Tobacco packaging warning messages
Tobacco package warning messages are warning messages that appear on the packaging of cigarettes and other tobacco products concerning their health effects. They have been implemented in an effort to enhance the public's awareness of the harmful effects of smoking. In general, warnings used in different countries try to emphasize the same messages. Warnings for some countries are listed below; such warnings have been required in tobacco advertising for many years. The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, adopted in 2003, requires such package warning messages to promote awareness against smoking. A 2009 review summarises that "There is clear evidence that tobacco package health warnings increase consumers’ knowledge about the health consequences of tobacco use." The warning messages "contribute to changing consumers’ attitudes towards tobacco use as well as changing consumers’ behavior."At the same time, such warning labels have been subject to criticism. 2007 meta-analyses indicated that communications emphasizing the severity of a threat are less effective than communications focusing on susceptibility, that warning labels may have no effect among smokers who are not confident that they can quit, which lead the authors to recommend exploring different more effective methods of behavior change.
Text-based warnings on cigarette packets are used in Albania. Pirja e duhanit mund të vrasë Smoking can kill Pirja e duhanit ju dëmton ju dhe të tjerët rreth jush Smoking harms you and others around you Duhanpirësit vdesin më të rinj Smokers die younger Duhanpirja bllokon arteriet dhe shkakton infarkt të zemrës ose hemorragji cerebrale Smoking blocks the arteries and causes heart attack or cerebral hemorrhage Duhanpirja shkakton kancer në mushkëri Smoking causes lung cancer Duhanpirja gjatë shtatëzanisë dëmton fëmijën tuaj Smoking during pregnancy harms your baby Ruani fëmijët: mos i lini ata të thithin tymin tuaj Protect children: do not let them breathe your smoke Mjeku ose farmacisti juaj mund t'ju ndihmojë të lini duhanin Your doctor or pharmacist can help you stop smoking Duhanpirja shkakton varësi të fortë, mos e filloni atë Smoking causes a strong addiction, do not start it Lënia e duhanit pakëson rrezikun e sëmundjeve vdekjeprurëse të zemrës dhe mushkërive Leaving smoking reduces the risk of deadly heart disease and lung Duhanpirja mund të shkaktojë një vdekje të ngadaltë dhe të dhimbshme Smoking can cause a slow and painful death Kërkoni ndihmë për të lënë duhanin: telefon 0 800 47 47.
Translation of words in box: Smoking is bad for health. It can cause heart disease, lung cancer, reduced lung function, chronic bronchitis, stroke and mouth cancer, emphysema. If you smoke despite all this, don't say that we did not warn you. On 1 December 2012, Australia introduced groundbreaking legislation and the world's toughest tobacco packaging warning messages to date. All marketing and brand devices were removed from the package and replaced with warnings, only the name of the product remain in generic standard sized text. All tobacco products sold, offered for sale or otherwise supplied in Australia were plain packaged and labelled with new and expanded health warnings. In Azerbaijan, cigarette packages carry a small notice: "Ministry of Health warns: Smoking is dangerous for your health", but this is printed in light and small fonts, the first part of the message is not always visible. In Bangladesh, a variety of warnings with graphic, disturbing images of tobacco-related harms are placed prominently on cigarette packages.
In Bolivia, a variety of warnings with graphic, disturbing images of tobacco-related harms are placed prominently on cigarette packages. Front of packaging: Pušenje je štetno za zdravlje Pušenje ubija Pušenje ozbiljno šteti vama i drugima oko vas Back of packaging: Pušenje uzrokuje rak pluća Pušenje uzrokuje srčani udar Pušenje uzrokuje moždani udar Pušenje u trudnoći šteti zdravlju Vašeg djeteta Before 2011, a small warning with the text Pušenje je štetno za zdravlje was printed on the back of cigarette packets. Brazil was the second country in the world and the first country in Latin America to adopt mandatory warning images in cigarette packages. Warnings and graphic images illustrating the risks of smoking occupy 100% of the back of cigarettes boxes since 2001. In 2008, the government elected a third batch of images, aimed at younger smokers. Since 2003, the sentence Este produto contém mais de 4,7 mil substâncias tóxicas, e n
Nicotine marketing is the marketing of nicotine-containing products or use. Traditionally, the tobacco industry markets cigarette smoking, but it is marketing other products, such as e-cigarettes. Products are marketed through social media, stealth marketing, mass media, sponsorship. Expenditures on nicotine marketing are in the tens of billions a year. Nicotine marketing is regulated; the World Health Organization recommends a complete tobacco advertising ban. The effectiveness of tobacco marketing in increasing consumption of tobacco products is documented. Advertisements cause new people to become addicted when they are minors. Ads keep established smokers from quitting. Advertising peaks in January, when the most people are trying to quit, although the most people take up smoking in the summer; the tobacco industry has claimed that ads are only about "brand preference", encouraging existing smokers to switch to and stick to their brand. There is, substantial evidence that ads cause people to become, stay, addicted.
