Routledge is a British multinational publisher. It was founded in 1836 by George Routledge, specialises in providing academic books, journals, & online resources in the fields of humanities, behavioural science, education and social science; the company publishes 1,800 journals and 5,000 new books each year and their backlist encompasses over 70,000 titles. Routledge is claimed to be the largest global academic publisher within humanities and social sciences. In 1998, Routledge became a subdivision and imprint of its former rival, Taylor & Francis Group, as a result of a £90 million acquisition deal from Cinven, a venture capital group which had purchased it two years for £25 million. Following the merger of Informa and T&F in 2004, Routledge become a publishing unit and major imprint within the Informa'academic publishing' division. Routledge is headquartered in the main T&F office in Milton Park, Abingdon and operates from T&F offices globally including in Philadelphia, New Delhi and Beijing.
The firm originated in 1836, when the London bookseller George Routledge published an unsuccessful guidebook, The Beauties of Gilsland with his brother-in-law W H Warne as assistant. In 1848 the pair entered the booming market for selling inexpensive imprints of works of fiction to rail travellers, in the style of the German Tauchnitz family, which became known as the "Railway Library"; the venture was a success as railway usage grew, it led to Routledge, along with W H Warne's Brother Frederick Warne, to found the company, George Routledge & Co. in 1851. The following year in 1852, the company gained lucrative business through selling reprints of Uncle Tom's Cabin, which in turn enabled it to pay author Edward Bulwer-Lytton £20,000 for a 10-year lease allowing sole rights to print all 35 of his works including 19 of his novels to be sold cheaply as part of their "Railway Library" series; the company was restyled in 1858 as Routledge, Warne & Routledge when George Routledge's son, Robert Warne Routledge, entered the partnership.
Frederick Warne left the company after the death of his brother W. H. Warne in May 1859. Gaining rights to some titles, he founded Frederick Warne & Co in 1865, which became known for its Beatrix Potter books. In July 1865, George Routledge's son Edmund Routledge became a partner, the firm became George Routledge & Sons. By 1899 the company was running close to bankruptcy. Following a successful restructuring in 1902 by scientist Sir William Crookes, banker Arthur Ellis Franklin, William Swan Sonnenschein as managing director, others, however, it was able to recover and began to acquire and merge with other publishing companies including J. C. Nimmo Ltd. in 1903. In 1912 the company took over the management of Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co. the descendant of companies founded by Charles Kegan Paul, Alexander Chenevix Trench, Nicholas Trübner, George Redway. These early 20th-century acquisitions brought with them lists of notable scholarly titles, from 1912 onward, the company became concentrated in the academic and scholarly publishing business under the imprint "Kegan Paul Trench Trubner", as well as reference and mysticism.
In 1947, George Routledge and Sons merged with Kegan Paul Trench Trubner under the name of Routledge & Kegan Paul. Using C. K Ogden and Karl Mannheim as advisers the company was soon known for its titles in philosophy and the social sciences. In 1985, Routledge & Kegan Paul joined with Associated Book Publishers, acquired by International Thomson in 1987. Under Thomson's ownership, Routledge's name and operations were retained, and, in 1996, a management buyout financed by the European private equity firm Cinven saw Routledge operating as an independent company once again. Just two year Cinven and Routledge's directors accepted a deal for Routledge's acquisition by Taylor & Francis Group, with the Routledge name being retained as an imprint and subdivision. In 2004, T&F became a division within Informa plc after a merger. Routledge continues as a primary publishing unit and imprint within Informa's'academic publishing' division, publishing academic humanities and social science books, reference works and digital products.
