The terms anno Domini and before Christ are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars. The term anno Domini is Medieval Latin and means "in the year of the Lord", but is presented using "our Lord" instead of "the Lord", taken from the full original phrase "anno Domini nostri Jesu Christi", which translates to "in the year of our Lord Jesus Christ"; this calendar era is based on the traditionally reckoned year of the conception or birth of Jesus of Nazareth, with AD counting years from the start of this epoch, BC denoting years before the start of the era. There is no year zero in this scheme, so the year AD 1 follows the year 1 BC; this dating system was devised in 525 by Dionysius Exiguus of Scythia Minor, but was not used until after 800. The Gregorian calendar is the most used calendar in the world today. For decades, it has been the unofficial global standard, adopted in the pragmatic interests of international communication and commercial integration, recognized by international institutions such as the United Nations.
Traditionally, English followed Latin usage by placing the "AD" abbreviation before the year number. However, BC is placed after the year number, which preserves syntactic order; the abbreviation is widely used after the number of a century or millennium, as in "fourth century AD" or "second millennium AD". Because BC is the English abbreviation for Before Christ, it is sometimes incorrectly concluded that AD means After Death, i.e. after the death of Jesus. However, this would mean that the approximate 33 years associated with the life of Jesus would neither be included in the BC nor the AD time scales. Terminology, viewed by some as being more neutral and inclusive of non-Christian people is to call this the Current or Common Era, with the preceding years referred to as Before the Common or Current Era. Astronomical year numbering and ISO 8601 avoid words or abbreviations related to Christianity, but use the same numbers for AD years; the Anno Domini dating system was devised in 525 by Dionysius Exiguus to enumerate the years in his Easter table.
His system was to replace the Diocletian era, used in an old Easter table because he did not wish to continue the memory of a tyrant who persecuted Christians. The last year of the old table, Diocletian 247, was followed by the first year of his table, AD 532; when he devised his table, Julian calendar years were identified by naming the consuls who held office that year—he himself stated that the "present year" was "the consulship of Probus Junior", 525 years "since the incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ". Thus Dionysius implied that Jesus' incarnation occurred 525 years earlier, without stating the specific year during which his birth or conception occurred. "However, nowhere in his exposition of his table does Dionysius relate his epoch to any other dating system, whether consulate, year of the world, or regnal year of Augustus. Among the sources of confusion are: In modern times, incarnation is synonymous with the conception, but some ancient writers, such as Bede, considered incarnation to be synonymous with the Nativity.
The civil or consular year began on 1 January but the Diocletian year began on 29 August. There were inaccuracies in the lists of consuls. There were confused summations of emperors' regnal years, it is not known. Two major theories are that Dionysius based his calculation on the Gospel of Luke, which states that Jesus was "about thirty years old" shortly after "the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar", hence subtracted thirty years from that date, or that Dionysius counted back 532 years from the first year of his new table, it has been speculated by Georges Declercq that Dionysius' desire to replace Diocletian years with a calendar based on the incarnation of Christ was intended to prevent people from believing the imminent end of the world. At the time, it was believed by some that the resurrection of the dead and end of the world would occur 500 years after the birth of Jesus; the old Anno Mundi calendar theoretically commenced with the creation of the world based on information in the Old Testament.
It was believed that, based on the Anno Mundi calendar, Jesus was born in the year 5500 with the year 6000 of the Anno Mundi calendar marking the end of the world. Anno Mundi 6000 was thus equated with the resurrection and the end of the world but this date had passed in the time of Dionysius; the Anglo-Saxon historian the Venerable Bede, familiar with the work of Dionysius Exiguus, used Anno Domini dating in his Ecclesiastical History of the English People, completed in 731. In this same history, he used another Latin term, ante vero incarnationis dominicae tempus anno sexagesimo, equivalent to the English "before Christ", to identify years before the first year of this era. Both Dionysius and Bede regarded Anno Domini as beginning at the incarnation of Jesus, but "the distinction between Incarnation and Nativity was not drawn until the late 9th century, when in some places the Incarnation epoch was identified with Christ's conception, i.e. the Annunciation on March 25". On the continent of Europe, Anno
The Ilkhanate spelled Il-khanate, was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu. It was founded in the 13th century and was based in Iran as well as neighboring territories, such as present-day Azerbaijan and the central and eastern parts of present-day Turkey; the Ilkhanate was based on the campaigns of Genghis Khan in the Khwarazmian Empire in 1219–24 and was founded by Hulagu Khan, son of Tolui and grandson of Genghis Khan. With the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire after 1259 it became a functionally separate khanate. At its greatest extent, the state expanded into territories that today comprise most of Iran, Armenia, Georgia, Turkey, western Afghanistan, the Northwestern edge of the Indian sub-continent. Ilkhanate rulers, beginning with Ghazan in 1295, converted to Islam. According to the historian Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, Kublai Khan granted Hulagu the title of Ilkhan after his defeat of Ariq Böke; the term ilkhan here means " khan of the tribe, khan of the'ulus'" and this inferior "khanship" refers to the initial deference to Möngke Khan and his successor Great Khans of the Mongol empire.
