Tianjin Binhai International Airport
Tianjin Binhai International Airport is an airport located in Dongli District, Tianjin. It is one of the major air cargo centers in the People's Republic of China, it is the hub airport for Tianjin Airlines, established in 2004, owned Okay Airways, as well as a focus city for Air China. In 2017, Tianjin Binhai International Airport handled 21,005,001 passengers, a growth of 24.5% over 2016, making it the 19th busiest airport in China. The airport is the site of the Airbus A320 final assembly line which started operations in 2008, Airbus A330 Completion and Delivery Center, completed by the end of 2017. In 2018, Hainan Airlines started operating flights to Vancouver, making it the first route from Tianjin to a destination outside of Asia; the route ended in January 2019. Construction of a new terminal began in 2005 and was operating by 2008; the airport expansion provides a state-of-the-art terminal building, more than three times bigger than the current one at 116,000 m2. When the three construction phases are complete the airport terminal will be over 500,000 m2 and be able to handle 40 million passengers a year.
Over the period of the project the airport site will enlarge from the current 25 km² to 80 km². The airport as a whole will resemble Amsterdam's Schiphol airport in size and will be able to handle over 500,000 tons of cargo and 200,000 flights a year; the expansion, with a total investment of nearly 3 billion yuan widened the runway to 75 meters from 50 meters and lengthened it to 3,600 meters. In May 2009, the airport has completed the construction of a second runway, the expected number of passengers will exceed ten million; the terminal has Tianjin Airlines headquarters. On August 28, 2014, Tianjin Binhai International Airport Terminal 2 came into use; the second floor is used as an arrivals hall. Underground, on level B1, there is a public transport hub, used to connect the airport terminal to various methods of public transportation; this includes a transfer hall and an underground parking lot. Terminal 2 is connected to subway line number 2, meaning that passengers can get to the terminal straight from Tianjin Railway Station.
In 2008, the airport handled 166,558 tonnes of freight, became the 11th busiest airport in China. Tianjin Airport is among the fastest-growing airports in China, registering a 20.2% increase by passenger traffic and a 33.2% increase in terms of cargo traffic in 2008. The Airport is served by Binhai International Airport Station on Line 2 of the Tianjin Metro since the station's opening on August 28, 2014; the metro fare to downtown is 3 yuan. Transport in Tianjin List of airports in the People's Republic of China China's busiest airports by passenger traffic Official website Airport information for ZBTJ at World Aero Data. Data current as of October 2006. Latest ops reports for ZBTJ from Aireport
Chengdu Airlines Co. Ltd. a subsidiary of Sichuan Airlines, is an airline headquartered in Chengdu, China. It operates a network of scheduled domestic passenger flights out of its hub at Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport. Chengdu Airlines is the first user of ARJ21. Named United Eagle Airlines CO.，LTD, the company was founded in 2004 by a former executive of China Northwest Airlines, with the necessary funding being provided by the Vickers Venture. It took delivery of its first airliner, an Airbus A320 that had belonged to Air Jamaica, on 8 July 2005 and on 27 July, revenue flights were commenced. Another similar aircraft type, the smaller Airbus A319, was put in service with United Eagle Airlines on 2 December of that year. In March 2009, Sichuan Airlines invested 200 million RMB in United Eagle Airlines, thus holding 76 percent of the shares. In late 2009, these shares were sold to Chinese aircraft manufacturer Comac and to Chengdu Communications Investment Group. Following this ownership change, United Eagle Airlines placed a firm order for 30 Comac ARJ21s, the first of, planned to be delivered in late 2010.
