Hanyu Pinyin abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, written using Chinese characters; the system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters; the pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang, based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese. It was published by revised several times; the International Organization for Standardization adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, was followed by the United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for international events rather than for educational or computer-input purposes, but "some cities and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept this", so it remains one of several rival romanization systems in use.
The word Hànyǔ means'the spoken language of the Han people', while Pīnyīn means'spelled sounds'. In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji in Beijing; this was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, issued his Xi Ru Ermu Zi at Hangzhou. Neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese. One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing dynasty scholar-official, Fang Yizhi; the first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu. A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the stunning effect of the kana syllabaries and Western learning there; this galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script.
While Song did not himself create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts. The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, further improved by Herbert Giles in the Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892, it was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979. In the early 1930s, Communist Party of China leaders trained in Moscow introduced a phonetic alphabet using Roman letters, developed in the Soviet Oriental Institute of Leningrad and was intended to improve literacy in the Russian Far East; this Sin Wenz or "New Writing" was much more linguistically sophisticated than earlier alphabets, but with the major exception that it did not indicate tones of Chinese. In 1940, several thousand members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Society's new journal.
Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Sun Fo. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, some contemporary Chinese literature, a spectrum of textbooks. In 1940, the movement reached an apex when Mao's Border Region Government declared that the Sin Wenz had the same legal status as traditional characters in government and public documents. Many educators and political leaders looked forward to the day when they would be universally accepted and replace Chinese characters. Opposition arose, because the system was less well adapted to writing regional languages, therefore would require learning Mandarin. Sin Wenz fell into relative disuse during the following years. In 1943, the U. S. military engaged Yale University to develop a romanization of Mandarin Chinese for its pilots flying over China. The resulting system is close to pinyin, but does not use English letters in unfamiliar ways. Medial semivowels are written with y and w, apical vowels with r or z.
Accent marks are used to indicate tone. Pinyin was created by Chinese linguists, including Zhou Youguang, as part of a Chinese government project in the 1950s. Zhou is called "the father of pinyin," Zhou worked as a banker in New York when he decided to return to China to help rebuild the country after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, he became an economics professor in Shanghai, in 1955, when China's Ministry of Education created a Committee for the Reform of the Chinese Written Language, Premier Zhou Enlai assigned Zhou Youguang the task of developing a new romanization system, despite the fact that he was not a professional linguist. Hanyu Pinyin was based on several existing systems: Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928, Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, the diacritic markings from zhuyin. "I'm not the father of pinyin," Zhou said years later. It's a lo
Shenzhen is a major city in Guangdong Province, China. It holds sub-provincial administrative status, with powers less than those of a province. Shenzhen, which follows the administrative boundaries of Bao'an County became a city in 1979, taking its name from the former county town, whose train station was the last stop on the Mainland Chinese section of the railway between Canton and Kowloon. In 1980, Shenzhen was established as China's first special economic zone. Shenzhen's registered population as of 2017 was estimated at 12,905,000. However, the Shenzhen Municipal Party Committee estimates that the population of Shenzhen is about 20 million, due to the large unregistered floating migrant population living in the city. Shenzhen was one of the fastest-growing cities in the world in the 1990s and the 2000s and has been ranked second on the list of ‘top 10 cities to visit in 2019 by Lonely Planet. Shenzhen's cityscape results from its vibrant economy - made possible by rapid foreign investment following the institution of the policy of "reform and opening-up" in 1979.
The city is a leading global technology hub, dubbed by media as the next Silicon Valley. Shenzhen hosts the Shenzhen Stock Exchange as well as the headquarters of numerous multinational companies such as JXD, Hytera, CIMC, SF Express, Shenzhen Airlines, Hasee, Ping An Bank, Ping An Insurance, China Merchants Bank, Tencent, ZTE, Huawei, DJI and BYD. Shenzhen ranks 14th in the 2019 Global Financial Centres Index, it has one of the busiest container ports in the world. The earliest known recorded mention of the name Shenzhen could date from 1410, during the Ming Dynasty. Local Hakka people call the drains in paddy fields “zhen”. Shenzhen means “deep drains” as the area was once crisscrossed with rivers and streams, with deep drains within the paddy fields; the character 圳 is limited in distribution to an area of South China with its most northerly examples in Zhejiang Province which suggests an association with southwards migration during the Southern Song Dynasty. Due to the city's growing economy in the technological industry, the city has been referred by media as "China's Silicon Valley".
