Jambyl Jabayev was a Kazakh traditional folksinger. According to a family legend, his mother, gave birth to him near Mt. Jambyl, close to the headwaters of the Chu River while fleeing an attack on her village, his father, Dzhabay named his son after the mountain. As a boy, Jambyl at age 14, left his home to become an akyn, he learned the art of improvisation from the akyn Suyunbai Aronuly. Jambyl sang in the Kazakh language. Many patriotic, pro-revolution and pro-Stalin poems and songs were attributed to Jambyl in the 1930s and were circulated in the Soviet Union. Jambyl Jabayev died on 22 June 1945, eight months before his 100th birthday, he was buried in Alma-Ata in a garden. The Kazakh city of Taraz was named after Jambyl from 1938 to 1997. Jambyl Province, in which Taraz is located, still bears his name, it has been claimed that the authors of Jambyl's published poems were Russian poets, who were credited as "translators."Poet Andrei Aldan-Semyonov claimed that he was the "creator" of Jambyl, when in 1934, he was given the task by the Party to find an akyn.
Aldan-Semenov found Jambyl on the recommendation of the collective farm chairman, the only criterion of choice was that the akyn be poor and have many children and grandchildren. After Aldan-Semenov's arrest, other "translators" wrote Jambyl's poems. In a different account, according to the Kazakh journalist Erbol Kurnmanbaev, Jambyl was an akyn of his clan, but until 1936 was unknown. In that year, a young talented poet Abilda Tazhibaev "discovered" Jambyl, he was directed to do this by the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan, Levon Mirzoyan, who wanted to find an akyn similar to Suleiman Stalsky, the Dagestani poet. Tazhibaev published the poem "My Country", under Jambyl's name, it was translated into Russian by the poet Pavel Kuznetsov, published in the newspaper "Pravda" and was a success. After that, a group of his "secretaries" - the young Kazakh poets worked under Jambyl's name. In 1941-1943, they were joined by the Russian poet Mark Tarlovsky. 1953 — «Джамбул» film director Efim Dzigan.
1994 — «Жамбыл: Адамзатың ұлы жыршысы» documentary film director Kalila Umarov. Jambyl Jabayev biography at EXPATsite "Żabajew Żambył". Internetowa encyklopedia PWN. Retrieved 2006-11-17
The Mongol Empire existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history. Originating from Mongolia, the Mongol Empire stretched from Eastern Europe and parts of Central Europe to the Sea of Japan, extending northwards into Siberia and southwards into the Indian subcontinent and the Iranian Plateau; the Mongol Empire emerged from the unification of several nomadic tribes in the Mongol homeland under the leadership of Genghis Khan, whom a council proclaimed ruler of all the Mongols in 1206. The empire grew under his rule and that of his descendants, who sent invasions in every direction; the vast transcontinental empire connected the East with the West with an enforced Pax Mongolica, allowing the dissemination and exchange of trade, technologies and ideologies across Eurasia. The empire began to split due to wars over succession, as the grandchildren of Genghis Khan disputed whether the royal line should follow from his son and initial heir Ögedei or from one of his other sons, such as Tolui, Chagatai, or Jochi.
The Toluids prevailed after a bloody purge of Ögedeid and Chagataid factions, but disputes continued among the descendants of Tolui. A key reason for the split was the dispute over whether the Mongol Empire would become a sedentary, cosmopolitan empire, or would stay true to their nomadic and steppe lifestyle. After Möngke Khan died, rival kurultai councils elected different successors, the brothers Ariq Böke and Kublai Khan, who fought each other in the Toluid Civil War and dealt with challenges from the descendants of other sons of Genghis. Kublai took power, but civil war ensued as he sought unsuccessfully to regain control of the Chagatayid and Ögedeid families. During the reigns of Genghis and Ögedei, the Mongols suffered the occasional defeat when a less skilled general was given a command; the Siberian Tumads defeated the Mongol forces under Borokhula around 1215–1217. In each case, the Mongols returned shortly after with a much larger army led by one of their best generals, were invariably victorious.
