zhuhai's scientific development. Meizu is one high tech product headquartered in Zhuhai. Zhuhai Free Trade ZoneZhuhai Free Trade Zone was founded in 1996 with the State Council's approval, occupying 3 km2.
A Zhuhai FTZ Administrative Committee was set up in June 1997. By the end of 2006, there had been over 200 companies registered in the Free Trade Zone, including more than 150 foreign-funded enterprises, the total investment amount was one billion US dollars. Industries encouraged in the zone includes Electronics Assembly & Manufacturing, Telecommunications Equipment, Building/Construction Materials, Instruments & Industrial Equipment Production, Medical Equipment and Supplies, Raw Material Processing and Development, Shipping/Warehousing/Logistics, Heavy Industry. Harbour industrial zone Wanshan ocean development testing zone Hengqin economic development zone Global printer consumables manufacturing centreZhuhai manufactured and supplied 70% of the world's ribbons, 60% of the world's aftermarket inkjet cartridges and 20% of the world's third-party laser toner cartridges, their combined sales were worth more than 1.3 billion US dollars or 10% of all the sales in the world. Zhuhai owns a comprehensive supply chain and any of the raw mat
Hanyu Pinyin abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, written using Chinese characters; the system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters; the pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang, based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese. It was published by revised several times; the International Organization for Standardization adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, was followed by the United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for international events rather than for educational or computer-input purposes, but "some cities and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept this", so it remains one of several rival romanization systems in use.
The word Hànyǔ means'the spoken language of the Han people', while Pīnyīn means'spelled sounds'. In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji in Beijing; this was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, issued his Xi Ru Ermu Zi at Hangzhou. Neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese. One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing dynasty scholar-official, Fang Yizhi; the first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu. A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the stunning effect of the kana syllabaries and Western learning there; this galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script.
While Song did not himself create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts. The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, further improved by Herbert Giles in the Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892, it was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979. In the early 1930s, Communist Party of China leaders trained in Moscow introduced a phonetic alphabet using Roman letters, developed in the Soviet Oriental Institute of Leningrad and was intended to improve literacy in the Russian Far East; this Sin Wenz or "New Writing" was much more linguistically sophisticated than earlier alphabets, but with the major exception that it did not indicate tones of Chinese. In 1940, several thousand members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Society's new journal.
Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Sun Fo. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, some contemporary Chinese literature, a spectrum of textbooks. In 1940, the movement reached an apex when Mao's Border Region Government declared that the Sin Wenz had the same legal status as traditional characters in government and public documents. Many educators and political leaders looked forward to the day when they would be universally accepted and replace Chinese characters. Opposition arose, because the system was less well adapted to writing regional languages, therefore would require learning Mandarin. Sin Wenz fell into relative disuse during the following years. In 1943, the U. S. military engaged Yale University to develop a romanization of Mandarin Chinese for its pilots flying over China. The resulting system is close to pinyin, but does not use English letters in unfamiliar ways. Medial semivowels are written with y and w, apical vowels with r or z.
Accent marks are used to indicate tone. Pinyin was created by Chinese linguists, including Zhou Youguang, as part of a Chinese government project in the 1950s. Zhou is called "the father of pinyin," Zhou worked as a banker in New York when he decided to return to China to help rebuild the country after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, he became an economics professor in Shanghai, in 1955, when China's Ministry of Education created a Committee for the Reform of the Chinese Written Language, Premier Zhou Enlai assigned Zhou Youguang the task of developing a new romanization system, despite the fact that he was not a professional linguist. Hanyu Pinyin was based on several existing systems: Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928, Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, the diacritic markings from zhuyin. "I'm not the father of pinyin," Zhou said years later. It's a lo
Macau or Macao the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is a special administrative region on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in southern China. With a population of 653,100 in an area of 32.9 km2, it is the most densely populated region in the world. Macau was a colony of the Portuguese Empire, after Ming China leased the territory as a trading post in 1557. Governing under Chinese authority and sovereignty, Portugal was given perpetual occupation rights for Macau in 1887; the colony remained under Portuguese control until 1999. As a special administrative region, Macau's system of government is separate from that of mainland China. A sparsely populated collection of coastal islands, the territory has become a major resort city and the top destination for gambling tourism, it is the ninth-highest recipient of tourism revenue and its gaming industry is seven times larger than that of Las Vegas. Although the city has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, it has severe income inequality.