Routledge has grown as a result of organic growth and acquisitions of other publishing companies and other publishers' titles by its parent company. Humanities and social sciences titles acquired by T&F from other publishers are rebranded under the Routledge imprint; the famous English publisher Fredric Warburg was a commissioning editor at Routledge during the early 20th century. Novelist Nina Stibbe, author of Love, worked at the company as a commissioning editor in the 1990s. Routledge has published many of the greatest thinkers and scholars of the last hundred years, including Adorno, Butler, Einstein, Freud, Jung, Levi-Strauss, McLuhan, Popper, Russell and Wittgenstein; the republished works of these authors have appeared as part of the Routledge Classics and Routledge Great Minds series. Competitors to the series are Verso Books' Radical Thinkers, Penguin Classics and Oxford World's Classics. Taylor and Francis closed down the Routledge print encyclopaedia division in 2006; some of its publications were: Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, by Edward Craig, in 10 volumes, but now online.
Encyclopedia of Ethics, by Lawrence C. Becker and Charlotte B. Becker, in three volumes. Reference Works by Europa Publications, published by Routledge: Europa World Year Book. International Who's Who. Europ
Morgan Richard Tsvangirai was a Zimbabwean politician, Prime Minister of Zimbabwe from 2009 to 2013. He was President of the Movement for Democratic Change – Tsvangirai and a key figure in the opposition to former President Robert Mugabe. Tsvangirai was the MDC candidate in the controversial 2002 presidential election, losing to Mugabe, he contested the first round of the 2008 presidential election as the MDC-T candidate, taking 47.8% of the vote according to official results, placing him ahead of Mugabe, who received 43.2%. Tsvangirai claimed to have won a majority and said that the results could have been altered in the month between the election and the reporting of official results. Tsvangirai planned to run in the second round against Mugabe, but withdrew shortly before it was held, arguing that the election would not be free and fair due to widespread violence and intimidation by government supporters that led to the deaths of 200 people, he sustained non-life-threatening injuries in a car crash on 6 March 2009 when heading towards his rural home in Buhera.
His first wife, Susan Tsvangirai, was killed in the head-on collision. As the 2017 Zimbabwean coup d'état occurred, Tsvangirai asked Mugabe to step down, he hoped that an all-inclusive stakeholders' meeting to chart the country’s future and an internationally supervised process for the forthcoming elections would create a process that would take the country towards a legitimate regime. On 14 February 2018, Tsvangirai died at the age of 65 after suffering from colorectal cancer. Tsvangirai was born in the Buhera area in Southern Rhodesia, to Karanga Shona parentage through his father Dzingirai-Chibwe Tsvangirai and mother Lydia Tsvangirai, he is the eldest of nine children, the son of a communal farmer, mine worker and bricklayer. He completed his primary education at St. Marks Goneso Primary School Hwedza, was transferred by his father to Chikara Primary School Gutu to Silveira, he completed his secondary education at Gokomere High School. After leaving school with 8 Ordinary levels, in April 1972 he landed his first job as a trainee weaver for Elastics & Tapes textile factory in Mutare.
In 1974 an old school mate from Silveira encouraged Morgan to apply for an advertised job as an apprentice for Anglo America's Bindura's Nickel Mine in Mashonaland Central. He spent ten years at the mine, his rural home was Buhera, 220 km south east of Harare. Tsvangirai married his first wife, Susan, in 1978; the couple had six children during their 31-year marriage, which ended with her death in the 2009 car crash. In 2011 Locardia Karimatsenga claimed that Tsvangirai married her in a customary ceremony in 2010, she had been seeking maintenance payments of £10,000 a month to keep up the lifestyle to which, she said in court papers, she had become accustomed. A year his love life made headlines again after a 23-year-old woman bore him a child and he refused to support the baby until she threatened to take him to court, he married his second wife, Elizabeth Macheka mother of three, on 15 September 2012. Upon Zimbabwean independence in 1980, aged 28, joined the ascendent ZANU–PF party, led by Robert Mugabe, who would become his biggest political rival.
Tsvangirai is reported to have been an ardent Mugabe supporter and to have risen "swiftly in the hierarchy" becoming one of the party's senior officials. He is known for his role in the Zimbabwean trade union movement, where he held the position of branch chairman of the Associated Mine Workers' Union and was elected into the executive of the National Mine Workers' Union. In 1989 he became the Secretary-General of the Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions, the umbrella trade union organisation of Zimbabwe. Tsvangirai led the ZCTU away from the ruling ZANU-PF; as his power and that of the movement grew, his relationship with the government deteriorated. Three years after coming to power, Robert Mugabe ordered the 5th Brigade, a military unit specially trained by North Korea, to a massacre in Matabeleland in co-operation with the Minister of Defence Enos Nkala, led by Air Marshal Perence Shiri because of suspicion of an alleged counter-revolution being planned by Joshua Nkomo; the operation was code named Gukurahundi.