The Battle of Ain Jalut in Galilee in 1260 marked the first time that the Mongols would not return to avenge a defeat, due to a combination of the death of Möngke Khan, the Toluid Civil War between Arik Boke and Khubilai, Berke of the Golden Horde attacking Hulegu in Persia. Although the Mongols launched many more invasions of the Levant occupying it and raiding as far as Gaza after a decisive victory at the Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar in 1299, they withdrew due to various geopolitical factors. By the time of Kublai's death in 1294, the Mongol Empire had fractured into four separate khanates or empires, each pursuing its own separate interests and objectives: The Golden Horde khanate in the northwest; the Chagatai Khanate in Central Asia. The Ilkhanate in the southwest; the Yuan dynasty in the east based in modern-day Beijing. In 1304, the three western khanates accepted the nominal suzerainty of the Yuan dynasty, but in 1368 the Han Chinese Ming dynasty took over the Mongol capital; the Genghisid rulers of the Yuan retreated to the Mongolian homeland and continued to rule there as the Northern Yuan dynasty.
The Ilkhanate disintegrated in the period 1335–1353. The Golden Horde had broken into competing khanates by the end of the 15th century whilst the Chagatai Khanate lasted in one form or another until 1687. What is referred to in English as the Mongol Empire was called the Ikh Mongol Uls. In the 1240s, one of Genghis's descendants, Güyük Khan, wrote a letter to Pope Innocent IV which used the preamble "Dalai Khagan of the great Mongolian state". After the succession war between Kublai Khan and his brother Ariq Böke, Ariq limited Kublai's power to the eastern part of the empire. Kublai issued an imperial edict on 18 December 1271 to name the country Great Yuan to establish the Yuan dynasty; some sources state. The area around Mongolia and parts of North China had been controlled by the Liao dynasty since the 10th century. In 1125, the Jin dynasty founded by the Jurchens overthrew the Liao dynasty and attempted to gain control over former Liao territory in Mongolia. In the 1130s the Jin dynasty rulers, known as the Golden Kings resisted the Khamag Mongol confederation, ruled at the time by Khabul Khan, great-grandfather of Genghis Khan.
The Mongolian plateau was occupied by five powerful tribal confederations: Keraites, Khamag Mongol, Naiman and Tatar. The Jin emperors, following a policy of divide and rule, encouraged disputes among the tribes between the Tatars and the Mongols, in order to keep the nomadic tribes distracted by their own battles and thereby away from the Jin. Khabul's successor was Ambaghai Khan, betrayed by the Tatars, handed over to the Jurchen, executed; the Mongols retaliated by raiding the frontier, resulting in a failed Jurchen counter-attack in 1143. In 1147, the Jin somewhat changed their policy, signing a peace treaty with the Mongols and withdrawing from a score of forts; the Mongols resumed attacks on the Tatars to avenge the death of their late khan, opening a long period of active hostilities. The Jin and Tatar armies defeated the Mongols in 1161. During
Orenburg Oblast is a federal subject of Russia. Its administrative center is the city of Orenburg. From 1938 to 1957, it bore the name Chkalov Oblast in honor of Valery Chkalov. Population: 2,033,072; the most important river of the oblast is the Ural. Orenburg is traversed by the northeasterly line of equal longitude. Population: 2,033,072 . Vital statistics for 2012Births: 29 736 Deaths: 28 225 Total fertility rate: 2009 - 1.76 | 2010 - 1.80 | 2011 - 1.80 | 2012 - 1.95 | 2013 - 2.00 | 2014 - 2.03 | 2015 - 2.01 | 2016 - 1.95According to the 2010 Census, the ethnic composition of the oblast was as follows: Russians: 75.9% Tatars: 7.6% Kazakhs: 6% Ukrainians: 2.5% Bashkirs: 2.3% Mordvinians: 1.9% Germans: 0.6% Chuvash: 0.6% Belarusians: 0.3% Azeris: 0.4% other groups, none more than 0.2% of the population 30,449 people were registered from administrative databases, could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.