The title "Ilkhan", borne by the descendants of Hulagu and other Borjigin princes in Persia, does not materialize in the sources until after 1260. When Muhammad II of Khwarezm executed a contingent of merchants dispatched by the Mongols, Genghis Khan declared war on the Khwārazm-Shāh dynasty in 1219; the Mongols overran the empire, occupying the major cities and population centers between 1219 and 1221. Persian Iran was ravaged by the Mongol detachment under Subedei, who left the area in ruin. Transoxiana came under Mongol control after the invasion; the undivided area west of the Transoxiana was the inheritance of Genghis Khan's Borjigin family. Thus, the families of the latter's four sons appointed their officials under the Great Khan's governors, Chin-Temür, Korguz, in that region. Muhammad's son Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu returned to Iran in c. 1224 after his exile in India. The rival Turkic states, which were all that remained of his father's empire declared their allegiance to Jalal, he repulsed the first Mongol attempt to take Central Persia.
However, Jalal ad-Din was overwhelmed and crushed by Chormaqan's army sent by the Great Khan Ögedei in 1231. During the Mongol expedition and the southern Persian dynasties in Fars and Kerman voluntarily submitted to the Mongols and agreed to pay tribute. To the west and the rest of Persia was secured by Chormaqan; the Mongols invaded Armenia and Georgia in 1234 or 1236, completing the conquest of the Kingdom of Georgia in 1238. They began to attack the western parts of Greater Armenia, under the Seljuks, the following year. In 1236 Ögedei proceeded to populate Herat; the Mongol military governors made camp in the Mughan plain in what is now Azerbaijan. Realizing the danger posed by the Mongols, the rulers of Mosul and Cilician Armenia submitted to the Great Khan. Chormaqan divided the Transcaucasia region into three districts based on the Mongol military hierarchy. In Georgia, the population was temporarily divided into eight tumens. By 1237 the Mongol Empire had subjugated most of Persia, Georgia, as well as all of Afghanistan and Kashmir.
After the battle of Köse Dağ in 1243, the Mongols under Baiju occupied Anatolia, while the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm and the Empire of Trebizond became vassals of the Mongols. Güyük Khan abolished decrees issued by the Mongol princes that had ordered the raising of revenue from districts in Persia as well as offering tax exemptions to others in c. 1244. In accordance with a complaint by the governor Arghun the Elder, Möngke Khan prohibited ortog-merchants and nobles from abusing relay stations and civilians in 1251, he ordered a new census and decreed that each man in the Mongol-ruled Middle East must pay in proportion to his property. Persia was divided between four districts under Arghun. Möngke Khan granted the Kartids authority over Herat, Pushang, Khaysar, Firuz-Kuh, Farah, Kabul and Afghanistan; the founder of the Ilkhanate dynasty was Hulagu Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan and brother of both Möngke Khan and Kublai Khan. Möngke dispatched Hulagu to establish a firm Toluid control over the Middle East and ordered him return to Mongolia when his task was accomplished.
Taking over from Baiju in 1255 or 1256, Hulagu had been charged with subduing the Muslim kingdoms to the west "as far as the borders of Egypt". This occupation led the Turkmens to move west into Anatolia to escape from the Mongolian rule, he established his dynasty over the southwestern part of the Mongol Empire that stretched from Transoxiana to Syria. He destroyed the Ismaili Nizari Hashshashins and the Abbasid Caliphate in 1256 and 1258 respectively. After that he advanced as far as Gaza conquering Ayyubid Syria; the death of Möngke forced Hulagu to return from the Persian heartland for the preparation of Khurultai. He left a small force behind to continue the Mongol advance, but it was halted in Palestine in 1260 by a major defeat at the battle of Ain Jalut at the hands of the Mamluks of Egypt. Due to geo-political and religious issues and deaths of three Jochid princes in Hulagu's service, Berke declared open war on Hulagu in 1262 and called his troops back to Iran. According to Mamluk historians, Hulagu might have massacred Berke's troops and refused to share his war booty with Berke.