It is noted that Tsvangirai as the youth Chairperson of ZANU Jonwge was pivotal in the attacks of ZAPU supporters in Matabeleland. Tsvangirai would use Gukurahundi against ZANU and to drum up support in Matabeleland. Tsvangirai has periodically toured the mass graves of the victims in Tsholotsho, Lupane and other places in rural Matabeleland. Addressing villagers in Maphisa in 2001 he said: This was a barbaric operation by ZANU-PF, it should never have happened. It was a sad episode in our history and the MDC will want to see justice being done if it comes to power; such human rights abuses should be revisited and those responsible will have to account for their actions. The National Constitutional Assembly, established in 1997, was chaired by a Moderator, its day-to-day executive was run by a Task Force. Tsvangirai chaired the Task Force. Serving with Tsvangirai in the Task Force were activists that included Lovemore Madhuku, Welshman Ncube, Everjoice Win, Brian Kagoro, Tendai Biti and Priscilla Misihairabwi.
The NCA gathered individual Zimbabwean citizens and civic organisations including labour movements and youth groups, women's groups, business groups and human rights organisations. These individuals and groups formed the NCA to campaign for constitutional refo
Gwyneth Williams is the controller of BBC Radio 4. She attended St Hugh's College, Oxford. Williams joined the BBC World Service in 1976 as a trainee, having worked as researcher at the Overseas Development Institute. In the 1980s she became producer and duty editor of BBC Radio 4's The World Tonight, Deputy Editor, Special Current Affairs Programmes, responsible for broadcasting general elections and other major events. In 1994 as Editor and Social Programmes she launched current affairs programmes on BBC Radio Five Live and became Head of Radio Current Affairs and editor of the BBC Reith Lectures – responsible for the department that produced such programmes as File On 4, From Our Own Correspondent, Crossing Continents, 5 Live Report, Money Box and In Business. In 2007 she returned to the World Service as Director of English Networks and News, responsible for all of the service's English-language programming, until she was made redundant in 2010. Williams took over from former Radio 4 controller Mark Damazer in September 2010.
Her job includes responsibility for BBC Radio 4 Extra, which under her tenure has been rebranded from BBC Radio 7. Her salary was reported to be £175,000 - a 20% reduction on that of her predecessor; the BBC website states her salary to be £183,618. On 18 November 2011, she was interviewed by Roger Bolton on the Radio 4 programme Feedback about the changes she had made to Radio 4, it was pointed out on the programme that she had caused the biggest changes to Radio 4 for ten years. The changes for which she was responsible included extending the length of The World at One to 45 minutes, reducing the number of history programmes but increasing Radio 4's coverage of science. In January 2019 it was announced that Williams was due to leave the corporation after 43 years
Rhodesian Bush War
The Rhodesian Bush War—also called the Second Chimurenga and the Zimbabwe War of Liberation—was a civil conflict from July 1964 to December 1979 in the unrecognised country of Rhodesia. The conflict pitted three forces against one another: the Rhodesian government, led by Ian Smith; the war and its subsequent Internal Settlement, signed in 1978 by Smith and Muzorewa, led to the implementation of universal suffrage in June 1979 and the end of white minority rule in Rhodesia, renamed Zimbabwe Rhodesia under a black majority government. However, this new order failed to win international recognition and the war continued. Neither side achieved a military victory and a compromise was reached. Negotiations between the government of Zimbabwe-Rhodesia, the UK Government and Mugabe and Nkomo's united "Patriotic Front" took place at Lancaster House, London in December 1979, the Lancaster House Agreement was signed; the country returned temporarily to British control and new elections were held under British and Commonwealth supervision in March 1980.
