Fan Zeng was an adviser to the warlord Xiang Yu, who fought for supremacy with Liu Bang, the founder of the Han dynasty, during the Chu–Han Contention. Fan Zeng was from Juchao, he had a keen interest in military strategy and politics. In 207 BC, when Fan Zeng was about 70, he left home to meet Xiang Liang, who had rebelled against the Qin dynasty, was accepted by Xiang Liang as an advisor. After Xiang Liang died, Fan Zeng continued serving Xiang Yu, as an advisor. Xiang Yu respectfully addressed Fan Zeng as his "Second Father". Since Fan Zeng had been planning and formulating strategies for Xiang Yu to overcome his rivals. In 206 BC, Fan Zeng followed Xiang Yu as their army entered Guanzhong, where Fan Zeng noticed that Liu Bang would become a future threat to Xiang Yu. Fan Zeng urged Xiang Yu to kill Liu Bang but Xiang did not heed his advice. During the Feast at Hong Gate, Fan Zeng ordered Xiang Yu's cousin Xiang Zhuang to pretend to perform a sword dance and use the opportunity to kill Liu Bang, present at the feast on Xiang Yu's invitation.
However, Xiang Yu listened to his uncle Xiang Bo, a close friend of Liu Bang's strategist Zhang Liang, spared Liu's life. Liu Bang seized the chance to escape; the furious Fan Zeng exclaimed, Alas! This brat is not worthy enough to make plans with me; the Duke of Pei will be the one who seizes the empire away from King Xiang. We will all become his prisoners. In 204 BC, when Liu Bang was besieged by Xiang Yu at the Battle of Xingyang, he requested for an armistice. Xiang Yu agreed but Fan Zeng opposed his decision, telling him that he would regret if he agreed to the armistice. Xiang Yu listened to Fan Zeng and continued attacking Liu Bang. Liu Bang's strategist Chen Ping used a scheme to trick Xiang Yu into believing that Fan Zeng had the intention of betraying him. Xiang Yu dismissed Fan Zeng. Fan Zeng made up his mind to leave Xiang Yu. Before leaving, he said, The final outcome is obvious. Take good care of yourself. Please allow me to retire in peace. Fan Zeng was buried by Xiang Yu's followers in Pengcheng.
His tomb is still in existence today. Despite this, there were legends. After Xiang Yu's death, Liu Bang remarked that it was a pity that Xiang had a capable Fan Zeng to help him, but he did not use Fan well. Sima, Qian. Records of the Grand Historian
Xiao He was a Chinese statesman of the early Western Han dynasty. He served Liu Bang, the founder of the Han dynasty, during the insurrection against the Qin dynasty, fought on Liu's side in the Chu–Han Contention against Liu's rival, Xiang Yu. After the founding of the Han dynasty, Xiao He became the chancellor and held office until his death. For his contributions, he is known as one of the "Three Heroes of the early Han dynasty", along with Han Xin and Zhang Liang. Xiao He was born in Sishui Commandery. In his early days, he served as a gongcao in the administrative office of Pei County, he was studious and amiable. He was well versed in law and had a wide network of friends and acquaintances, among whom include Liu Bang, Cao Shen, Fan Kuai, Xiahou Ying and Zhou Bo. Once, Liu Bang released some prisoners he was escorting to Mount Li to be labourers, became a fugitive, he hid in an outlaw stronghold on Mount Mangdang and maintained secret contact with Xiao He and Cao Shen. In 209 BC, Chen Sheng and Wu Guang started the Dazexiang Uprising to overthrow the Qin dynasty, was followed by numerous other rebellions throughout China.
The magistrate of Pei County considered rebelling as well, so he heeded Xiao He and Cao Shen's advice to invite Liu Bang back to support him. However, he changed his mind and denied Liu Bang's party entry into the city; as he was afraid that Xiao He and Cao Shen might open the gates for Liu Bang, he intended to have them executed, but Xiao and Cao escaped and joined Liu. As suggested by Xiao He, Liu Bang had letters sent to the townsfolk, fired into the city on arrows, urging them to join him; the people responded to Liu Bang's call and killed the magistrate and welcomed him back into the city. After returning to Pei County, the townsfolk wanted Liu Bang to lead them to overthrow the Qin dynasty. However, Liu Bang expressed reluctance in taking up the leadership position and the people agreed to decide their leader by luck. Xiao He was in charge of the process and he had the names of ten respectable men in town, including Liu Bang, written on separate pieces of paper and shuffled. Xiao He asked Liu Bang to pick any piece from the pile, without seeing the name on it, Liu picked his own name by chance.