Macau has a high Human Development Index and the fourth-highest life expectancy in the world. The territory is urbanised and most development is built on reclaimed land; the first known written record of the name "Macau", rendered as "Ya/A Ma Gang", is in a letter dated 20 November 1555. The local inhabitants believed that the sea goddess Mazu had blessed and protected the harbour and called the waters around A-Ma Temple using her name; when Portuguese explorers first arrived in the area and asked for the place name, the locals thought they were asking about the temple and told them it was "Ma Kok". The earliest Portuguese spelling for this was Amaquão. Multiple variations were used until Amacão / Amacao and Macão / Macao became common during the 17th century standardising as Macao, Macau today. Macau Peninsula had many names in Chinese, including Jingao and Haojingao; the islands Taipa and Hengqin were collectively called Shizimen. These names would become Aomen, Oumún in Cantonese and translating as "bay gate" or "port gate", to refer to the whole territory.
The region is first known to have been settled during the Han dynasty. However, Macau did not develop as a major settlement until the Portuguese arrived in the 16th century; the first European visitor to reach China by sea was the explorer Jorge Álvares, who arrived in 1513. Merchants first established a trading post in Hong Kong waters at Tamão, beginning regular trade with nearby settlements in southern China. Military clashes between the Ming and Portuguese navies followed the expulsion of the Tamão traders in 1521. Despite the trade ban, Portuguese merchants continued to attempt settling on other parts of the Pearl River estuary settling on Macau. Luso-Chinese trade relations were formally reestablished in 1554 and Portugal soon after acquired a permanent lease for Macau in 1557; the small population of Portuguese merchants became a growing city. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Macau was created in 1576, by 1583, the Senate had been established to handle municipal affairs for the growing settlement.
Macau was at the peak of its prosperity as a major entrepôt during the late 16th century, providing a crucial connection in exporting Chinese silk to Japan during the Nanban trade period. Although the Portuguese were prohibited from fortifying Macau or stockpiling weapons, the Fortaleza do Monte was constructed in response to frequent Dutch naval incursions; the Dutch attempted to take the city in the 1622 Battle of Macau, but were repelled by the Portuguese. Macau entered a period of decline in the 1640s following a series of catastrophic events for the burgeoning colony: Portuguese access to trade routes was irreparably severed when Japan halted trade in 1639, Portugal revolted against Spain in 1640, Malacca fell to the Dutch in 1641. Maritime trade with China was banned in 1644 following the Qing conquest under the Haijin policies and limited only to Macau on a lesser scale while the new dynasty focused on eliminating surviving Ming loyalists. While the Kangxi Emperor lifted the prohibition in 1684, China again restricted trade under the Canton System in 1757.
Foreign ships were required to first stop at Macau before further proceeding to Canton. Qing authorities exercised a much greater role in governing the territory during this period; as the opium trade became more lucrative during the eighteenth century, Macau again became an important stopping point en route to China. Following the First Opium War and establishment of Hong Kong, Macau lost its role as a major port. Firecracker and incense production, as well as tea and tobacco processing, were vital industries in the colony during this time. Portugal was able to assert its sovereignty. Portugal occupied nearby Lapa and Montanha, but these would be returned to China by 1887, when perpetual occupation rights over Macau were formalised in the Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Peking; this agreement obligated Portugal from ceding Macau without Chinese approval. Despite occasional conflict between Cantonese authorities and the colonial government, Macau's status remained unchanged through the republican revolutions of b
Hengqin, sometimes known as Ilha da Montanha in Portuguese, is an island in Zhuhai, a prefecture-level city and Special Economic Zone in the Guangdong province of the People's Republic of China. It has a population of about 3,000. Parts of Hengqin were leased to Macau by the State Council of the People's Republic of China starting in 2009, with the area expanding. In the leased parts, Macau law remains outside the Great Firewall; the whole island is designated a special economic district, as Hengqin New Area, similar to Binhai New Area in Tianjin and Pudong New Area in Shanghai. Hengqin Island is adjacent to Taipa and Coloane of Macau with the Shisanmen Waterway in between, is connected to Macau's Cotai via the Lotus Bridge; the island is the largest among the 146 islands of Zhuhai, being three times the size of Macau. It has broad bays, sandy beaches, strangely shaped jagged rocks and natural vegetation cover. Hengqin was made up of two islands and Dahengqin, which were connected as a result of land reclamation.