The earliest archaeological remains so far unearthed in the Shenzhen area are shards from a site at Xiantouling on Dapeng Bay, dating back to 5000 BC. From the Han dynasty onwards, the area around Shenzhen was a center of the salt monopoly, thus meriting special imperial protection. Salt pans are still visible around the Pearl River area to the west of the city and are commemorated in the name of Yantian District; the settlement at Nantou was the political center of the area from early antiquity. In the year 331 AD, six counties covering most of modern southeastern Guangdong were merged into one province or "jun" named Dongguan with its administrative center at Nantou; as well as being a center of the politically and fiscally critical salt trade, the area had strategic importance as a stopping off point for international trade. The main shipping route to India and the Byzantine Empire started at Guangzhou; as early as the eighth century, chronicles recorded the Nantou area as being a major commercial center, reported that all foreign ships in the Guangzhou trade would stop there.
It was as a naval defense center guarding the southern approaches to the Pearl River. Nantou was a major naval center at the mouth of the Pearl River in the Ming Dynasty. In this capacity it was involved in 1521 in the successful Chinese action against the Portuguese Fleet under Fernão Pires de Andrade; this battle, called the Battle of Tunmen, was fought in the straits between Shekou and Nei Lingding Island. This area was involved in the events surrounding the end of the Southern Song dynasty; the imperial court, fleeing Kublai Khan’s forces, established itself in the Shenzhen area. Lu Xiufu, the then-chief minister, realized all was lost and knew the Mongolian forces would soon take over the area, he preferred suicide instead of the emperor being captured which might have brought shame to the dynasty, he jumped off a cliff with Emperor Bing, aged 7, the last emperor of the Southern Song Dynasty strapped to his back, killing both. In the late 19th century the Chiu or Zhao clan in Hong Kong identified that Chiwan, an area near Shekou as the final resting place of the Emperor and built a tomb for him.
The tomb, since restored, is still at the same location. Contrary to a common misconception of Shenzhen being a fishing village prior to becoming a city, Shenzhen was a regional market town, the county town of Bao'an since 1953. In November 1979, Bao'an County was promoted to prefecture level, directly governed by Guangdong province, it was renamed Shenzhen, after Shenzhen town. The administrative centre of the county stood around present location of the Dongmen. Shenzhen was singled out to be the first of the five Special Economic Zones in May 1980; the SEZ comprised an area of only 327.5 km2 of southern Shenzhen, covering the current Luohu, Futian and Yantian districts. The SEZ was promoted by Deng Xiaoping and created to be an experimental ground for the practice of market capitalism within a community guided by the ideals of "socialism with Chinese characteristics". In 1982 Bao'an County was re-established; the county was converted to become Bao'an District, out of the Special Economic Zone.
Shenzhen was promoted to a Sub-provincial City in March 1983 and w
The Chrysler Building is an Art Deco–style skyscraper located on the East Side of Midtown Manhattan in New York City, at the intersection of 42nd Street and Lexington Avenue in the Turtle Bay neighborhood of Manhattan. At 1,046 feet, the structure was the world's tallest building for 11 months before it was surpassed by the Empire State Building in 1931, it is the tallest brick building in the world with a steel framework. As of 2018, the Chrysler is the eighth-tallest building in the city, tied with The New York Times Building. A project of real estate developer and former New York State Senator William H. Reynolds, the building was constructed by Walter Chrysler, the head of the Chrysler Corporation, served as the corporation's headquarters from 1930 until the mid-1950s; the Chrysler Building's construction was characterized by a competition with 40 Wall Street and the Empire State Building to become the world's tallest building. Although the Chrysler Building was built and designed for the car manufacturer, the corporation did not pay for its construction and never owned it, as Walter Chrysler decided to pay for it himself, so that his children could inherit it.
When the Chrysler Building opened, there were mixed reviews of the building's design, ranging from its being inane and unoriginal to that it was modernist and iconic. Perceptions of the building have evolved into its now being seen as a paragon of the Art Deco architectural style. In the mid-1920s, New York's metropolitan area surpassed London's as the world's most populous metropolitan area and its population exceeded ten million by the early 1930s; the era was characterized by profound technological changes. Consumer goods such as radio and the automobile—whose use grew exponentially in the 1920s—became widespread. In 1927, Walter Chrysler's automotive company, the Chrysler Corporation, became the third-largest car manufacturer in the United States, behind Ford and General Motors; the following year, Chrysler was named Time magazine's "Person of the Year". The economic boom of the 1920s and speculation in the real estate market fostered a wave of new skyscraper projects in New York City; the Chrysler Building was built as part of an ongoing building boom that resulted in the city having the world's tallest building from 1908 to 1974.