Marketing is used to oppose regulation of nicotine marketing and other tobacco control measures, both directly and indirectly, for instance by improving the image of the nicotine industry and reducing criticism from youth and community groups. Industry charity and sports sponsorships are publicized, portraying the industry as sharing the values of the target audience. Marketing is used to normalize the industry. Marketing is used to give the impression that nicotine companies are responsible, "Open and Honest"; this is done through an emphasis on informed choice and "anti-teen-smoking" campaigns, although such ads have been criticized as counterproductive by independent groups. Magazines, but not newspapers, that get revenue from nicotine advertising are less to run stories critical of nicotine products. Internal documents show that the industry used its influence with the media to shape coverage of news, such as a decision not to mandate health warnings on cigarette packages or a debate over advertising restrictions.
Counter-marketing is used by public health groups and governments. The addictiveness and health effects of nicotine use are described, as these are the themes missing from pro-tobacco marketing; because it harms public health, nicotine marketing is regulated. Advertising restrictions shift marketing spending to unrestricted media. Banned on television, ads move to print. Unlike conventional advertising, stealth marketing is not attributed to the organization behind it; this neutralizes mistrust of tobacco companies, widespread among children and the teenagers who provide the industry with most new addicts. Another method of evading restrictions is to sell less-regulated nicotine products instead of the ones for which advertising is more regulated. For instance, while TV ads of cigarettes are banned in the United States, similar TV ads of e-cigarettes are not; the most effective media are banned first, meaning advertisers need to spend more money to addict the same number of people. Comprehensive bans can make it impossible to substitute other forms of advertising, leading to actual falls in consumption.
However, skillful use of allowed media can increase advertising exposure. S. children to nicotine advertising is increasing as of 2018. Nicotine advertising uses specific techniques, but uses multiple methods simultaneously. For instance, the ad illustrated in this section uses many of the techniques discussed below, its tagline reads making use of reactance. The model's gesture echoes earlier ads; the 1999-2000 "Find your voice" ad campaign, of which this ad was a part, was criticized as offensive to smokers who have lost their voices to throat cancer, as targeting minority women and seeking to associate itself with empowerment, self-expression, women's rights, sexual allure. Nicotine marketing makes extensive use of reactance, the feeling that one is being unreasonably controlled. Reactance motivates rebellion, in behaviour or belief, which demonstrates that the control was ineffective, restoring the feeling of freedom. Ads thus explicitly tell the viewer to use nicotine. Instead, they suggest using nicotine as a way to rebel and be free.
This marketing message is at odds with the feelings of smokers, who feel trapped by their addiction and unable to quit. Mention of addiction is avoided in nicotine advertising. Reactance can be eliminated by concealing attempts to manipulate or control behaviour. Unlike conventional advertising, stealth marketing is not attributed to the organization behind it; this neutralizes mistrust of tobacco companies, widespread among children and the teenagers who provide the industry with most new addicts. The internet and social media are suited to stealth an
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
A lighter is a portable device used to create a flame, to ignite a variety of combustible materials, such as cigars, gas stoves, candles or cigarettes. It consists of a metal or plastic container filled with a flammable fluid or pressurized liquid gas, a means of ignition to produce the flame, some provision for extinguishing the flame. Alternatively, a lighter can be powered by electricity, using an electric arc or heating element to ignite the target; the first lighters were converted flintlock pistols. One of the first lighters was invented by the German chemist named Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner in 1823 and was called Döbereiner's lamp; this lighter worked by passing flammable hydrogen gas, produced within the lighter by a chemical reaction, over a platinum metal catalyst which in turn caused it to ignite and give off a great amount of heat and light. The patenting of ferrocerium by Carl Auer von Welsbach in 1903 has made modern lighters possible; when scratched it produces a large spark, responsible for lighting the fuel of many lighters, is suitably inexpensive for use in disposable items.