The reclaimed island is 96 km2 large. Portugal claimed both Xiao Hengqin and Da Hengqin, along with the larger former island of Wanzai — now a peninsula — to their north, as part of the Província da Macau, because "Portuguese schools are established there". In 1896, Portuguese determined to occupy the two islands of Hengqin, but did not succeed in doing so. Portugal occupied them before World War II. Since the land reclamation and development, there has been a growing opinion in Macau that the island should be leased to Macau, which has limited land and little room for further development. By 1 September 2005, plans were revealed that the government of Guangdong will allow tax exemptions and adopt flexible immigration control in Hengqin to promote investment from Hong Kong and Macau. In late 2005, Las Vegas Sands discussed its multibillion-dollar plan to develop parts of Hengqin Island into a convention and resort destination; the project was to include four million sq ft of convention space, retail, vacation homes, golf and yachting amenities.
On 27 June 2009 the government of Macau announced that the University of Macau would build its new campus on 1 km2 of the island, in a stretch directly facing the Cotai area, south of the current border post. This would be the first of other possible projects. Construction of the campus would include an underwater tunnel. Macau law would apply in the university campus and it would not be necessary to pass a formal border post; the Macau Special Administrative Region will pay an amount of rent - which has not yet been set - for the use of the land. The Hengqin International Tennis Center opened in September 2015, it hosts three international competitions: the WTA Elite Trophy, the Zhuhai Open and the Asia-Pacific Wildcard Playoff for the Australian Open. Northwestern Zone - reserved for environmentally friendly development projects Northern Zone - A Bridge and main entrance between Central Zhuhai and Hengqin New Area Northeastern Exhibition Zone - development of an exhibition center and hotels Central Channel - develop as a leisure and recreational theme park Eastern Residential and Commercial Zone - codevelopment of PRC and Macau projects such as University of Macau's new campus Southern Tourist Zone - A future tourism attraction, further divided into seven sub-zones Theme Park Area Seaside Hotel Area Natural Tourist Area Scenic Area Water Activities Area Seaside Holiday Resort Area Golf Course Holiday Resort AreaOn 29 November 2010, the main body of the Chime-Long International Ocean Resort kicked off the construction on Hengqin Island and was expected to become operational in 2013.
The Chime-Long Ocean Kingdom, consisting of entertainment facilities, amusement rides, high-tech experiences and animal watching as well as the dolphin-themed hotel with 1,888 guest rooms was opened in 2014. Hengqin Bridge Hengqin Guide - News and Information on the New Hengqin Area Hengqin New Area official website Hengqin.com: news and resources in Simplified Chinese Edmonds, Richard Louis, "Macau in the Pearl River Delta and Beyond", China Perspectives, no. 44, November–December 2002 Satellite image by Google Maps
Ersha Island or Jisa Island Napier Island in English, is an island in the Yuexiu District of Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China. It houses the American International School of Guangzhou elementary school campus, several apartment complexes, a badminton stadium, a government sports training facility. Er Sha Island is home to the Guangdong Museum of Art and the Xinghai Concert Hall, it contains several small parks: Chianqi, Hong Cheng, Ershadao Sports park, Guangzhou Fazhan park. Known to the English as Napier Island, it divides the Pearl River into two branches. On the eastern end was Napier's Fort, named after the British trade envoy to China, Lord Napier, it was a semi-circular fort of stone masonry mounting 35 guns and designed to command the passage on both sides. During the First Opium War, British forces took possession of the fort before capturing Canton in March 1841. Before the end of the war, the Chinese rebuilt the fort, plus three extra stone forts nearby, mounting nearly 200 guns in total.
During the Expedition to Canton in April 1847, the British captured 49 guns on Napier's Fort. It became one of four forts known as the Barrier Forts, which guarded a narrow opening in the river towards Guangzhou. At the start of the Second Opium War, the British captured these strategic locations with only slight opposition in the Battle of Canton on 23 October 1856. American forces recaptured these sites in the Battle of the Barrier Forts in November 1856. Guangzhou Yuexiu Yucai Experimental School is located on the island. American International School of Guangzhou's elementary school campus is on the island; the École Française Internationale de Canton, the French international school of Guangzhou, was located at the GoldArch Riverdale development on Ersha Island. Shamian Island