ZANU won the election and Mugabe became the first Prime Minister of Zimbabwe on 18 April 1980, when the country achieved internationally recognised independence. The origin of the war in Rhodesia can be traced to the conquest of the region by the British South Africa Company in the late-19th century, the dissent of native leaders who opposed foreign rule. Britons began settling in Southern Rhodesia from the 1890s, while it was never accorded full dominion status, these settlers governed the country after 1923. In his famous "Wind of Change" speech, UK Prime Minister Harold Macmillan revealed Britain's new policy to only permit independence to its African colonies under majority rule, but many white Rhodesians were concerned that such immediate change would cause chaos as had resulted in the former Belgian Congo after its independence in 1960. Britain's unwillingness to compromise led to Rhodesia's unilateral declaration of independence on 11 November 1965. Although Rhodesia had the private support of neighbouring South Africa and Portugal, which still owned Mozambique, it never gained formal diplomatic recognition from any country.
Although the vote in Rhodesia was constitutionally open to all, regardless of race, property requirements left many blacks unable to participate. The new 1969 constitution reserved eight seats in the 66 seat parliament for "Non-Europeans" only, with a further eight reserved for tribal chiefs. Amidst this backdrop, African nationalists advocated armed struggle to bring about black rule denouncing the wealth disparity between the races. Two rival nationalist organisations emerged in August 1963: the Zimbabwe African People's Union and the Zimbabwe African National Union, after disagreements about tactics, as well as tribalism and personality clashes. ZANU and its military wing ZANLA were headed by Robert Mugabe and consisted of Shona tribes. ZAPU and its military wing ZIPRA consisted of Ndebele under Joshua Nkomo. Cold War politics played into the conflict; the Soviet Union supported ZIPRA and China supported ZANLA. Each group fought a separate war against the Rhodesian security forces, the two groups sometimes fought against each other as well.
In June 1979, the governments of Cuba and Mozambique offered direct military help to the Patriotic Front, but Mugabe and Nkomo declined. Other foreign contributions included from North Korea military officials who taught Zimbabwean militants to use explosives and arms in a camp near Pyongyang. By April 1979, 12,000 ZANLA guerrillas were training in Tanzania and Libya while 9,500 of its 13,500 extant cadres operated in Rhodesia. On the other side of the conflict, South Africa clandestinely gave material and military support to the Rhodesian government; the Bush War occurred within the context of regional Cold War in Africa, became embroiled in conflicts in several neighbouring countries. Such conflicts included the Angolan War of Independence and Angolan Civil War, the Mozambican War of Independence and Mozambican Civil War, the South African Border War, the Shaba I and Shaba II conflicts; the conflict was seen by the nationalist groups and the UK Government of the time as a war of national and racial liberation.
The Rhodesian government saw the conflict as a fight between one part of the country's population on behalf of the whole population against several externally financed parties made up of predominantly Black radicals and communists. The Nationalists considered their country occupied and dominated by a foreign power, namely Britain, since 1890; the British government, in the person of the Governor, had indirectly ruled the country from 1923, when it took over from the British South Africa Company and granted self-governing status to a locally elected government, made up predominantly of whites. Ian Smith's Rhodesian Front party was elected to power in 1962 and unilaterally declared independence on 11 November 1965 to preserve what it saw as the self-government it had possessed since 1923; the Rhodesian government contended that it was defending Western values, the rule of law and democracy by fighting Communists. The Smith administration claimed that the legitimate voice of the black Shona and Ndebele population were the traditional chiefs, n
Neoliberalism or neo-liberalism is the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism and free market capitalism. While it is most associated with such ideas, the defining features of neoliberalism in both thought and practice has been the subject of substantial scholarly discourse; these ideas include economic liberalization policies such as privatization, deregulation, free trade and reductions in government spending in order to increase the role of the private sector in the economy and society. These market-based ideas and the policies they inspired constitute a paradigm shift away from the post-war Keynesian consensus which lasted from 1945 to 1980. English-speakers have used the term "neoliberalism" since the start of the 20th century with different meanings, but it became more prevalent in its current meaning in the 1970s and 1980s, used by scholars in a wide variety of social sciences as well as by critics. Modern advocates of free market policies avoid the term "neoliberal" and some scholars have described the term as meaning different things to different people as neoliberalism "mutated" into geopolitically distinct hybrids as it travelled around the world.