Since the Comac project has seen a series of delays, though. On 23 January 2010, the airline was renamed Chengdu Airlines. According to the July 2018 timetable, Chengdu Airlines operates scheduled flights to the following destinations; the Chengdu Airlines fleet consists of the following aircraft: Official website
Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport
Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport is the major international airport serving Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan province, China. Located about 16 kilometres southwest of downtown Chengdu to the north of Shuangliu District, Shuangliu airport is an important aviation hub for Western China. Shuangliu Airport is one of the two core hubs for Air China, together with Beijing, as well as the main hub and headquarters for Sichuan Airlines and Chengdu Airlines. China Eastern Airlines, China Southern Airlines, Shenzhen Airlines, Lucky Air and Tibet Airlines have bases at Shuangliu Airport. Chengdu airport is a 144-hour transit visa-free airport for foreigners from many countries. Shuangliu Airport handled 42.2 million passengers in 2015. It was among world's top 30 busiest airport in 2015, the fourth-busiest in mainland China, the busiest in western China, it was the fourth-busiest airport in terms of cargo traffic in China for 2013. The airport named Shuangguisi Airport, opened as an auxiliary military airfield in 1938 during the Second Sino-Japanese War/World War II.
At the time, its runway was only large enough for small biplanes. It was where the Republic of China Air Force Polikarpov I-15 fighters of the 5th Pursuit Group were based for aerial defense of the Chengtu area against Imperial Japanese bomber raids. Civilian targets were indiscriminately bombed, ace fighter pilot of the Chinese Air Force Major Wong Sun-shui and Lieutenant Lin Heng flying in their I-15 fighter planes were both killed near Shuangliu air base as a result of battling against the world's best fighter aircraft of the time, the A6M "Zero" fighter, in defense of Chengdu on 14 March 1941. During World War II, the airport was known as Shwangliu Airfield and was used by the United States Army Air Forces Fourteenth Air Force as part of the China Defensive Campaign, it was used as a fighter base by the 33d Fighter Group, which flew P-47 Thunderbolt fighter-bombers from the airport in 1944 to support Chinese ground forces, by reconnaissance units that operated camera-equipped P-38 Lightnings that located Japanese forces and provided intelligence to the fighter-bombers.
The Americans closed their facilities at Shwangliu Airfield at the end of August 1945. On December 12, 1956, the Shuangguisi Airport was put under civil aviation, formally listed as a civil aviation airport and renamed Chengdu Shuangliu Airport. In 1957, the flights of Chengdu civil aviation were shifted to Shuangliu Airport from Guanghan Airport; the flight courses from Chengdu were thus opened to various cities within China including Beijing, Taiyuan, Xi'an, Kunming and Nanchong. The airport went through several earlier expansions in 1959, 1983 and 1991 respectively. A large-scale expansion was conducted on flight area and navigation area from 1994 to 2001; the runway was extended to 3,600 metres with Class 4E rating, allowing for larger jumbo jets including the Boeing 747-400. The newly built terminal building was incorporated with a three-parallel-porch design, accommodating an hourly capacity of 3,500 passengers during rush hours, while the previous terminal building was only designated for regional flights within Sichuan and Chongqing.
The airport is now an international civil airport with flights to more than 50 international destinations and over 170 domestic airports, is a hub for Chengdu Airlines, Air China and Sichuan Airlines. It is linked to downtown Chengdu by the Airport Expressway, the Chengdu–Mianyang–Leshan intercity railway and the newly built Chengdu Metro line 10 which has stations in both terminals. KLM launched the first intercontinental air route from Chengdu, to Amsterdam, on 28 May 2006; the construction of its second runway started from late 2008, service commenced in December 2009. The completed new runway, 3,600 metres in length and 60 metres in width, upgraded the previous flight area rating from 4E to 4F, capable of handling the Airbus A380; the new Terminal 2 has started construction in June 2009. T1 is split into Domestic and International wings, retained all international flights from airlines within and outside China; the new terminal is twice the size of the current T1, allows the airport to handle up to 50 million passengers annually.