Using Carl Auer von Welsbach's flint, companies like Ronson were able to develop practical and easy to use lighters. In 1910, Ronson released the first Pist-O-Liter, in 1913, the company developed its first lighter, called the "Wonderlite", a permanent match style of lighter. During WWl soldiers started to create lighters of empty cartridge cases. During that time one of the soldiers came up with a means to insert a chimney cap with holes in it to make it more windproof; the Zippo lighter and company were invented and founded by George Grant Blaisdell in 1932. The Zippo was noted for its reliability, "Life Time Warranty" and marketing as "Wind-Proof". Most early Zippos used naphtha as a fuel source. In the 1950s, there was a switch in the fuel of choice from naphtha to butane, as butane allows for a controllable flame and has less odour; this led to the use of piezoelectric spark, which replaced the need for a flint wheel in some lighters and was used in many Ronson lighters. In modern times most of the world's lighters are produced in France, the United States and Thailand.
Naphtha based lighters employ a saturated cloth wick and fibre packing to absorb the fluid and prevent it from leaking. They employ an enclosed top to prevent the volatile liquid from evaporating, to conveniently extinguish the flame. Butane lighters have a valved orifice. A spark is created by striking metal against a flint, or by pressing a button that compresses a piezoelectric crystal, generating an electric arc. In naphtha lighters, the liquid is sufficiently volatile, flammable vapour is present as soon as the top of the lighter is opened. Butane lighters combine the striking action with the opening of the valve to release gas; the spark ignites the flammable gas causing a flame to come out of the lighter which continues until either the top is closed, or the valve is released. A metal enclosure with air holes surrounds the flame, is designed to allow mixing of fuel and air while making the lighter less sensitive to wind; the high energy jet in butane lighters allows mixing to be accomplished by using Bernoulli's principle, so that the air hole in this type tend to be much smaller and farther from the flame.
Specialized "windproof" butane lighters are manufactured for demanding conditions such as shipboard, high altitude, wet climates. Some dedicated; such lighters are far hotter than normal lighters and can burn in excess of 1,100 °C. The windproof capabilities are not achieved from higher pressure fuel. Instead, windproof lighters mix the fuel with air and pass the butane–air mixture through a catalytic coil. An electric spark starts the initial flame, soon the coil is hot enough to cause the fuel–air mixture to burn on contact. Arc lighters use a spark to create a plasma conduit between electrodes, maintained by a lower voltage; the arc is applied to a flammable substance to cause ignition. Some vehicles are equipped with an electric lighter located on the dashboard or in the well between the front seats, its electric heating element becomes hot in seconds upon activation. The car lighter was claimed to have been invented by Alexander Kucala, a tavern owner and inventor, on the south side of Chicago in the early 1930s called the AL Lighter.
Not to be confused with the meaning of match as in matchsticks or the "permanent match", this type of lighter consists of a length of slow match in a holder, with means to ignite and to extinguish the match. While the glowing match does not supply enough energy to start a fire without further kindling, it is sufficient to light a cigarette; the main advantage of this design shows itself in windy conditions, where the glow of the match is fanned by the wind instead of being blown out. A typical form of lighter is the permanent match or everlasting match, consisting of a naphtha fuel-filled metal shell and a separate threaded metal rod assembly —the "match"— serving as the striker and wick; this "metal match" is stored screwed into the shell. The fuel-saturated striker/wick assembly is unscrewed to remove, scratched against a flint on the side of the case to create a spark, its concealed wick catches fire. The flame is extinguished by blowing it out before screwing the "match" back into the shell, where it absorbs fuel for the next use.