Liu Bang wanted to decline again. Xiao He grabbed the remaining pieces of paper, put them into his mouth and chewed them to shreds, after which he proclaimed Liu Bang as their leader. Liu Bang became known as the "Duke of Pei" and built his rebel army in Pei County, with Xiao He and his friends supporting him. Liu Bang learnt from Xiao He that all the ten pieces of paper contained his name, Xiao had deliberately tampered with the system to help him. In 206 BC, the Qin dynasty collapsed after the last Qin ruler, surrendered to Liu Bang. Liu Bang's army occupied the Qin capital Xianyang. Upon entering the Epang Palace, Liu Bang and most of his men seized treasures and women for themselves, while Xiao He rushed to the chancellor's office and ordered it to be guarded. Xiao He brought a few men with him to collect all official documents in the office and bring them out safely. Xiao He explained that the documents were more valuable than riches and women, because they contained crucial information about the Qin Empire and would be useful in intelligence.
Liu Bang was forced to retreat from Xianyang as Xiang Yu's army arrived and occupied the city. After plundering Xianyang and destroying the palace, Xiang Yu divided the former Qin Empire into the Eighteen Kingdoms. Liu Bang received the title of "King of Han" and was relocated to the remote Bashu region, with Xiao He and his followers accompanying him. Liu Bang was unhappy and wanted to attack Xiang Yu because the land of Guanzhong rightfully belonged to him, according to an earlier promise by Emperor Yi of Chu, but was granted by Xiang to three surrendered Qin generals instead. However, Xiao He and others managed to persuade Liu Bang to temporarily remain in Bashu and build up his forces in preparation for a battle for supremacy with Xiang Yu later. Xiao He was appointed by Liu Bang as the chancellor of the Han kingdom. During that time, Xiao He met Han Xin, who had joined Liu Bang's army and was serving as a low-ranking soldier, recognised Han Xin's brilliance in military strategy. Not long many of Liu Bang's men deserted as they were unable to cope with living in remote Bashu, Han Xin left as he was disappointed because he felt his talent would go to waste in Liu Bang's camp.
When Xiao He learnt that Han Xin had left, he rushed to find Han and bring him back, without managing to inform Liu Bang in time. Xiao He caught up with Han Xin after trailing him for a few days at night, succeeded in persuading Han to return. Meanwhile, Liu Bang thought that Xiao He had deserted him and was shocked, but was relieved when he saw Xiao returning with Han Xin days later. Liu Bang asked Xiao He, "Of all those who deserted, why did you choose to bring back Han Xin only?" Xiao He strongly recommended Han Xin to Liu Bang, saying that Han's talent was unmatched. Liu Bang appointed Han Xin as a general. In 206 BC, Liu Bang conquered the Three Qins and left Xiao He in charge of Guanzhong and Bashu, while he led his army eastward to attack Xiang Yu's Western Chu kingdom. Xiao He governed those territories and provided support to Liu Bang's army at the warfront in the form of supplies and reinforcements. While in Guanzhong, Xiao He restored peace and order by implementing a new system of governance and reconstructing destroyed building
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Pei County, or Peixian, is under the administration of Xuzhou, Jiangsu province, bordering the Shandong prefecture-level cities of Jining to the northwest and Zaozhuang to the northeast and sitting on the western shore of Nansi Lake. It has an area of 1,576 square kilometres and a population of 1,141,935 in 2010. Pei County is well known as the place people believe where all the Han culture from, it is the hometown of Liu Bang 刘邦, the founding emperor of the Han dynasty; the hometown of Fan Kuai 樊哙 Liu Bang's oath brother, the most well known lord who helped Liu Bang to built up Han Dynasty. Fan Kuai's descendants are still living in Pei County these days. Xiaopei is an ancient Chinese town located in present-day Pei County. In the late Eastern Han dynasty, it was under the jurisdiction of Xu Province, governed by Tao Qian. Before Tao Qian died, he handed his governorship over to Liu Bei. Liu Bei took refuge in Xiaopei. Official website of Pei County government www.xzqh.org
Fan Kuai was a military general of the early Western Han dynasty. He was a prominent figure of the Chu–Han Contention, a power struggle for supremacy over China between the Han dynasty's founder, Liu Bang, his rival, Xiang Yu. Fan Kuai was a close friend of Liu Bang and they were from the same hometown of Pei County. In his early days, he was a specialised in preparing dog meat, he married the younger sister of Liu Bang's wife Lü Zhi. Once, Liu Bang became an outlaw on Mount Mangdang. Following the Dazexiang Uprising in 209 BC, the magistrate of Pei County wanted to rebel as well so he heeded Xiao He and Cao Shen's advice, sent Fan Kuai to Mount Mangdang to invite Liu Bang and his men back to help him. However, the magistrate changed his mind and denied Liu Bang entry into the city; the citizens responded to Liu Bang's call and killed the magistrate, allowing Liu and his men to return home. Liu Bang was known as "Duke of Pei" and Fan Kuai served as one of his close aides and bodyguards. Fan Kuai distinguished himself on the battlefield as a mighty capable general.