On June 9, 2014, United Airlines began operating a nonstop service from San Francisco to Chengdu, connecting central China to the United States non-stop for the first time. Service to the US has since expanded, as Hainan Airlines now offers nonstop service from Chengdu to Los Angeles and began nonstop service to New York–JFK in October 2017. In addition, Sichuan Airlines and Air China have many international routes in this airport. China Southwest Airlines once had its headquarters on the airport property. Airport Bus No.1, Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport - City Centre. Airport Bus No.2, Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport - Chengdu railway station. Airport Bus No.3, Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport - Chengdu East railway station. It costs about RMB 60 Yuan from Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport to the city centre of Chengdu. Passengers can take the CRH train at Shuangliu Air
Hong Kong International Airport
Hong Kong International Airport is the commercial airport serving Hong Kong, built on reclaimed land on the island of Chek Lap Kok. The airport is colloquially known as Chek Lap Kok Airport; the airport has been in commercial operation since 1998. It is an important regional trans-shipment centre, passenger hub and gateway for destinations in Mainland China and the rest of Asia; the airport is one of the world's busiest passenger airports. It is home to one of the world's largest passenger terminal buildings; the airport is operated by the Airport Authority Hong Kong 24 hours a day and is the primary hub for Cathay Pacific, Cathay Dragon, Hong Kong Airlines, Hong Kong Express Airways and Air Hong Kong. The airport is one of the hubs of Oneworld alliance, it is one of the Asia-Pacific cargo hubs for UPS Airlines, it is a focus city including China Airlines and China Eastern Airlines. Singapore Airlines, Ethiopian Airlines and Air India utilise Hong Kong as a stopover point for their flights. HKIA is an important contributor to Hong Kong's economy, with 65,000 employees.
More than 100 airlines operate flights from the airport to over 180 cities across the globe. In 2015, HKIA handled 68.5 million passengers, making it the 8th busiest airport worldwide by passenger traffic. Since 2010, it has surpassed Memphis International Airport to become the world's busiest airport by cargo traffic; the airport is managed and operated by the Airport Authority Hong Kong, established on 1 December 1995. Chek Lap Kok Airport was designed as a replacement for the former Hong Kong International Airport built in 1925. Located in the densely built-up Kowloon City District with a single runway extending into Kowloon Bay, Kai Tak had only limited room for expansion to cope with increasing air traffic. By the 1990s, Kai Tak had become one of the world's busiest airports – it far exceeded its annual passenger and cargo design capacities, one out of every three flights experienced delays due to lack of space for aircraft, a second runway. In addition, noise mitigation measures restricted nighttime flights, as severe noise pollution adversely affected an estimated total of at least 340,000 people.
A 1974 planning study by the Civil Aviation and Public Works departments identified the small island of Chek Lap Kok, off Lantau Island, as a possible airport replacement site. Away from the congested city centre, flight paths would be routed over the South China Sea rather than populous urban areas, enabling efficient round-the-clock operation of multiple runways; the Chek Lap Kok airport master plan and civil engineering studies were completed towards the end of 1982 and 1983 respectively. In February 1983, the government shelved the project for financial and economic reasons. In 1988, the Port & Airport Development Strategy Study was undertaken by consultants, headed by Mott MacDonald Hong Kong Limited, reporting in December 1989; this study looked at forecasts for both airport and port traffic to the year 2011 and came up with three recommended strategies for overall strategic development in Hong Kong. One of the three assumed maintaining the existing airport at Kai Tak; the consultants produced detailed analyses for each scenario, enabling Government to consider these appraisals for each of the three "Recommended Strategies".
In October 1989 the Governor of Hong Kong announced to the Legislative Council that a decision had been made on the long-term port and airport development strategy for the territory. The strategy to be adopted was that which included a replacement airport at Chek Lap Kok and incorporating new container terminals 8 and 9 at Stonecutters Island and east of the island of Tsing Yi respectively. In the PADS study, the consultants advised that the earliest the airport could be opened was January 1998. However, in reaching the government's decision, this date was modified to January 1997, six months prior to the handover of the territory to China. Construction of the new airport began in 1991; as construction progressed, an agreement was reached with China that as much as possible of the airport would be completed before the handover to China in July 1997. In the event, British Prime Minister John Major opened the Tsing Ma Bridge, the main access to Lantau Island and the airport and its supporting community in May 1997, prior to the transfer of sovereignty to China.