An advantage over o
Davidoff is a Swiss premium brand of cigars and smoker’s accessories. It is owned by Oettinger Davidoff AG, based in Basel, Switzerland. Oettinger Davidoff AG manufactures a broad portfolio of cigars, pipe tobaccos and smoker’s accessories under the brands Davidoff and Zino Platinum; the cigars are produced in the Dominican Republic and Honduras, tobacco is sourced from the Dominican Republic, Brazil, Mexico, Ecuador and the United States of America. The brand name Davidoff originates from the name of its Russian Empire-born founder, Zino Davidoff, who ran a tobacco specialist shop in Geneva, from 1936 to 1994, he was known as "King of Cigars". After the Second World War, Zino Davidoff decided to acquire a license to produce his own series of cigars; as he had discerning international customers, he named the various formats of this “Château” cigar series after famous Bordeaux vineyard estates. The first in the series was the “Château Latour” in 1946. In 1967, Zino Davidoff was approached by Cubatabaco, Cuba's state tobacco monopoly, about creating a line of cigars carrying the “Davidoff” name.
The cigars were rolled in the newly established El Laguito factory in Havana, established to roll Cuban President Fidel Castro's own personal cigars, named Cohíba. In 1968, the first cigars carrying the name “Davidoff” were released; the first formats were the No. 1, the No. 2 and the Ambassadrice. In 1970, Oettinger AG, located in Basel, acquired the rights to the Davidoff trademark. In 1971, the Davidoff “Mini Cigarillos” and, in 1972, the first Davidoff pipe tobaccos were released; as of 1975, the cigars of the Château series were delivered in cabinets bearing the Davidoff logo. In 1976, the “Mille Series” and, in 1977, the “Dom Pérignon” cigar, named after the champagne, were released. In 1986, a limited release of “Anniversario” cigars were produced, to celebrate Zino Davidoff’s 80th birthday. After numerous disputes over quality and ownership rights, Zino Davidoff and Cubatabaco decided to end their relationship. Leading up to this, in August 1989, Zino had publicly burned over one hundred thousand cigars that he had deemed of low quality and unfit to sell.
All Davidoff products produced in Cuba were discontinued in 1991. An agreement was signed. In 1990, after discontinuing Cuban-made products, Davidoff started to produce cigars in the Dominican Republic. After numerous test runs, Zino Davidoff found a partner in the local producer “Tabadom”, owned by Hendrik Kelner. In 1991, the first Dominican-made Davidoff cigars were launched, continuing the product lines and cigar formats of their Cuban predecessors. With the move to the Dominican Republic, the Château series was renamed to “Grand Cru”, the individual formats were numbered instead of carrying the names of vineyard estates. In 1991, the limited release called “Aniversario” became an ongoing cigar series, called the “Aniversario” series. In 1992, the “Special” cigar series was released, with the format “Special R” as the first product. In 1994, the 87 year old Zino Davidoff died in Switzerland. In 2001, the “Millennium Blend” cigar series was launched. In 2010, Davidoff Cigars released the “Puro d’Oro” series.
In 2013, Davidoff Cigars released the “Nicaragua” series, the first product line of Davidoff to incorporate tobaccos from Nicaragua into the cigar blend, the first series since the Davidoff Cuban products which made use of tobaccos not sourced in the Dominican Republic. Moving forward, Davidoff Cigars started to make use of tobaccos sourced from other countries than the Dominican Republic to diversify their product portfolio. In 2015, Davidoff Cigars released the “Escurio” series, which contained tobaccos sourced from Brazil. In the same year, the cigar line “Winston Churchill” was launched. In 2016, Davidoff Cigars released the “Yamasa” cigar series. Over the years, Davidoff Cigars made changes to its product lineup; these are the cigar series on the market: Davidoff Signature Davidoff Grand Cru Davidoff Aniversario Davidoff Millennium Davidoff Colorado Claro Davidoff Nicaragua & Nicaragua Box Pressed Davidoff Escurio Davidoff Yamasa Davidoff Winston Churchill & The Late Hour Davidoff Special Releases Davidoff Primeros Davidoff Mini Cigarillos Silver Davidoff Mini Cigarillos Gold Davidoff Mini Cigarillos Platinum Davidoff Mini Cigarillos Nicaragua Davidoff Mini Cigarillos Escurio Davidoff Cigars produces a number of smoker’s accessories, including humidors, cigar cutters, cigar ashtrays, cigar cases and pipe accessories.