He fought in many battles on Liu Bang's side and claimed the heads of enemies in increasing order in each battle, was rewarded with promotions to higher ranks each time. Fan Kuai is best known for defending Liu Bang at the Feast at Hong Gate, a trap set to kill Liu, he rushed to Liu Bang's defence when he heard that Xiang Yu's advisor Fan Zeng intended to have Liu killed. Fan Kuai chided Xiang Yu making a speech about Liu Bang's accomplishments and stating that it would be unjust for Xiang to kill Liu. Xiang Yu was offered him a seat at the feast. Liu Bang escaped from the feast on the pretext of going to the latrine, with Fan Kuai accompanying him. After the fall of the Qin dynasty, Xiang Yu divided the former Qin Empire into the Eighteen Kingdoms, appointed Liu Bang as "King of Han" with the lands of Shu as his fiefdom. Liu Bang seized the lands of the Three Qins and engaged in a long power struggle with Xiang Yu for supremacy over China known as the Chu–Han Contention. Fan Kuai participated in many of the battles between the two contending forces and became famous for his prowess in battle.
After the establishment of the Han dynasty, Emperor Gao enfeoffed Fan Kuai as the Marquis of Wuyang in recognition of Fan's contributions to the dynasty's founding. After Fan Kuai's death, he was posthumously conferred the title "Marquis Wu" while his son Fan Kang inherited his title of "Marquis of Wuyang". Fan Kuai's wife Lü Xu was put to death in the aftermath of the Lü Clan Disturbance in 180 BC and Fan Kang was killed as well. Several months Emperor Wen conferred the title on Fan Shiren, another son of Fan Kuai, not born to Lü Xu. In Chinese folk religion, Fan Kuai is sometimes regarded as a patron deity of butchers. In the action RPG Prince of Qin, Fan Kuai appears as a non-playable character and the player can find out Liu Bang's whereabouts from him. In real life, his direct descendants are still living in the hometown of Fan Kuai. Honoring him by keeping the good name for the family, well known in the local for their effective traditional Chinese medical skills. Fan Lei, performed a good role in contemporary Chinese Visual Art, education on Gongbi, extend the good tradition of the Chinese culture.
Sima Qian. Records of the Grand Historian, Volume 95. Ban Gu et al. Book of Han, Volume 41
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin dynasty and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period. Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters", it was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, interrupted by the Xin dynasty of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han and the Eastern Han or Later Han; the emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came from the scholarly gentry class; the Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms.
These kingdoms lost all vestiges of their independence following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu onward, the Chinese court sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of scholars such as Dong Zhongshu; this policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty; the coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty. The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, a seismometer employing an inverted pendulum that could be used to discern the cardinal direction of distant earthquakes.
The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior and vassal partner, but continued their military raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them; the ultimate Han victory in these wars forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world; the territories north of Han's borders were overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall.
Imperial authority was seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling, the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire; when Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty ceased to exist. According to the Records of the Grand Historian, after the collapse of the Qin dynasty the hegemon Xiang Yu appointed Liu Bang as prince of the small fief of Hanzhong, named after its location on the Han River. Following Liu Bang's victory in the Chu–Han Contention, the resulting Han dynasty was named after the Hanzhong fief. China's first imperial dynasty was the Qin dynasty; the Qin unified the Chinese Warring States by conquest, but their empire became unstable after the death of the first emperor Qin Shi Huang. Within four years, the dynasty's authority had collapsed in the face of rebellion.
Two former rebel leaders, Xiang Yu of Chu and Liu Bang of Han, engaged in a war to decide who would become hegemon of China, which had fissured into 18 kingdoms, each claiming allegiance to either Xiang Yu or Liu Bang. Although Xiang Yu proved to be a capable commander, Liu Bang defeated him at Battle of Gaixia, in modern-day Anhui. Liu Bang assumed the title "emperor" at the urging of his followers and is known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu. Chang'an was chosen as the new capital of the reunified empire under Han. At the beginning of the Western Han known as the Former Han dynasty, thirteen centrally controlled commanderies—including the capital region—existed in the western third of the empire, while the eastern two-thirds were divided into ten semi-autonomous kingdoms. To placate his prominent commanders from the war with Chu, Emperor Gaozu enfeoffed some of them as kings. By 157 BC, the Han court h
Han Xin was a military general who served Liu Bang during the Chu–Han Contention and contributed to the founding of the Han dynasty. Han Xin was named as one of the "Three Heroes of the early Han dynasty", along with Zhang Liang and Xiao He. Han Xin is best remembered as a brilliant military leader for the strategies and tactics he employed in warfare, some of which became the origins of certain Chinese idioms. In recognition of Han Xin's contributions, Liu Bang conferred the titles of "King of Qi" on him in 203 BC and "King of Chu" in the following year. However, Liu Bang feared Han Xin's growing influence and reduced his authority, demoting him to "Marquis of Huaiyin" in late 202 BC. In 196 BC, Han Xin was accused of participating in a rebellion and lured into a trap and executed on Empress Lü Zhi's orders. Han Xin lived a childhood in destitution, he was despised by those around him as he relied on others for his meals. He had a keen interest in military strategy and spent his time studying military treatises and practicing sword techniques.