As of a 2012 survey 40.2% of the population of Orenburg Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 3% declare themselves to be generic nondenominational Christians, 2% are Orthodox Christian believers who do not belong to any church or belong to non-Russian Orthodox churches. Muslims constitute 13% of the population. 3% of the population are followers of the Slavic native faith, 6.8% are followers of other religions or did not give an answer to the survey. In addition, 20% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious" and 12% to be atheist. Orenburg Oblast is one of the major agricultural areas of Russia, its climate is favorable to farming with a humid spring, dry summer and a large number of sunny days, which make perfect conditions for cultivating hard wheat and rye, potatoes, beans and gourds. The range of the oblast's export commodities includes: oil and oil products and gas produced products, rolled ferrous and non-ferrous metals, asbestos, chromium compounds, rough copper, electric engines, products of machine-building industry.
Ashchebutak List of Chairmen of the Legislative Assembly of Orenburg Oblast Black Dolphin Prison
Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture
Ili or Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture in northernmost Xinjiang is the only Kazakh autonomous prefecture in China. Capital: Yining Geographic coordinates: 79º50'30″ – 84º56'50″ East, 42º14'16″ – 44º50'30″ NorthThe Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture is west of Mongolia, south of Russia and east of Kazakhstan, its foreign boundary is 2,000 km located between Altai Mountains and the main range of Tian Shan, occupying most of the Dzungarian Basin in northern Xinjiang and the Ili River Basin. The prefecture-level city of Karamay is surrounded and divided by the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture but is not part of it; the upper course of the Ili River and that of Irtysh River flow through the prefecture. As a Sub-provincial Autonomous Prefecture, Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture is administratively divided into three parts -- Altay Prefecture and Tacheng Prefectures, together with a directly administrated county-level prefecture that includes Yining City, 2 other county-level cities, 7 counties, 1 autonomous county.
The directly administrated region is coterminous with the historical area that in the past was called by Russians and Westerners as Kulja or Kuldja. Before the advent of the Qin dynasty, Ili was occupied by a tributary tribe of the Huns; the Ussuns were driven away in the 6th century AD by the northern Xiongnu, who established the Turkic Khaganate in 552. This Khulja territory became a dependency of Dzungaria. During the Tang dynasty, the khanate became the Protectorate General to Pacify the West of the Tang Empire; the Uyghur Khaganate, in the 12th century the Kara-Khitai, took possession of the area in turn. Genghis Khan conquered Kulja in the 13th century, the Mongol Khans resided in the valley of the Ili, it is supposed that the Oirats conquered it at the end of the 16th or the beginning of the 17th century. The Oirats, or more Dzungars, controlled both Dzungaria and the Ili Basin until 1755 as the Dzungar Khanate, when it was annexed by the Manchu-run Qing dynasty under the Qianlong Emperor.
Having defeated the Dzungars in the Dzungarian and Ili Basins, as well as the Afaqi Khojas in Kashgaria, the Qing court decided to make the Ili basin the main base of their control in Xinjiang. In the 1760s, the Qing built nine fortified towns in the Ili Basin: Huiyuan Cheng, as the seat of the General of Ili, the chief commander of the Qing troops in Xinjiang, became the administrative capital of the region, it was provided with a strong garrison. This city was called New Kulja, Manhcu Kulja, Chinese Kulja, or Ili by the Russians and Westerners, to distinguish it from Nigyuan/Yining, known as Old Kulja or Taranchi Kulja; the first General of Ili was Ming Rui. The Qing tradition, unbroken until the days of Zuo Zongtang in the 1870s, was to only appoint Manchus as officials in Xinjiang. During the insurrection of 1864 the Dungans and Taranchis of the area formed the Taranchi Sultanate. Huiyuan was the last Qing fortress in the Ili Valley to fall to the rebels; the insurgent Dungans massacred most of Manchu Kulja's inhabitants.
The sultanate led to the occupation of the Ili basin by the Russians in 1871. Ten years the territory was restored to China, its boundary with Russia was assigned in accordance to the Treaty of Saint Petersburg. After Chinese authority was restored, a new Huiyuan Town was built, some 4 km north of the old Huiyuan site. On January 7, 1912, Yang Cuanxu of Ili occupied Huiyuan Town and shot the last Qing General of Ili, Zhi Rui. In July 1945, Chingil and Quanxi of Ili were made into a new autonomous prefecture now not part of Ili: Bortala. In 1949, Ili was made a special area of Xinjiang, with one city and nine counties, was upgraded to a city in 1952. On November 27, 1954, the Ili Autonomous Prefecture was established to include the prefectures of Ili and Tacheng; the Ili Prefecture was abolished in 1955. Its one city and nine counties are now under the direct control of the autonomous prefecture. Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture is a famous tourist destination for its humid climate, which earned its reputation as'wetland in Central Asia'.