Following the end of World War I, European and American architects came to see simplified design as the epitome of the modern era and Art Deco skyscrapers as symbolizing progress and modernity. The 1916 Zoning Resolution restricted the height that street-side exterior walls of New York City buildings could rise before needing to be setback from the street; this led to the construction of Art Deco structures in New York City with significant setbacks, large volumes, striking silhouettes that were elaborately decorated. Art Deco buildings were constructed for only a short period of time; the Chrysler Building project was shaped by these circumstances. The land on which the Chrysler Building stands was donated to The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art in 1902; the site is a trapezoid with a 201-foot-long frontage on Lexington Avenue. The site bordered the old Boston Post Road, which predated, ran aslant of, the Manhattan street grid established by the Commissioners' Plan of 1811.
As a result, the east side of the building's base is aslant. The Chrysler Building was to be the Reynolds Building, a project of real estate developer and former New York State Senator William H. Reynolds. Prior to his involvement in planning the building, Reynolds was best known for developing Coney Island's Dreamland amusement park; when the amusement park was destroyed by fire in 1911, Reynolds turned his attention to Manhattan real estate, where he set out to build the tallest building in the world. In 1921, Reynolds rented a large plot of land at the corner of Lexington Avenue and 42nd Street with the intention of building a tall building on the site. In 1927, after several years of delays, Reynolds hired the architect William Van Alen to build a forty-story building there. Van Alen was respected in his field for his work on the Albemarle Building at Broadway and 24th Street, designing it in collaboration with his partner H. Craig Severance. Van Alen and Severance complemented each other, with Van Alen being an original, imaginative architect and Severance being a shrewd businessperson who handled the firm's finances.
However, the relationship between them became tense over disagreements on. The breaking point came after a 1924 article, in the Architectural Review, that praised the Albemarle Building's design, which the article attributed to Van Alen, while ignoring Severance's role altogether; the architects' partnership dissolved acrimoniously several months with lawsuits over the firm's clients and assets lasting over a year. This ended up being decisive for the design of the future Chrysler Building, since Severance's more traditional architectural style would otherwise have restrained Van Alen's more modern outlook. By February 2, 1928, the proposed building's height had been increased to 54 stories, which would have made it the tallest building in Midtown; the proposal was changed again two weeks with official plans for a 63-story building. A little more than a week after that, the plan was changed for th
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Comcast Technology Center
The Comcast Technology Center is a skyscraper in Center City, Philadelphia. The 60-floor building, with a height of 1,121 feet, is the tallest building in Philadelphia and the state of Pennsylvania, the tenth-tallest building in the United States and the tallest outside Manhattan and Chicago; the tower is located on the southwest corner of 18th and Arch Streets, one block west of the Comcast Center, the headquarters of Comcast Corporation. A hotel—the highest in the country—and restaurant will be located on the top floors, while central floors will contain offices for Comcast software developers and engineers, the lowest floors will have television studios and retail stores. Construction began in mid-2014, topped out on November 27, 2017, the first personnel began moving into the building in late July 2018; the lead architect is Foster and Partners, with Kendall/Heaton Associates the collaborating architect, interior design by Gensler and Foster and Partners in collaboration. The L. F. Driscoll Company is the construction contractor.
1.566 million rentable square feet, including 1.334 million rentable square feet of office space, 230,112 square feet of hotel space, 2,682 rentable square feet of retail space will be created when the tower is completed. A set of five tuned sloshing dampers containing 125,000 gallons of water are located on the 57th floor between the hotel rooms and lobby; the moving water is a counteracting force on windy days to reduce swaying of the upper part of the tower. The building will consist of workspace for Comcast employees and the Four Seasons Hotel located on Logan Circle; the hotel will be located on the 48th to 56th floors with a restaurant on the 60th floor. Accommodations will include 219 rooms with 39 of them being suites; the building will include television studios, restaurants, a retail mall, a parking garage. The entire project contains about 1,566,000 square feet; the property will be co-owned by Comcast and Liberty Property Trust, has an estimated cost of $1.5 billion. Comcast's NBC station WCAU, along with Telemundo's WWSI have announced plans to move their studio operations and offices from City Avenue, the Philadelphia-Bala Cynwyd boundary, to several of the lower floors of the building.