The airport itself was opened in July 1998. The construction period was rushed. Another cause for this rush was due to the uncertain future of the airport construction after the transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong to the People's Republic of China. Shortly after the then-British colonial government of Hong Kong announced plans to construct the new airport, the Chinese government in Beijing began voicing objections to various aspects of the massive project, which prompted financial institutions to delay extending project finance. Without access to this financing, many of the companies who had secured contracts to build various portions of the project halted construction, resulting in delays that pushed the actual opening of the airport planned to take place before the transition in sovereignty until one year after; as agreements were reached with the government in China, Beijing remove
Air Changan is a Chinese domestic airline. Its main operating base is Xi'an Xianyang International Airport, serving several cities in Shaanxi Province. An independent carrier, Air Changan merged with Hainan Airlines in 2000 and was absorbed into that airline. Air Changan resumed service as an independent airline in May 2016, providing flights to four Chinese cities with three Boeing 737-800 aircraft. In order to develop the local economy and aviation industry, in September 1990, the Shaanxi provincial government and local aircraft manufacturers began planning for a local airline, to operate with three Xian Y-7 aircraft. On 2 March 1992, the provincial government named the airline as Air Changan. On 11 April 1992, Air Changan was formally founded. On 5 January 1993, the first flight of Air Changan operated, from Xi'an to Yulin. Was transfer to be operated by the provincial government only, after the aircraft manufacturers left the venture due to new regulations coming into effect. On 30 August 2000, Air Changan was renamed Chang An Airlines.
On 1 July 2002, the first Boeing 737-400 was put into operation. In October 2002, Chang An Airlines, Xinhua Airlines and Shanxi Airlines were merged into Hainan Airlines. In December 2015, HNA Group began talks with the Shaanxi provincial government regarding the restoration of Chang An Airlines as an independent carrier; the airline would return to its original focus of flights out of Shaanxi Province. The airline unveiled its own livery. After receiving its air operator certificate in April 2016, Air Changan resumed operations as an independent airline the following month on 9 May; the inaugural flight was from Xi'an to Zhuhai. During the customary water salute upon arrival in Zhuhai, the fire engines accidentally sprayed foam instead; as a result, the aircraft had to undergo a safety check, the return flight was cancelled. Hainan Airlines holds an 83.3% stake in the airline, up 21.9% following a 1.01 billion yuan share purchase in September 2015. Beihai - Beihai Fucheng Airport Changchun - Changchun Longjia International Airport Chizhou - Chizhou Jiuhuashan Airport Dalian - Dalian Zhoushuizi International Airport Dunhuang - Dunhuang Airport Fuzhou - Fuzhou Changle International Airport Guilin - Guilin Liangjiang International Airport Guiyang - Guiyang Longdongbao International Airport Haikou - Haikou Meilan International Airport Hailar District - Hulunbuir Hailar Airport Hanzhong - Hanzhong Chenggu Airport Hefei - Hefei Xinqiao International Airport Huai'an - Huai'an Lianshui Airport Huaihua - Huaihua Zhijiang Airport Huizhou - Huizhou Pingtan Airport Jieyang - Jieyang Chaoshan International Airport Jingdezhen - Jingdezhen Luojia Airport Lanzhou - Lanzhou Zhongchuan International Airport Lianyungang - Lianyungang Baitabu Airport Luoyang - Luoyang Beijiao Airport Mudanjiang - Mudanjiang Hailang International Airport Nanchang - Nanchang Changbei International Airport Nantong - Nantong Xingdong Airport Ningbo - Ningbo Lishe International Airport Qinhuangdao - Qinhuangdao Beidaihe Airport Sanya - Sanya Phoenix International Airport Shenyang - Shenyang Taoxian International Airport Shijiazhuang - Shijiazhuang Zhengding International Airport Taizhou - Taizhou Luqiao Airport Tongliao - Tongliao Airport Tongren - Tongren Fenghuang Airport Weifang - Weifang Airport Wenzhou - Wenzhou Longwan International Airport Xi'an - Xi'an Xianyang International Airport Xiamen - Xiamen Gaoqi International Airport Xining - Xining Caojiabao International Airport Yancheng - Yancheng Nanyang International Airport Yantai - Yantai Penglai International Airport Yichang - Yichang Sanxia Airport Yinchuan - Yinchuan Hedong International Airport Yingkou - Yingkou Lanqi Airport Zhuhai - Zhuhai Jinwan Airport As of September 2018, Air Changan operates the following aircraft: Air Changan operated the following aircraft: Airbus A319 Boeing 737-400 Boeing 737-700 Bombardier Dash 8 Q400 Embraer 190 Fairchild-Dornier 328-300 Xian MA60 Xian Y-7 Official website
Standard Chinese known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, Modern Standard Mandarin Chinese, or Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese, the sole official language of China, the de facto official language of Taiwan and one of the four official languages of Singapore. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese. Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order, it has more initial consonants but final consonants and tones than southern varieties. Standard Chinese is an analytic language, though with many compound words. There are two standardised forms of the language, namely Putonghua in Mainland China and Guoyu in Taiwan. Aside from a number of differences in pronunciation and vocabulary, Putonghua is written using simplified Chinese characters, Guoyu is written using traditional Chinese characters.
Many characters are identical between the two systems. In Chinese, the standard variety is known as: 普通话 in the People's Republic of China, as well as Hong Kong and Macau. Standard Chinese is commonly referred to by generic names for "Chinese", notably 中文. In total, there have been known over 20 various names for the language; the term Guoyu had been used by non-Han rulers of China to refer to their languages, but in 1909 the Qing education ministry applied it to Mandarin, a lingua franca based on northern Chinese varieties, proclaiming it as the new "national language". The name Putonghua has a long, albeit unofficial, history, it was used as early as 1906 in writings by Zhu Wenxiong to differentiate a modern, standard Chinese from classical Chinese and other varieties of Chinese. For some linguists of the early 20th century, the Putonghua, or "common tongue/speech", was conceptually different from the Guoyu, or "national language"; the former was a national prestige variety. Based on common understandings of the time, the two were, in fact, different.
Guoyu was understood as formal vernacular Chinese, close to classical Chinese. By contrast, Putonghua was called "the common speech of the modern man", the spoken language adopted as a national lingua franca by conventional usage; the use of the term Putonghua by left-leaning intellectuals such as Qu Qiubai and Lu Xun influenced the People's Republic of China government to adopt that term to describe Mandarin in 1956. Prior to this, the government used both terms interchangeably. In Taiwan, Guoyu continues to be the official term for Standard Chinese; the term Guoyu however, is less used in the PRC, because declaring a Beijing dialect-based standard to be the national language would be deemed unfair to speakers of other varieties and to the ethnic minorities. The term Putonghua, on the contrary, implies nothing more than the notion of a lingua franca. During the government of a pro-Taiwan independence coalition, Taiwan officials promoted a different reading of Guoyu as all of the "national languages", meaning Hokkien and Formosan as well as Standard Chinese.
Huayu, or "language of the Chinese nation" simply meant "Chinese language", was used in overseas communities to contrast Chinese with foreign languages. Over time, the desire to standardise the variety of Chinese spoken in these communities led to the adoption of the name "Huayu" to refer to Mandarin; this name avoids choosing a side between the alternative names of Putonghua and Guoyu, which came to have political significance after their usages diverged along political lines between the PRC and the ROC. It incorporates the notion that Mandarin is not the national or common language of the areas in which overseas Chinese live. Hanyu, or "language of the Han people", is another umbrella term used for Chinese. However, it has confusingly two different meanings: Standard Chinese; this term, as well as Hànzú, is a modern concept. A related concept is Hànzì; the term "Mandarin" is a translation of Guānhuà, which referred to the lingua franca of the late Chinese empire. The Chinese term is obsolete as a name for the standard language, but is used by linguists to refer to the major group of Mandarin dialects spoken natively across most of northern and southwestern China.