As such, neoliberalism shares many attributes with other concepts that have contested meanings, including democracy. The definition and usage of the term have changed over time; as an economic philosophy, neoliberalism emerged among European liberal scholars in the 1930s as they attempted to trace a so-called "third" or "middle" way between the conflicting philosophies of classical liberalism and socialist planning. The impetus for this development arose from a desire to avoid repeating the economic failures of the early 1930s, which neoliberals blamed on the economic policy of classical liberalism. In the decades that followed, the use of the term "neoliberal" tended to refer to theories which diverged from the more laissez-faire doctrine of classical liberalism and which promoted instead a market economy under the guidance and rules of a strong state, a model which came to be known as the social market economy. In the 1960s, usage of the term "neoliberal" declined; when the term re-appeared in the 1980s in connection with Augusto Pinochet's economic reforms in Chile, the usage of the term had shifted.
It had not only become a term with negative connotations employed principally by critics of market reform, but it had shifted in meaning from a moderate form of liberalism to a more radical and laissez-faire capitalist set of ideas. Scholars now tended to associate it with the theories of Mont Pelerin Society economists Friedrich Hayek, Milton Friedman, James M. Buchanan, along with politicians and policy-makers such as Margaret Thatcher, Ronald Reagan and Alan Greenspan. Once the new meaning of neoliberalism became established as a common usage among Spanish-speaking scholars, it diffused into the English-language study of political economy. By 1994, with the passage of NAFTA and with the Zapatistas' reaction to this development in Chiapas, the term entered global circulation. Scholarship on the phenomenon of neoliberalism has been growing over the last couple of decades. An early use of the term in English was in 1898 by the French economist Charles Gide to describe the economic beliefs of the Italian economist Maffeo Pantaleoni, with the term "néo-libéralisme" existing in French, the term was used by others including the classical liberal economist Milton Friedman in a 1951 essay.
In 1938 at the Colloque Walter Lippmann, the term "neoliberalism" was proposed, among other terms, chosen to be used to describe a certain set of economic beliefs. The colloquium defined the concept of neoliberalism as involving "the priority of the price mechanism, free enterprise, the system of competition, a strong and impartial state". To be "neoliberal" meant advocating a modern economic policy with state intervention. Neoliberal state interventionism brought a clash with the opposing laissez-faire camp of classical liberals, like Ludwig von Mises. Most scholars in the 1950s and 1960s understood neoliberalism as referring to the social market economy and its principal economic theorists such as Eucken, Röpke, Rüstow and Müller-Armack. Although Hayek had intellectual ties to the German neoliberals, his name was only mentioned in conjunction with neoliberalism during this period due to his more pro-free market stance. During the military rule under Augusto Pinochet in Chile, opposition scholars took up the expression to describe the economic reforms implemented there and its proponents.
Once this new meaning was established among Spanish-speaking scholars, it diffused into the English-language study of political economy. According to one study of 148 scholarly articles, neoliberalism is never defined but used in several senses to describe ideology, economic theory, development theory, or economic reform policy, it has become a term of condemnation employed by critics and suggests a market fundamentalism closer to the laissez-faire principles of the paleoliberals than to the ideas of those who attended the colloquium. This leaves some controversy as to the precise meaning of the term and its usefulness as a descriptor in the social sciences as the number of different kinds of market economies have proliferated in recent years. Another center-left movement from modern American liberalism that used the term "neoliberalism" to describe its ideology formed in the United States in the 1970s. According to David Brooks, prominent neoliberal politicians included Al Gore and Bill Clinton of the Democratic Party of the United States.