List of cigar brands Zino Davidoff Group Min Ron Nee, An Illustrated Encyclopaedia of Post-Revolution Havana Cigars. James Suckling, "In Search of Davidoffs: Connoisseurs are Buying Up Stocks of the Swiss Cigar Maker's Discontinued Havanas," Cigar Aficionado, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 46–55. Dieter H. Wirtz, Davidoff - Legend, Reality, Ullstein Buchverlage GmbH, Berlin 2006 Davidoff website Oettinger Davidoff AG – company website
A cigarette holder is a fashion accessory, a slender tube in which a cigarette is held for smoking. Most made of silver, jade or bakelite, cigarette holders were considered an essential part of ladies' fashion from the early 1910s through the mid 1970s; the holder was a practical accessory and served several purposes: The primary use was to keep falling ash off of a woman's clothes since women didn't wear Smoking jackets. This is the reason for the long length, for why the holders were longer for more formal occasions. Kept side-stream smoke further out from under the lady's hat. Helped prevent nicotine staining of the gloves. Reduced staining of the teeth. Kept the thin cigarette paper from sticking to, tearing on, the smoker's lips. Cooled and mellowed the smoke. Holders sometimes encased a filter for taste and for health reasons. Before the advent of filtered cigarettes in the 1960s, the holder helped keep tobacco flakes out of the smoker's mouth. Cigarette holders range from the simplest single material constructs to ornate styles with complex inlays of metal and gemstones.
Rarer examples of these can be found in enamel, tortoiseshell, or more precious materials such as amber and ivory. A similar holder made of wood, meerschaum or bakelite and with an amber mouthpiece was used for cigars and was a popular accessory for men from the Edwardian period until the 1920s; as with evening gloves, ladies' cigarette holders are measured by four traditional formal standard lengths: opera length 16 to 20 inches/40 to 50 cm theatre length, 10 to 14 inches/25 to 35 cm dinner length, 4 to 6 inches/10 to 15 cm cocktail length, which includes shorter holdersTraditionally, men's cigarette holders were no more than 4 inches long. Well-known women who used cigarette holders include Audrey Hepburn, Lucille Ball, Jayne Mansfield, Jacqueline Kennedy, Rita Hayworth, Princess Margaret, Wendy Richard, Madalena Barbosa, Natalie Wood, Louise Brooks, Cleo Trumbo and Ayn Rand. Scarlett Johansson is a contemporary example. Among the best-known men who used cigarette holders were Franklin D. Roosevelt, Enrico Caruso, Vladimir Horowitz, Ian Fleming, Noël Coward, Hunter S. Thompson, Tennessee Williams, Fulgencio Batista, Sergei Rachmaninoff, Josip Broz Tito, Hans von Bülow.
Holders can be seen in period films like Titanic, are immortalized in films of the 1950s and 1960s. Holly Golightly, the naïve and eccentric café society girl in the iconic 1961 classic Breakfast at Tiffany's, portrayed by Audrey Hepburn, is famously seen carrying an oversized cigarette holder. Lucille Ball can be seen using one in certain episodes of I Love Lucy. In Troop Beverly Hills Shelly Long's character is seen throughout the movie using one. Cruella de Vil is seen using one in the 1961 animated Disney film, One Hundred and One Dalmatians and in the 1996 remake portrayed by Glenn Close. Margo Lane used one in The Shadow. Comedian Phyllis Diller had a stage persona which included holding a long cigarette holder from which she pretended to smoke. Fictional Peter Pan character Captain Hook possessed a unique double-holder, which allowed him to smoke two cigars at once. Batman's nemesis The Penguin commonly uses a cigarette holder in the comics and the 1960s television series, as well as in the live-action film Batman Returns.
Edna Mode from The Incredibles franchise is seen with an unlit cigarette holder. Johnny Depp uses a cigarette holder in his role as Raoul Duke in the film Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas. In cartoons, the Pink Panther, Colonel Sponsz from The Adventures of Tintin, Jade from Jonny Quest use cigarette holders; the lyrics to Satin Doll by Duke Ellington and the cover art of the album Badfinger feature a cigarette holder. The video to Into the Great Wide Open by Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers features Faye Dunaway using her cigarette holder as a magic wand. Rachel Menken, a character on the AMC series Mad Men, smokes cigarettes with a short holder. Cigarette case Fashion brands
Cultivation of tobacco
The cultivation of tobacco takes place annually. The tobacco is germinated in cold frames or hotbeds and transplanted to the field until it matures, it is grown in warm climates with well-drained soil. About 4.2 million hectares of tobacco were under cultivation worldwide in 2000, yielding over seven million tonnes of tobacco. Tobacco seeds are scattered onto the surface of the soil, as their germination is activated by light. In colonial Virginia, seedbeds were fertilized with wood animal manure. Seedbeds were covered with branches to protect the young plants from frost damage, the plants were left alone until around April. In the 19th century, young plants came under increasing attack from certain types of flea beetles, Epitrix cucumeris or Epitrix pubescens, which destroyed half the U. S. tobacco crops in 1876. In the years afterward, many experiments were discussed to control the flea beetle. By 1880, growers discovered that replacing the branches with a frame covered with thin fabric protected plants from the beetle.