The stations completed the on-air move on October 21, 2018, though some operations will remain in Bala Cynwyd for the time being. List of tallest buildings in Philadelphia List of tallest buildings in Pennsylvania List of tallest buildings in the United States List of tallest buildings Comcast press release NBC Philadelphia's construction webcam
Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat
The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat is an international body in the field of tall buildings and sustainable urban design. A non-profit organization based at the Monroe Building in the city of Chicago, United States, the CTBUH announces the title of "The World's Tallest Building" and is considered to be an authority on the official height of tall buildings, its stated mission is to study and report "on all aspects of the planning and construction of tall buildings." The Council was founded at Lehigh University in 1969 by Lynn S. Beedle, where its office remained until October 2003 when it moved to the Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago; the CTBUH ranks the height of buildings using three different methods: Height to architectural top: This is the main criterion under which the CTBUH ranks the height of buildings. Heights are measured from the level of the lowest, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the top of the building, inclusive of spires but excluding items such as flagpoles and antennae.
Highest occupied floor: Height to the floor level of the highest floor, occupied by residents, workers or other building users on a consistent basis. Height to tip: Height to the highest point of the building, including antennae and technical equipment. A category measuring to the top of the roof was removed from the ranking criteria in November 2009; this is because flat-topped skyscrapers are not as common in the modern era as skyscrapers with intricate spire designs and parapet features atop their roofs, making it more difficult to define the roof of a building. The CTBUH insist that a building should only be added to the official tallest list when it is topped out structurally and architecturally clad, open for business, or at least open; this became the CTBUH official definition of a building's "completion". The CTBUH maintains an extensive database of the tallest buildings in the world, organized by various categories. Buildings under construction are included, although not ranked until completion.
The CTBUH produces an annual list of the ten tallest buildings completed in that particular year. Topping the 2008 list was the 492-metre Shanghai World Financial Center in Shanghai, the tallest building in the world according to the criteria of highest occupied floor, home to the world's highest observation deck. Second on the 2008 list was the 363-metre Almas Tower in Dubai, third was the Minsheng Bank Building in Wuhan which stands at 331 metres, whilst fourth was The Address Downtown Burj Dubai. All in all, six of the ten tallest buildings completed in 2008 are located in Asia, three in the Middle East and one in North America; the CTBUH hosts annual conferences and a World Congress every three to five years. The most recent World Congress was held in Shanghai between 19 and 21 September 2012; the next World Congress will be held in Chicago between 28 October and 02 November 2019. The CTBUH bestows Tall Building Awards each year, with four regional awards to the Americas, Europe and the Middle East, Asia and Australasia.
Among these four regional awards, one is given the "Best Tall Building Award Overall." There are two lifetime achievement awards. Starting in 2010, these awards are presented at a symposium and dinner held on the Illinois Institute of Technology's campus. In 2012 the CTBUH added two new awards for Performance. In addition to the monthly newsletter and daily updated global news archive, the CTBUH publishes a quarterly CTBUH Journal; the Journal includes peer-reviewed technical papers, in-depth project case studies, book reviews, interviews with prominent persons in the tall building industry, much more. The CTBUH publishes guidebooks, reference manuals, monographs related to the tall building industry. In 2006 it published the book 101 of the World's Tallest Buildings in conjunction with author and CTBUH member Georges Binder, a reference to 101 of the world's tallest skyscrapers, it includes photos, details on architects and stakeholders, comprehensive technical data on each building. Since 2008 it has published a Best Tall Buildings book to accompany that year's awards.
The CTBUH grants several awards every year. Best Tall Building Overall Award 2007: Beetham Tower, Manchester, UK 2008: Shanghai World Financial Center, China 2009: Linked Hybrid, China 2010: Broadcasting Place, Leeds, UK. 2010: Global Icon award, Burj Khalifa is the first recipient of this award announced on 25 October 2010. Dubai, UAE. 2011: KfW Westarkade, Germany. 2012: Doha Tower, Qatar. 2013: CCTV Headquarters, China. 2014: One Central Park, Australia. 2015: Bosco Verticale, Italy. 2016: Shanghai Tower, China 2018: Oasia Hotel Downtown, Singapore The CTBUH works with institutions of higher-education from around the world in researching projects related to tall building design. CTBUH Skyscraper Award Emporis Vanity height Official website Australian chapter of the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat CTBUH Skyscraper Center Database CTBUH Technical Papers CTBUH Global Tall Building News Archive CTBUH Newsletter Archive CTBUH Design Research
Guangdong is a province in South China, on the South China Sea coast. Guangdong surpassed Henan and Shandong to become the most populous province in China in January 2005, registering 79.1 million permanent residents and 31 million migrants who lived in the province for at least six months of the year. This makes it the most populous first-level administrative subdivision of any country outside of South Asia, as its population is surpassed only by those of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the Indian states of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh; the provincial capital Guangzhou and economic hub Shenzhen are among the most populous and important cities in China. The population increase since the census has been modest, the province registering 108,500,000 people in 2015. Most of the historical Guangdong Province is administered by the People's Republic of China. However, the archipelagos of Pratas in the South China Sea are controlled by the Republic of China, were part of Guangdong Province before the Chinese Civil War.