The neoliberals coalesced around The New Republic and the Washington Monthly. The "godfather" of this
White people in Zimbabwe
White Zimbabweans are people from the southern African country Zimbabwe who are White. In linguistic and historical terms, these Zimbabweans of European ethnic origin are divided between the English-speaking descendants of British and Irish settlers, the Afrikaans-speaking descendants of Afrikaners from South Africa, those descended from Greek and Portuguese settlers. A small number of ethnic Europeans first came to Zimbabwe the former British colony of Southern Rhodesia, as settlers during the late-nineteenth century. A steady migration of white people continued for the next 75 years; the white population of Zimbabwe reached a peak of about 296,000 in 1975, representing just over 8% of the population. It fell to around 120,000 in 1999 and to less than 50,000 in 2002; the white population of Zimbabwe was listed as 28,732 in the 2012 census. Present day Zimbabwe was selected as a settlement colony by British South African and Afrikaner colonists from the 1890s onwards, following the subjugation of the Matabele, Shona nations by the British South Africa Company.
The early white settlers came in search of mineral resources, finding deposits of coal, nickel and gold. They found some of the best farmland in Africa; the central part of Zimbabwe is a plateau which varies in altitude between 900 and 1,500 m above sea level. This gives the area a sub-tropical climate, conducive to European settlement and agricultural practices. Over 3,000 white soldiers who assisted in the BSAC takeover of the country were given land grants of 1,200 hectares or more, black people living on the land became tenants. Land Apportionment and Tenure Acts reserved extensive low-rainfall areas for black-only tribal-trust lands and high rainfall areas for white ownership, which gave rise to cases of black people being excluded from their own land. White settlers were attracted to Rhodesia by the availability of tracts of prime farmland that could be purchased from the state at low cost; this resulted in a major feature of the Rhodesian economy—the "white farm". The white farm was a large mechanised estate, owned by a white family and employing hundreds of black people.
Many white farms provided housing and clinics for black employees and their families. At the time of independence in 1980, over 40% of the country's farming land was contained within 5,000 white farms, it was claimed that these farms provided 40% of the country's GDP and up to 60% of its foreign earnings. Major export products included tobacco, sugar and maize; the minerals sector was important. Gold, asbestos and chrome were mined by foreign-owned concerns such as Lonrho and Anglo American; these operations were run by white managers and foremen. The Census of 3 May 1921 found that Southern Rhodesia had a total population of 899,187, of whom 33,620 were Europeans, 1,998 were Coloured, 1,250 Asiatics, 761,790 Bantu natives of Southern Rhodesia and 100,529 Bantu aliens; the following year, Southern Rhodesians rejected, in a referendum the option of becoming a province of the Union of South Africa. Instead, the country became a self-governing British colony, it never gained full dominion status, although unlike other colonies it was treated as a de facto dominion, with its Prime Minister attending the Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conferences.
In 1891, before Southern Rhodesia was established as a territory, it was estimated that there were about 1,500 Europeans residing there. This number grew to around 75,000 in 1945. In the period 1945 to 1955 the White population doubled to 150,000. During that decade, 100,000 Black people were forcibly resettled from farming land designated for White ownership. However, some members of the White farming community opposed the forced removal of Black people from land designated for White ownership and some favoured the handover of underutilised "White land" to Black farmers. For example, in 1947, Wedza White farmer Harry Meade unsuccessfully opposed the eviction of his Black neighbour Solomon Ndawa from a 200-hectare irrigated wheat farm. Meade represented Ndawa at hearings of the Land Commission and attempted to protect Ndawa from abusive questioning. Large-scale White emigration to Rhodesia did not begin until after the Second World War, at its peak in the late-1960s Rhodesia's white population consisted of as many as 270,000.
There were influxes of White immigrants from the 1940s through to the early-1970s. The most conspicuous group were former British servicemen in the immediate post-war period, but many of the new immigrants were refugees from Communism in Europe, others were former service personnel from British India, others came from Kenya, the Belgian Congo, Zambia and Mozambique. For a time, Rhodesia provided something of a haven for White people who were retreating from decolonisation elsewhere in Africa and Asia. Post-World War II Rhodesian White settlers were considered different in character from earlier Rhodesian settlers and those from other British colonies, such as Kenya, where settlers were perceived to be drawn from'the officer class" and from the British landowning class. By contrast, settlers in Rhodesia after the Second World War were perceived as being drawn from lower social strata and were treated accordingly by the British authorities.