Hulagu's descendants r
Abaqa Khan, was the second Mongol ruler of the Ilkhanate. The son of Hulagu Khan and Lady Yesünčin, he reigned from 1265 to 1282 and was succeeded by his brother Tekuder. Much of Abaqa's reign was consumed with civil wars in the Mongol Empire, such as those between the Ilkhanate and the northern khanate of the Golden Horde. Abaqa engaged in unsuccessful attempts at military invasion of Syria, including the Second Battle of Homs. Abaqa was born in Mongolia in son of Ilkhanate founder Hulagu Khan. Abaqa himself was Buddhist. A favored son of Hulagu, he was made governor of Turkestan. Hulagu died from illness in 1265. Before his death, he had been negotiating with the Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos to add a daughter of the Byzantine imperial family to Hulagu's number of wives. Michael VIII had selected his illegitimate daughter Maria Palaiologina, dispatched in 1265, escorted by the abbot of Pantokrator monastery, Theodosius de Villehardouin. Historian Steven Runciman relates. Since Hulagu died before she arrived, she was instead married to Abaqa.
He received her hand in marriage. When Hulagu's wife Doquz Khatun died in 1265 as well, the role of spiritual leader transferred to Maria, called "Despina Khatun" by the Mongols, it was Abaqa who decided on the permanent location for the Ilkhanate capital, in the northwestern grasslands that the Mongols preferred. Abaqa took power four months after the death of his father, spent the next several months redistributing fiefs and governorships; some of the coins from Abaqa's era display the Christian cross, bear in Arabic the Christian inscription "In the name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit, only one God". Since Hulagu's reign, the Mongols of the Ilkhanate had been at war with the Mongols of the Golden Horde; this continued into Abaqa's reign, the Golden Horde invaded the Ilkhanate in the Spring after his accession. Part of this was due to an alliance between the Golden Horde and the Egyptian Mamluks, in that the Golden Horde was attempting to distract Abaqa on one front, to keep him from invading Mamluk-held Syria on another.
The hostilities continued until the death of the Golden Horde's khan Berke, in 1267. The Great Khan Kublai attempted to intervene, to stop civil war, due to his influence, the Golden Horde's khan, Möngke Temür did not launch a major invasion of Abaqa's territory. However, Möngke Temür still established an alliance with the Egyptian Mamluk sultan Baibars promising that he would attack Abagha and share any conquered territories. However, at the same time, Möngke Temür sent envoys to congratulate Abagha when the Ilkhan defeated Ghiyas-ud-din Baraq. In 1270, he allowed Mengu-Timur to collect his revenues from workshops in Iran. Ögedei's grandson Kaidu, Batu's grandson Mengu-Timur and Baraq of the Chagatai Khanate formed an alliance against Kublai Khan and Abagha in Talas. They appointed Kaidu a ruler of Central Asia; the Kaidu–Kublai war lasted for a few decades. In 1270, Baraq Khan of the Chagataids tried to annex Iran, which started a new war against Abaqa in the city of Herat, though Abaqa was able to launch a successful defense and defeated Baraq's relative Teguder in Georgia.
In the following year, he retaliated by sending an army against the Chagatai Khanate. They plundered surrounding areas. There were small conflicts between Abagha and Qara'unas under Chagatayd noyans until 1280. Abaqa was one in a long line of Mongol rulers who attempted to secure Western cooperation against the Muslim Mamluks, he corresponded with Pope Clement IV through 1267-1268, sent a Mongol ambassador in 1268, trying to form a Franco-Mongol alliance between his forces, those of the West, those of his father-in-law Michael VIII. He received responses from Rome and from James I of Aragon, though it is unclear if this was what led to James's unsuccessful expedition to Acre in 1269. Abaqa is recorded as having written to the Aragonese king, saying that he was going to send his brother, Aghai, to join it when it arrived in Cilicia. Abaqa sent embassies to Edward I of England, in 1274 sent a Mongol delegation to Pope Gregory X at the Second Council of Lyons, where Abaqa's secretary Rychaldus read a report to the assembly, reminding them of Hulagu's friendliness towards Christians, assuring them that Abaqa planned to drive the Muslims from Syria.