This practice spread. In Asian and the Indian subcontinent, the tobacco cutworm is a great pest to the tobacco plant; the caterpillar's vigorous eating habits can cause up 23-50% in yield losses, resulting in economic strain to the local agricultural economies. The cabbage looper is known to have caused damage to tobacco plants in North Carolina, which became a concern as farmers lacked a suitable method for controlling the caterpillars. Shade tobacco is the practice of growing the plants under a screen of cheesecloth fabric; the thin leaves were used for the outer wrappings of cigars. Tobacco can be harvested in several ways. In the oldest method, the entire plant is harvested at once by cutting off the stalk at the ground with a sickle. In the nineteenth century, bright tobacco began to be harvested by pulling individual leaves off the stalk as they ripened; as the plants grow, they require topping and suckering. "Topping" is the removal of the tobacco flowers while "suckering" is the pruning out of leaves that are otherwise unproductive.
Both procedures ensure that as much of the plant's energy as possible focuses on producing the large leaves that are harvested and sold. "Cropping", "Pulling", "Priming" are terms for removing mature leaves from tobacco plants. Leaves are cropped; the first crop of leaves located near the base of the tobacco stalk are called "sand lugs" in more rural southern tobacco states. They are called "sand lugs" because these leaves are close to the ground and get splashed with sand and clay when heavy rains hit the soil. Sand lugs weigh the most, are most difficult to work with, their weight is due to the added weight of soil. Workers carried the tobacco and placed it on sleds or trailers; as the industrial revolution approached America, the harvesting wagons that transported leaves were equipped with man powered stringers, an apparatus that used twine to attach leaves to a pole. In modern times, large fields are harvested by a single piece of farm equipment, though topping the flower and in some cases the plucking of immature leaves is still done by hand.
Some farmers still use "tobacco harvesters". They are not efficient yet cost effective for harvesting premium and rare strains of tobacco; the harvester trailers for in-demand crops are now pulled by diesel fueled tractors. "Croppers" or "primers" pull the leaves off in handfuls and pass these to the "stringer" or "looper", which bundles the leaves to a four-sided pole with twine. These poles are hung; the poles are placed in a much larger wagon to be pulled by modern farm tractors to their destination. For rare tobaccos they are cured on the farm. Traditionally, the slaves who cropped and pulled had a tough time with the first pull of the large, base leaves; the leaves slapped their faces and dark tobacco sap, which dries into a dark gum, covered their bodies, soil stuck to the gum. The croppers were men, the stringers, who were seated on the higher elevated seats, were women and children; the harvesters had places for one team of ten workers: eight people cropping and stringing, plus a packer who moved the heavy strung poles of wet green tobacco from the stringers and packed them onto the pallet section of the harvester, plus a horseman.
The outer seats were suspended from the harvester - slung out over to fit into the rows of tobacco. As these seats were suspended it was important to balance the weight of the two outside teams. Having too heavy or light a person in an unbalanced combination resulted in the harvester tipping over when turning around at the end of a row. Water tanks were a common feature on the harvester due to danger of dehydration. Production of tobacco leaf increased by 40% between 1971, during which 4.2 million tons of leaf were produced, 1997, during which 5.9 million tons of leaf were produced. According to the Food and Agriculture organization of the UN, tobacco leaf production is expected to hit 7.1 million tons by 2010. This number is a bit lower than the record high production of 1992, during which 7.5 million tons of leaf were produced. The production growth was entirely due to increased productivity by developing nations, where production increased by 128%. During that same time period, production in developed countries decreased.
China's increase in tobacco production was the single biggest factor in the increase in world pr