Major tourist attractions include Narati Grassland and Kanas Lake. In 2015 alone, Ili has seen over 25 million travellers and earned over 19 billion CNY tourism receipts. An extensive road network is being built across the prefecture for economic development. In 2015, 66 million passengers travelled on road; the railway has extended to both the north part of Altay City and the westmost city of Khorgas on the China-Kazakhstan border. Ili Kazak's 8 functioning ports of entry are: With Kazakhstan Aqimbek of Altay Prefecture Bakhtu, 17 km from Tacheng. Only open during Summer. Second East Turkestan Republic Official site Official site Subdivision info A TALE OF TWO CITIES: NEW MUSEUMS FOR YINING AND URUMQI "CHINA HERITAGE NEWSLETTER", China Heritage Project, The Aus
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
Xinjiang the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country. It is the largest Chinese administrative division and the eighth largest country subdivision in the world, spanning over 1.6 million km2. Xinjiang contains the disputed territory of Aksai Chin, administered by China and claimed by India. Xinjiang borders the countries of Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan and India; the rugged Karakoram and Tian Shan mountain ranges occupy much of Xinjiang's borders, as well as its western and southern regions. Xinjiang borders Tibet Autonomous Region and the provinces of Gansu and Qinghai; the most well-known route of the historical Silk Road ran through the territory from the east to its northwestern border. In recent decades, abundant oil and mineral reserves have been found in Xinjiang, it is China's largest natural gas-producing region, it is home to a number of ethnic groups, including the Uyghur, Kazakhs, Hui, Kyrgyz and Russians.
More than a dozen autonomous prefectures and counties for minorities are in Xinjiang. Older English-language reference works refer to the area as Chinese Turkestan. Xinjiang is divided into the Dzungarian Basin in the north and the Tarim Basin in the south by a mountain range. Only about 9.7% of Xinjiang's land area is fit for human habitation. With a documented history of at least 2,500 years, a succession of people and empires have vied for control over all or parts of this territory; the territory came under the rule of the Qing dynasty in the 18th century, replaced by the Republic of China government. Since 1949, it has been part of the People's Republic of China following the Chinese Civil War. In 1954, Xinjiang Bingtuan was set up to strengthen the border defense against the Soviet Union, promote the local economy. In 1955, Xinjiang was turned into an autonomous region from a province. In the last decades, the East Turkistan independent movement, separatist conflict and the influence of radical Islam have both resulted in unrest in the region, with occasional terrorist attacks and clashes between separatist and government forces.
The general region of Xinjiang has been known by many different names in earlier times, in indigenous languages as well as other languages. These names include Altishahr, the historical Uyghur name, as well as Khotan, Chinese Tartary, High Tartary, East Chagatay, Kashgaria, Little Bokhara, and, in Chinese, "Western Regions". In Chinese, under the Han dynasty, Xinjiang was known as Xiyu, meaning "Western Regions". Between the 2nd century BCE and 2nd century CE the Han Empire established the Protectorate of the Western Regions or Xiyu Protectorate in an effort to secure the profitable routes of the Silk Road; the Western Regions during the Tang era were known as Qixi. Qi refers to the Gobi Desert; the Tang Empire had established the Protectorate General to Pacify the West or Anxi Protectorate in 640 to control the region. During the Qing dynasty, the northern part of Xinjiang, Dzungaria was known as Zhunbu and the southern Tarim Basin was known as Huijiang before both regions were merged and became the region of "Xiyu Xinjiang" simplified as "Xinjiang".