But neither this diplomatic mission, nor two further embassies to Europe in 1276 and 1277, brought any tangible results. Bohemond VI of Antioch, under the influence of his father-in-law Hetoum I of Armenia, had voluntarily submitted to Mongol authority in 1260, while Abaqa's father Hulagu was in power, making Antioch and Tripoli vassal states of the Ilkhanate. In 1268, the Mamluk leader Baibars captured Antioch, Bohemond obtained a truce with Baibars in order to keep from losing Tripoli as well. In response to the fall of Antioch, Edward I of England arrived in Acre in 1271, trying to lead a new Crusade, it was considered a military failure, but Edward was able to secure a truce with the Mamluks before he had to return to England. When Edward arrived in Acre, he had sent an embassy to Abaqa, led by Reginald Rossel, Godefroi of Waus and John of Parker, requesting military assistance from the Mongols. Abaqa was occupied by other conflicts in Turkestan but answered positively to Edward's request, sending 10,000 Mongol horsemen under general Samagar from the occupation army in Seljuk Anatolia, to Syria: "After talking over the matter, we have on our account resolved to send to your aid Cemak
In astronomy and celestial navigation, an ephemeris gives the trajectory of occurring astronomical objects as well as artificial satellites in the sky, i.e. the position over time. The etymology is from Latin ephemeris, meaning'diary' and from Greek, Modern εφημερίς, meaning'diary, journal'. Positions were given as printed tables of values, given at regular intervals of date and time; the calculation of these tables was one of the first applications of mechanical computers. Modern ephemerides are computed electronically, from mathematical models of the motion of astronomical objects and the Earth. However, printed ephemerides are still produced, as they are useful when computational devices are not available; the astronomical position calculated from an ephemeris is given in the spherical polar coordinate system of right ascension and declination. Some of the astronomical phenomena of interest to astronomers are eclipses, apparent retrograde motion/planetary stations, planetary ingresses, sidereal time, positions for the mean and true nodes of the moon, the phases of the Moon, the positions of minor celestial bodies such as Chiron.
Ephemerides are used in celestial astronomy. They are used by some astrologers. 1st millennium BC – Ephemerides in Babylonian astronomy. 2nd century AD – the Almagest and the Handy Tables of Ptolemy 8th century AD – the zīj of Ibrāhīm al-Fazārī 9th century AD – the zīj of Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī 12th century AD – the Tables of Toledo – based on Arabic zīj sources of Islamic astronomy – were edited by Gerard of Cremona to form the standard European ephemeris until the Alfonsine Tables. 13th century – the Zīj-i Īlkhānī were compiled at the Maragheh observatory in Persia. 13th century – the Alfonsine Tables were compiled in Spain to correct anomalies in the Tables of Toledo, remaining the standard European ephemeris until the Prutenic Tables 300 years later. 13th century AD - the Dresden Codex, an extant Mayan ephemeris 1408 – Chinese ephemeris table. 1474 – Regiomontanus publishes his day-to-day Ephemerides in Nürnberg, Germany. 1496 – the Almanach Perpetuum of Abraão ben Samuel Zacuto 1504 – While shipwrecked on the island of Jamaica, Christopher Columbus predicted a lunar eclipse for the natives, using the ephemeris of the German astronomer Regiomontanus.
1531 – Work of Johannes Stöffler is published posthumously at Tübingen, extending the ephemeris of Regiomontanus through 1551. 1551 – the Prutenic Tables of Erasmus Reinhold were published, based on Copernicus's theories. 1554 – Johannes Stadius published Ephemerides novae et auctae, the first major ephemeris computed according to Copernicus' heliocentric model, using parameters derived from the Prutenic Tables. Although the Copernican model provided an elegant solution to the problem of computing apparent planetary positions, it still relied on the use of epicycles, leading to some inaccuracies – for example, periodic errors in the position of Mercury of up to ten degrees. One of the users of Stadius's tables is Tycho Brahe. 1627 – the Rudolphine Tables of Johannes Kepler based on elliptical planetary motion became the new standard. 1679 – La Connaissance des Temps ou calendrier et éphémérides du lever & coucher du Soleil, de la Lune & des autres planètes, first published yearly by Jean Picard and still extant.
1975 – Owen Gingerich, using modern planetary theory and digital computers, calculates the actual positions of the planets in the 16th Century and graphs the errors in the planetary positions predicted by the ephemerides of Stöffler and others. According to Gingerich, the error patterns "are as distinctive as fingerprints and reflect the characteristics of the underlying tables; that is, the error patterns for Stöffler are different from those of Stadius, but the error patterns of Stadius resemble those of Maestlin, Magini and others who followed the Copernican parameters." For scientific uses, a modern planetary ephemeris comprises software that generates positions of planets and of their satellites, asteroids, or comets, at any time desired by the user. Such ephemerides cover several centuries and future. There are secular phenomena which cannot adequately be considered by ephemerides; the greatest uncertainties in the positions of planets are caused by the perturbations of numerous asteroids, most of whose masses and orbits are poorly known, rendering their effect uncertain.
Reflecting the continuing influx of new data and observations, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has revised its published ephemerides nearly every year for the past 20 years. Solar System ephemerides are essential for the navigation of spacecraft and for all kinds of space observations of the planets, their natural satellites and galaxies. Scientific ephemerides for sky observers contain the positions of celestial bodies in right ascension and declination, because these coordinates are the most used on star maps and telescopes; the equinox of the coordinate system must be given. It is, in nearly all cases, either the actual equinox, or that of one of the "standard" equinoxes J2000.0, B1950.0, or J1900. Star maps always use one of the standard equinoxes. S
Maragheh observatory, was an institutionalized astronomical observatory, established in 1259 CE under the patronage of the Ilkhanid Hulagu and the directorship of Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, a Persian scientist and astronomer. Located in the heights west of Maragheh, today situated in the East Azerbaijan Province of Iran, it was once considered "the most advanced scientific institution in the Eurasian world", it was financed by waqf revenues, which allowed it to continue to operate after the death of its founder and was active for more than 50 years. The observatory served as a model for observatories including the 15th-century Ulugh Beg Observatory in Samarkand, the 16th-century Taqi al-Din observatory in Constantinople, the 18th-century Jai Singh observatory in Jaipur. There were multiple buildings constructed at the observatory site including a main building, five other circular buildings containing observational instruments for astronomical research. Living quarters were present on the site as well as a building for metal working.
There there was a 330m^2 building, used as the library. It is said that at one time the library held over 400,000 volumes of literature related to astronomy and astrology; the main building is circular with a diameter of 22m. The entrance was 1.5m wide and opened to a hallway, 3.1m wide that marked the meridian line. There were six rooms on either side of the hallway; these structures were made of clay and mud. The final structure at the observatory was a tower. In a 340x135 m citadel-like area stood a four-story circular stone building with a diameter of 28m; the mural quadrant to observe the positions of the stars and planets was aligned with the meridian. This meridian served as prime meridian for the tables in the Zij-i Ilkhani, as we nowadays apply the meridian which passes the Royal Greenwich Observatory for our astronomical calculations. In total the observatory spans an area, 150 meters wide and 350 meters long. Today considerable parts of the groundwork from these structures are preserved in the ruins.
The construction of the observatory began in 1259. This is according to multiple books including Jam-e-ttavarikhe rashidi, saf-e-elhofreh, favat-o-lvafiyyat The observatory came to be because of Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, a Persian mathematician and philosopher, well known around the world, he acted as an advisor to Hulagu, grandchild of Genghis Khan. Tusi complained to Hulagu that his astronomical tables had to be adapted to the latitude and longitude of Hulagu's new capital. Hulagu gave Tusi permission to build a new observatory in the location of his choosing, Tusi chose Maragha, Iran where he became the director of the observatory. Men of mathematics and astronomy came to the Maragheh Observatory from across the Islamic world and further. According to historical texts recovered from the observatory, the site had a reputation so widespread it had reached as far as China as students had traveled to study mathematics and astronomy. Other scholars in attendance included Bar-Hebraeus, who late in his life took residence close to the observatory in order to use the library for his studies.
He has left a description of the observatory. A number of other prominent astronomers worked with Tusi at the observatory, such as Muhyi al-Din al-Maghribi, Mu'ayyid al-Din al-'Urdi, from Damascus, Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi, Hulagu's Chinese astronomer Fao Munji whose Chinese astronomical experience brought improvements to Ptolemaic system used by Tusi, and after 12 years of intense work by Khaje Nassir od-Din Tussi and the other prominent scientists including Mu’yed al-Din al-Arad-Najmedin Cathy, Najmd al-Din Qazvini, Allame Qutbuddin Shirazi, Fakhruddin Maraghi were compiled in the Zij-i Ilkhani, which may have influenced the work of Copernicus. The tables were published during the reign of Abaqa Khan, Hulagu's son, was named after the patron of the observatory; the downturn of the Maragheh observatory began in the 13th century. After the death of Tusi in 1274 his son took over as director; however with the death of Hulagu in 1265 and his Abaqa in 1282 the observatory no longer had patrons to fund the research being performed.
The observatory became inactive by the beginning of the 14th century. The site turned into ruins as a result of frequent earthquakes and lack of funding by the state to preserve the site. Shah Abbas the Great arranged for repair, this was not commenced due to the king's early death. During the Mongol invasions and conquests in this region, the contents of the observatories library were stolen; the remains inspired Ulugh Beg to construct his observatory in Samarkand in 1428. Hulagu's older brother, Khublai Khan constructed an observatory, the Gaocheng Astronomical Observatory in China. A celestial globe from the observatory made around 1279 is now preserved in Germany, it is a rare example of decorative art from Iran of the 13th century, designed by al-Urdi and made of bronze, inlaid with silver and gold. Hulagu Khan was the grandson of Genghis Khan; as the Mongols spread their territory Hulagu was put it charge of conquering Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Abbasid Caliphate. From 1253 to 1256, Hulagu and his army were fighting to take control of the region of Iran known as Alamut.
It was in 1256. Here he met al-Tusi. Many of the scholars of the region had fled to the mountains for sanctuaries to continue their studies as Tusi had in this Castle; however there is dispute over whether or not Tusi was there against his will, or somehow helped the Mongols get in and attack. Tusi was respected by Hulagu for his scholars
Maragheh Romanized as Marāgheh. Maragheh is on the bank of the river Sufi Chay; the population consists of Iranian Azerbaijanis who speak the Azerbaijani language. It is 130 kilometres from the largest city in northwestern Iran. Maragheh is an ancient city encompassed by a high wall ruined in many places, has four gates. Two stone bridges in good condition are said to have been constructed during the reign of Hulaku Khan, who made Maragheh the capital of the Ilkhanate. Shortly thereafter it became the seat of the Church of the East Patriarch Mar Yaballaha III. One of the famous burial towers, the Gonbad-e-Kabud, is decorated with decorative patterns resembling Penrose tiles; the 14th century book Al-Vaghfiya Al-Rashidiya describes many of the estates in the town, several of the quanat of the time. Its marble, known throughout Iran as Maragha marble, is a travertine obtained at the village of Dashkasan near Azarshahr about 50 km north-west from Maragheh, it is deposited from water, which bubbles up from a number of springs in the form of horizontal layers, which at first are thin crusts and can be broken, but solidify and harden into blocks with a thickness of about 20 cm.
It is a singularly beautiful substance, being of pink, greenish, or milk-white color, streaked with reddish copper-colored veins. It is sold worldwide under such names as Azarshar Red or Yellow. Late Miocene strata near Maragheh have produced rich harvests of vertebrate fossils for European and North American museums. A multi-national team reopened the foissil site in 2008; the city is situated in a narrow valley running nearly north and south at the eastern extremity of a well-cultivated plain opening towards Lake Urmia, the world's sixth-largest saltwater lake, which lies 30 km to the west. The town is encompassed by a high wall ruined in many places, has four gates. Maragheh is surrounded by extensive vineyards and orchards, all well watered by canals led from the river, producing great quantities of fruit; the hills west of the town consist of horizontal strata of sandstone covered with irregular pieces of basalt. On a hill west of the town are the remains of the famous Maragheh observatory called Rasad Khaneh, constructed under the direction the Ilkhanid king, Hülagü Khan for Nasir al-Din al-Tusi.
The building, which no doubt served as a citadel as well, enclosed a space of 340 by 135 meters, the foundations of the walls were 13 to 2 meters in thickness. The observatory was constructed in the thirteenth century and was said to house a staff of at least ten astronomers and a librarian, in charge of the library which contained over 40,000 books; this observatory was one of the most prestigious during the medieval times in the Islamic Empire during the golden age of Islamic science. The famous astronomer Ibn al-Shatir did much of his work in this observatory. University of Maragheh Payam-e Noor University of Maragheh Azad University of Maragheh For a complete list see: Category:People from Maragheh Goražde, Bosnia and Herzegovina, E. Makovicky: 800-year-old pentagonal tiling from Maragha and the new varieties of aperiodic tiling it inspired. In: I. Hargittai, editor: Fivefold Symmetry, pp. 67–86. World Scientific, Singapore-London Peter J. Lu and Paul J. Steinhardt: Decagonal and Quasi-crystalline Tilings in Medieval Islamic Architecture, Science 315 1106-1110 Official website Maragheh in Enc.