In English, "Mandarin" may refer to the standard language, the dialect group as a whole, or to historic forms such as the late Imperial lingua franca. The name "Modern Standard Mandarin" is sometimes used by linguists who wish to distinguish the current state of the shared language from other northern and historic dialects; the Chinese have different languages in different provinces, to such an extent
According to the International Civil Aviation Organization, a runway is a "defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and takeoff of aircraft". Runways may be a natural surface. In January 1919, aviation pioneer Orville Wright underlined the need for "distinctly marked and prepared landing places, the preparing of the surface of reasonably flat ground an expensive undertaking there would be a continuous expense for the upkeep." Runways are named by a number between 01 and 36, the magnetic azimuth of the runway's heading in decadegrees. This heading differs from true north by the local magnetic declination. A runway numbered 09 points east, runway 18 is south, runway 27 points west and runway 36 points to the north; when taking off from or landing on runway 09, a plane is heading around 90°. A runway can be used in both directions, is named for each direction separately: e.g. "runway 15" in one direction is "runway 33" when used in the other. The two numbers differ by 18.
For clarity in radio communications, each digit in the runway name is pronounced individually: runway one-five, runway three-three, etc.. A leading zero, for example in "runway zero-six" or "runway zero-one-left", is included for all ICAO and some U. S. military airports. However, most U. S. civil aviation airports drop the leading zero. This includes some military airfields such as Cairns Army Airfield; this American anomaly may lead to inconsistencies in conversations between American pilots and controllers in other countries. It is common in a country such as Canada for a controller to clear an incoming American aircraft to, for example, runway 04, the pilot read back the clearance as runway 4. In flight simulation programs those of American origin might apply U. S. usage to airports around the world. For example, runway 05 at Halifax will appear on the program as the single digit 5 rather than 05. If there is more than one runway pointing in the same direction, each runway is identified by appending left and right to the number to identify its position — for example, runways one-five-left, one-five-center, one-five-right.
Runway zero-three-left becomes runway two-one-right. In some countries, regulations mandate that where parallel runways are too close to each other, only one may be used at a time under certain conditions. At large airports with four or more parallel runways some runway identifiers are shifted by 1 to avoid the ambiguity that would result with more than three parallel runways. For example, in Los Angeles, this system results in runways 6L, 6R, 7L, 7R though all four runways are parallel at 69°. At Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, there are five parallel runways, named 17L, 17C, 17R, 18L, 18R, all oriented at a heading of 175.4°. An airport with only three parallel runways may use different runway identifiers, such as when a third parallel runway was opened at Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport in 2000 to the south of existing 8R/26L — rather than confusingly becoming the "new" 8R/26L it was instead designated 7R/25L, with the former 8R/26L becoming 7L/25R and 8L/26R becoming 8/26.
Runway designations may change over time because Earth's magnetic lines drift on the surface and the magnetic direction changes. Depending on the airport location and how much drift occurs, it may be necessary to change the runway designation; as runways are designated with headings rounded to the nearest 10°, this affects some runways sooner than others. For example, if the magnetic heading of a runway is 233°, it is designated Runway 23. If the magnetic heading changes downwards by 5 degrees to 228°, the runway remains Runway 23. If on the other hand the original magnetic heading was 226°, the heading decreased by only 2 degrees to 224°, the runway becomes Runway 22; because magnetic drift itself is slow, runway designation changes are uncommon, not welcomed, as they require an accompanying change in aeronautical charts and descriptive documents. When runway designations do change at major airports, it is changed at night as taxiway signs need to be changed and the huge numbers at each end of the runway need to be repainted to the new runway designators.
In July 2009 for example, London Stansted Airport in the United Kingdom changed its runway designations from 05/23 to 04/22 during the night. For fixed-wing aircraft it is advantageous to perform takeoffs and landings into the wind to reduce takeoff or landing roll and reduce the ground speed needed to attain flying speed. Larger airports have several runways in different directions, so that one can be selected, most nearly aligned with the wind. Airports with one runway are constructed to be aligned with the prevailing wind. Compiling a wind rose is in fact one of the preliminary steps taken in constructing airport runways. Note that wind direction is given as the direction the wind is coming from: a plane taking off from runway 09 faces east, into an "east wind" blowing from 090°. Runway dimensions vary from as small as 245 m long and 8 m wide in s