International Trade Union Confederation
The International Trade Union Confederation is the world's largest trade union federation. It was formed on 1 November 2006, out of the merger of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions and the World Confederation of Labour; the Founding Congress of the ITUC was held in Vienna and was preceded by the dissolution congresses of both the ICFTU and the WCL. The ITUC has three main regional organizations – the Asia-Pacific Regional Organization, the American Regional Organization, the African Regional Organization; the Trade Union Development Cooperation Network is an initiative of the ITUC whose main objective is to bring the trade union perspective into international development policy debates and improve the coordination and effectiveness of trade union development cooperation activities. The ITUC represents 207 million workers through its 331 affiliated organizations within 163 countries and territories. Sharan Burrow is the current General Secretary; the ITUC traces its origins back to the First International and in 2014 commemorated the 150th anniversary of the founding of the International Working Men's Association at its own world congress held in Berlin.
In 2014, the ITUC debuted the Global Rights Index, which ranks nations on 97 metrics pertaining to workers' rights, such as freedom from violent conditions and the right to strike and unionise. The founding congress of the ITUC was held from 1 to 3 November 2006 in Austria; the first day of the congress saw the formal creation of the ITUC followed by an address by Juan Somavia, the Director-General of the International Labour Organization. Day two included Pascal Lamy, the Director-General of the World Trade Organization responding to panel discussions on the impact of globalisation, including the topics "Cohesion and chaos - the global institutions" and "Global unions - global companies". Technical difficulties limited Lamy's satellite video link participation. Leadership and officers were elected on the final day of the congress. Guy Ryder, the former general secretary of the ICFTU, was elected to the same position in the new organisation. Sharan Burrow was elected president. A Governing Council was established, with 70 elected members, 8 additional seats reserved for youth and women’s representatives.
A Council of Global Unions was formed on the final day of the congress. It was established jointly with ten global union federations and the Trade Union Advisory Committee to the OECD; the Council will enable us to mobilize global membership around political and strategic initiatives and actions in order to confront global forces that work against the interests of working people and families. The second congress of the ITUC was held from 21 to 25 June 2010 in Canada. On 25 June 2010, at the conclusion of the congress, Sharan Burrow was elected General Secretary, succeeding Guy Ryder. In anticipation of her election, Burrow had resigned from her position as President of the Australian Council of Trade Unions effective 1 July 2010. Speaking to the Congress after her election, Burrow paid tribute to her predecessor and emphasised the continuing role of organised labour in the world's emergence from the Global Financial Crisis, she made special mention of the significance of her election as the first female leader of the world's largest trade union: I am a warrior for woman and we still have work to ensure the inclusion of women in the work place and in our unions.
The struggles for women are multiple – too within their families for independence in the workplace for rights and equal opportunity, in their unions for access and representation and as union leaders. But the investment in and participation of women is not only a moral mandate it is an investment in democracy and a bulwark against fundamentalism and oppression. Organising woman is and must continue to be a priority for the ITUC; the Pan-European Regional Council, a European trade union organisation within the ITUC was formed 19 March 2007. It consists of a total membership of 87 million, it works with the European Trade Union Confederation, Bernadette Ségol is the general secretary of both organisations. The ITUC raises capital through charging dues to its member organisations. Global union federation List of federations of trade unions World Federation of Trade Unions General Confederation of Trade Unions Decent work Fabio Bertini, Gilliatt e la piovra. Il sindacalismo internazionale dalle origini ad oggi, Aracne Ed Mustill, The Global Labour Movement: An Introduction, a short guide to the global union federations, the ITUC, other international bodies Official website "Workers of the world unite in Vienna".
WikiLeaks. 9 November 2006. WikiLeaks cable: 06VIENNA3297. Retrieved 8 July 2015