Britannica The Columbia Encyclopedia Photography of Gunbad-i-Qabud Astronomy and Astrophysics Research Center of Maragha Biography of A'bd alqader ibn Ghaibi al Hafiz al Maraghi Maragheh photos More photos and Information of Maragheh, Tishineh
Mashallah ibn Athari
Mā Shā’ Allāh ibn Athari was an eighth-century Persian Jewish astrologer and mathematician. From Khorasan he lived in Basra during the reigns of al-Manṣūr and al-Ma’mūn, was among those who introduced astrology and astronomy to Baghdād in the late 8th and early 9th century; the bibliographer al-Nadim in his Fihrist, described him "as virtuous and in his time a leader in the science of jurisprudence, i.e. the science of judgments of the stars". He served as a court astrologer for the Abbasid caliphate, wrote numerous works on astrology in Arabic; some Latin translations survive. The Arabic phrase ma sha`a allah indicates a believer's acceptance of God's ordainment of good or ill fortune; the name Sha'a Allah is an Arabic rendering of Hebrew Sh'luh, which in is the name of the Messiah referenced in Genesis 49:10. Al-Nadim writes Mashallah's name'Mīshā', means "yithro", the Hebrew name Jethro, from yithrā. Latin translators called him many variants such as Messahala, Messala, Macelarma, etc; the crater Messala on the Moon is named after him.
As a young man he participated in the founding of Baghdad for Caliph al-Manṣūr in 762 by working with a group of astrologers led by Naubakht the Persian to pick an electional horoscope for the founding of the city and building of an observatory. Attributed the author of over twenty titles, predominantly on astrology, his authority was established over the centuries in the Middle East, in the West, when horoscopic astrology was transmitted to Europe from the 12th century, his writings include both what would be recognized as traditional horary astrology and an earlier type of astrology which casts consultation charts to divine the client's intention. The strong influence of Hermes Trismegistus and Dorotheus is evident in his work; the Big Book of Births. Multiple translations into medieval Latin, Byzantine Greek and Hebrew were made. One of his most popular works in the Middle Ages was a cosmological treatise This comprehensive account of the cosmos along Aristotelian lines, covers many topics important to early cosmology.
Postulating a ten-orb universe it strays from traditional cosmology. Mashallah illustrated his main ideas with comprehensible diagrams. Two versions of the manuscript were printed: a short version De scientia motus orbis, an expanded version De elementis et orbibus; the short version was translated by Gherardo Cremonese. Both were printed in 1504 and 1549, respectively; this work is abbreviated to De orbe. Mashallah's treatise on the astrolabe is the first known of its kind. Translated from Arabic into Latin; the exact source of Geoffrey Chaucer's Treatise on the Astrolabe in Middle English is undetermined but most of his ‘conclusions’ go back, directly or indirectly, to a Latin translation of Mashallah's work, called Compositio et Operatio Astrolabii. Chaucer's description of the instrument amplifies Mashallah’s, his indebtedness was recognised by John Selden in 1613 and established by Walter William Skeat. While Mark Harvey Liddell held that Chaucer drew on De Sphaera of John de Sacrobosco for the substantial part of his astronomical definitions and descriptions, the non-correspondence suggests his probable source was another compilation.
Skeat's Treatise of the Astrolabe includes a collotype MS facsimile of the Latin version of the second part of Mashallah’s work, which parallels Chaucer's. This is found in R. T. Gunther's, Chaucer and Messahala on Astrology. De elementis, its contents deal with the construction and usage of an astrolabe. In 1981, Paul Kunitzsch argued that the treatise on the astrolabe long attributed to Mashallah is in fact written by Ibn al-Saffar. On Conjunctions and People was an astrological world history based on conjunctions of Jupiter and Saturn. A few fragments are extant as quotations by the Christian astrologer Ibn Hibinta. Liber Messahallaede revoltione liber annorum mundi, a work on revolutions, De rebus eclipsium et de conjunctionibus planetarum in revolutionibus annorm mundi, a work on eclipses. Nativities under its Arabic title Kitab al -