Once, when he was suffering from hunger, he met a woman. He promised to repay her for her kindness after he had made great achievements in life, but it was rebuffed by her. On another occasion, a hooligan saw Han Xin carrying a sword and challenged him to either kill him or crawl through between his legs. Han Xin knew that he would become a criminal if he killed him, hence instead of responding to the taunts, he crawled through between the hooligan's legs and was laughed at. Several years after becoming the King of Chu, Han Xin returned to his hometown and found the woman who fed him and rewarded her with 1,000 taels of gold. Han Xin found the hooligan and instead of taking revenge, he appointed the hooligan as a zhongwei, he said, "This man is a hero. Do you think I could not have killed him when he humiliated me? I would not become famous if I killed him then. Hence, I endured the humiliation to preserve my life for making great achievements in future." In 209 BC, Han Xin joined Xiang Liang's rebel army when rebellions erupted throughout China to overthrow the Qin dynasty.
Han Xin continued serving Xiang Yu. He was not worked as a sentry and prepared meals, he proposed strategies to Xiang Yu but was ignored. In 206 BC, Han Xin went to join Liu Bang. After joining Liu Bang's army, Han Xin was not given any important roles. Once, he was due to be punished by execution; when it was his turn to be beheaded, Han Xin saw Xiahou Ying and said, "I thought the king wanted to rule an empire. Why is he killing valiant men then?" Xiahou Ying recommended him to Liu Bang. Liu Bang put him in charge of food supplies. During that time, Han Xin met Xiao He. In 206 BC, Liu Bang was granted the title of "King of Han" by Xiang Yu after the latter divided the former Qin Empire into the Eighteen Kingdoms, was relocated to the remote Bashu region; some of Liu Bang's men became deserted. Meanwhile, Han Xin was expecting Xiao He to recommend him to Liu Bang, but he had not received news for a long time so he became disappointed and left as well; when Xiao He heard that Han Xin had left, he rushed to find Han and bring him back, did not manage to inform Liu Bang in time.
Xiao He caught up with Han Xin and managed to persuade Han to go back with him. This event gave rise to the saying, "Xiao He chases Han Xin under the moonlight". In the meantime, Liu Bang had a nervous breakdown after hearing a rumour that Xiao He had deserted him. While he was relieved when he saw Xiao He returning with Han Xin, he angrily asked Xiao, "Of all those who deserted, why did you only choose to go after Han Xin?" Xiao He strongly recommended Han Xin to Liu Bang, saying that Han's talent was unmatched. Liu Bang held a special ceremony to appoint Han Xin as a general. After his appointment, Han Xin analysed the situation for Liu Bang and devised a plan for Liu to conquer Xiang Yu's Western Chu kingdom. In late 206 BC, Liu Bang's forces prepared to attack the Three Qins in Guanzhong. Han Xin ordered some soldiers to pretend to repair the gallery roads linking Guanzhong and Hanzhong, while sending another army to secretly pass through Chencang and make a surprise attack on Zhang Han. Zhang Han was caught off guard and the Han forces emerged victorious, proceeding to take over Sima Xin and Dong Yi's kingdoms.
The strategy employed by Han Xin, known as mingxiu zhandao, andu Chencang, became one of the Thirty-Six Stratagems. After the conquest of the Three Qins, Liu Bang allowed Han Xin to lead an army to attack Zhang Han's remnant forces in Feiqiu, while he led an army to attack Chu's capital of Pengcheng, capturing it in 205 BC. Xiang Yu turned back from his campaign in the Qi kingdom to retake Pengcheng and defeated Liu Bang by surprise in the Battle of Pengcheng. Liu Bang retreated to Xingyang after his defeat. Xiao He was placed in charge of Guanzhong and he sent Han to lead reinforcements to help Liu Bang. Han Xin drove them east of Xingyang. In late 205 BC, Liu Bang put Han Xin in comma