Since 1989, Guangdong has topped the total GDP rankings among all provincial-level divisions, with Jiangsu and Shandong second and third in rank. According to state statistics, Guangdong's GDP in 2017 reached 1.42 trillion US dollars, making its economy the same size as Mexico. The province contributes 12% of the PRC's national economic output, is home to the production facilities and offices of a wide-ranging set of Chinese and foreign corporations. Guangdong hosts the largest import and export fair in China, the Canton Fair, hosted in the provincial capital of Guangzhou. "Guǎng" means "wide" or "vast", has been associated with the region since the creation of Guang Prefecture in AD 226. The name "Guang" came from Guangxin, an outpost established in Han dynasty near modern Wuzhou, whose name is a reference to an order by Emperor Wu of Han to "widely bestow favors and sow trust". Together and Guangxi are called Loeng gwong During the Song dynasty, the Two Guangs were formally separated as Guǎngnán Dōnglù and Guǎngnán Xīlù, which became abbreviated as Guǎngdōng Lù and Guǎngxī Lù. "Canton", though etymologically derived from Cantão, refers only to the provincial capital instead of the whole province, as documented by authoritative English dictionaries.
The local people of the city of Guangzhou and their language are called Cantonese in English. Because of the prestige of Canton and its accent, Cantonese sensu lato can be used for the phylogenetically related residents and Chinese dialects outside the provincial capital; the Neolithic era began in the Pearl River Delta 7,000 years before present, with the early period from around 7000 to 5000 BP, the late period from about 5000 to 3500 BP. In coastal Guangdong, the Neolithic was introduced from the middle Yangtze River area. In inland Guangdong, the neolithic appeared in Guangdong 4,600 years before present; the Neolithic in northern inland Guangdong is represented by the Shixia culture, which occurred from 4600–4200 BP. Inhabited by a mixture of tribal groups known to the Chinese as the Baiyue, the region first became part of China during the Qin dynasty. Under the Qin Dynasty, Chinese administration began and along with it reliable historical records in the region. After establishing the first unified Chinese empire, the Qin expanded southwards and set up Nanhai Commandery at Panyu, near what is now part of Guangzhou.
The region was a independent kingdom as Nanyue between the fall of Qin and the reign of Emperor Wu of Han. The Han dynasty administered Guangdong and northern Vietnam as Jiaozhi Province, southernmost Jiaozhi Province was used as a gateway for traders from the west—as far away as the Roman Empire. Under the Wu Kingdom of the Three Kingdoms period, Guangdong was made its own province, the Guang Province, in 226 CE; as time passed, the demographics of what is now Guangdong shifted to Chinese dominance as the populations intermingled due to commerce along the great canals, abruptly shifted through massive migration from the north during periods of political turmoil and nomadic incursions from the fall of the Han dynasty onwards. For example, internal strife in northern China following the rebellion of An Lushan resulted in a 75% increase in the population of Guangzhou prefecture between the 740s–750s and 800s–810s; as more migrants arrived, the local population was assimilated to Han Chinese culture or displaced.
Together with Guangxi, Guangdong was made part of Lingnan Circuit, or Mountain-South Circuit, in 627 during the Tang dynasty. The Guangdong part of Lingnan Circuit was renamed Guangnan East Circuit guǎng nán dōng lù in 971 during the Song dynasty. "Guangnan East" is the source of the name "Guangdong". As Mongols from the north engaged in their conquest of China in the 13th century, the Southern Song court fled southwards from its capital in Hangzhou; the defeat of the Southern Song court by Mongol naval forces in The Battle of Yamen 1279 in Guangdong marked the end of the Southern Song dynasty. During the Mongol Yuan dynas