The current Chinese name "Xinjiang", which means "New Frontier" or "New Borderland", was given during the Qing dynasty. According to Chinese statesman Zuo Zongtang's report to the Emperor of Qing, Xinjiang means an "old land newly returned", or the new old land.. The term was given to other areas conquered by Chinese empires, for instance, present-day Jinchuan County was known as "Jinchuan Xinjiang'". In the same manner, present-day Xinjiang was known as Gansu Xinjiang; the name "East Turkestan" is used in the diaspora communities today, refers to the independent republic of East Turkestan. The name was created by Russian sinologist Hyacinth to replace the term "Chinese Turkestan" in 1829. "East Turkestan" was used traditionally to only refer to the Tarim Basin in the south, the modern Xinjiang area and Dzungaria being excluded. In 1955, Xinjiang province was renamed Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region; the name, proposed was "Xinjiang Autonomous Region". Saifuddin Azizi, the first chairman of Xinjiang, registered his strong objections to the proposed name with Mao Zedong, arguing that "autonomy is not given to mountains and rivers.
It is given to particular nationalities." As a result, the administrative region would be named "Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region". Xinjiang consists of two main geographically and ethnically distinct regions with different historical names, Dzungaria north of the Tianshan Mountains and the Tarim Basin south of the Tianshan Mountains, before Qing China unified them into one politic
Communist Party of Kazakhstan
The Communist Party of Kazakhstan is a banned political party in Kazakhstan. The Communist Party of Kazakhstan was founded 1936, when Kazakhstan was granted a Union Republic status within the Soviet Union; the Communist Party of Kazakhstan had been a branch of Communist Party of the Soviet Union until the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The 18th Congress of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan took a decision to rename the Communist Party as the Socialist Party and split from CPSU. Nursultan Nazarbayev, the party chairman, resigned when he became the first President of Kazakhstan in 1991. Dissatisfied members of the old Communist Party recreated the Communist Party of Kazakhstan in October 1991 at the 19th Congress of the party. CPK was registered on August 27, 1998. Communist Party of Kazakhstan has a well-established party structure with offices in all of the oblasts. CPK is estimated to have around 70 thousand members. CPK appeals to above-middle age segment of the population in Urban areas who have a strong nostalgia for Soviet times.
The leader of CPK has been by Serikbolsyn Abdildin, a respected, old generation politician in Kazakhstan. In the mid-1990s CPK participated in opposition coalition movements "Azamat" and "Pokolenie". In 1996, CPK initiated unregistered "National-Patriotic Movement-Republic". In February 1998, it joined the opposition bloc "People’s Front of Kazakhstan"; the party split at the start of 2004, when a group led Vladislav Kosarev started accusing party First Secretary Serikbolsyn Abdildin of accepting money from questionable sources. The splinter party, the Communist People's Party of Kazakhstan, has failed to meet 50,000 membership requirement to be registered. At the last legislative elections, 19 September and 3 October 2004, an alliance of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan and the Democratic Choice of Kazakhstan won 3.4% of the popular vote and no seats. At the 4 December 2005 presidential elections, Communist Party of Kazakhstan, Democratic Choice of Kazakhstan and the Naghyz Ak Zhol Party formed a coalition movement, For a Just Kazakhstan and supported Zharmakhan Tuyakbay as presidential candidate.
Party activities were suspended in 2012 by a regional court because of alleged cooperation with the banned party Alga! which has links to fugitive politician Mukhtar Ablyazov. The party was banned in 2015 by the Almaty city court because the number of party members was below the legal of 40,000; the sentence was denounced as politically motivated by the party leaders, was condemned by the Communist Party of Greece, the Russian Communist Workers' Party and the Communist Party, Turkey. Of the Communist Party of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic Levon Mirzoyan Nikolay Skvortsov Zhumabay Shayakhmetov Panteleimon Ponomarenko Leonid Brezhnev Ivan Yakovlev Nikolay Belyayev Dinmukhamed Kunayev Ismail Yusupov Dinmukhamed Kunayev Gennady Kolbin Nursultan Nazarbayev Of the Communist Party of the Republic of Kazakhstan Serikbolsyn Abdildin Gaziz Aldamzharov Alma-Ata Regional Committee of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan Official website of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan A military parade in 1980 in honor of the 60th anniversary of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan