The stone-carved Zimbabwe Bird is the national emblem of Zimbabwe, appearing on the national flags and coats of arms of both Zimbabwe and Rhodesia, as well as on banknotes and coins. It represents the bateleur eagle or the African fish eagle; the bird's design is derived from a number of soapstone sculptures found in the ruins of the ancient city of Great Zimbabwe. It is now the definitive icon of independent Zimbabwe with Matenga listing over 100 organisations which now incorporate the Bird in their logo; the original carved birds are from the ruined city of Great Zimbabwe, built by ancestors of the Shona, starting in the 11th century and inhabited for over 300 years. The ruins, after which modern Zimbabwe was named, cover some 730 hectares and are the largest ancient stone construction in sub-Saharan Africa. Among its notable elements are the soapstone bird sculptures, about 40 centimetres tall and standing on columns more than 90 cm tall, which were installed on walls and monoliths within the city.
They are unique to Great Zimbabwe. Various explanations have been advanced to explain the symbolic meaning of the birds. One suggestion is that each bird was erected in turn to represent a new king, but this would have required improbably long reigns. More the Zimbabwe birds represent sacred or totemic animals of the Shona – the bateleur eagle, held to be a messenger from Mwari and the ancestors, or the fish eagle which it has been suggested was the original totem of the Shona. In 1889 a European hunter, Willi Posselt, travelled to Great Zimbabwe after hearing about it from another European explorer, Karl Mauch, he climbed to the highest point of the ruins despite being told that it was a sacred site where he should not trespass, found the birds positioned in the centre of an enclosure around an apparent altar. He wrote: Each one, including its plinth, had been hewn out of a solid block of stone and measured 4 feet 6 inches in height. There was a stone shaped like a millstone and about 18 inches in diameter, with a number of figures carved in the border.
I selected the best specimen of the bird stones, the beaks of the remainder being damaged, decided to dig it out. But while doing so, Andizibi and his followers became excited and rushed around with their guns and assegais. I expected them to attack us. However, I went on with my work but told Klass, who had loaded two rifles, to shoot the first man he saw aiming at either of us. Posselt compensated Andizibi with a payment of blankets and "some other articles"; as the bird on its pedestal was too heavy for him to carry, he hacked it off and hid the pedestal with the intention of returning to retrieve it. He subsequently sold his bird to Cecil Rhodes, who mounted it in the library of his Cape Town house, Groote Schuur, decorated the house's stairway with wooden replicas. Rhodes had stone replicas made, three times the size of the original, to decorate the gates of his house in England near Cambridge. A German missionary came to own the pedestal of one bird, which he sold to the Ethnological Museum in Berlin in 1907.
Rhodes' acquisition of Posselt's bird prompted him to commission an investigation of the Great Zimbabwe ruins by James Theodore Bent, which took place in 1891 following the British South Africa Company's invasion of Mashonaland. Bent recorded that there were eight birds, six large and two small, that there had originally been more as there were several additional stone pedestals of which the tops had been broken off; the colonists erroneously attributed Great Zimbabwe to ancient Mediterranean builders, believing native Africans to be incapable of constructing such a complex structure. Bent attributed the birds, wholly erroneously, to the Phoenicians. In 1981, a year after the attainment of independence in Zimbabwe, the South African government returned four of the sculptures to the country in exchange for a world-renowned collection of hymenoptera housed in Harare. In 2003, the German museum returned its portion of the bird's pedestal to Zimbabwe; the birds were displayed for a while in the Natural History Museum in Bulawayo and the Museum of Human Sciences in Harare, but are now housed in a small museum on the Great Zimbabwe site.
The Zimbabwe bird has been a symbol of Zimbabwe and its predecessor states since 1924. The crest of Southern Rhodesia's coat of arms incorporated the Zimbabwe bird, over time the bird became a widespread symbol of the colony; the paper money and coins of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, issued by the Bank of Rhodesia and Nyasaland displayed the bird, as did the Flag of Rhodesia. The flag and state symbols of modern Zimbabwe continue to feature the Zimbabwe Bird, it is now the definitive icon of independent Zimbabwe with Matenga listing over 100 state and sporting organisations which incorporate the Bird in their emblems and logos
Arthur W. Walker
Major Arthur Walker HCG and bar SM was a South African Air Force helicopter pilot, twice awarded the Honoris Crux Gold decoration during the South African Border War. The Honoris Crux Gold was the highest military award for bravery awarded to members of the South African Defence Force, he matriculated from King Edward VII School in Johannesburg and went to the Army in 1971. Walker was born in February 1953 in Johannesburg, his grandfather, Arthur Walker I, founded Walkerville and his father, Arthur Walker II, was a Springbok golfer. He obtained his pilot's wings in 1977 and flew for 7 Squadron, Rhodesian Air Force, before re-joining the South African Air Force in 1980. While flying Alouette III helicopters based at AFB Ondangwa in 1981 he was awarded the Honoris Crux Gold for risking his life during a night operation in Angola, by turning on the lights of his helicopter to draw enemy fire away from another helicopter; the citation for the Honoris Crux Gold reads: During January 1981, two Alouettes, with Lieutenant Walker as flight leader, carried out close air support operations resulting in the Alouettes coming under intense enemy artillery and anti-aircraft fire.
He only withdrew. Lieutenant Walker returned to the contact area to provide top cover for a Puma helicopter assigned to casualty evacuation. Again he was subject to heavy enemy anti-aircraft fire. During the withdrawal, the second helicopter called for assistance, yet again Captain Walker returned to provide top cover, drawing all the anti-aircraft fire to his Alouette. His courageous act prevented the loss of an crew. Lieutenant Walker's actions were not only an outstanding display of professionalism, devotion to duty and courage, but constitutes exceptional deeds of bravery under enemy fire and makes him a worthy recipient of the Honoris Crux Gold. In December 1981 he was cited for landing in enemy territory to search for and rescue the crew of a helicopter, shot down; the citation for the Bar to his Honoris Crux Gold reads: During December 1981 Captain Walker was again requested to provide top cover for the evacuation of a wounded soldier. On take-off with the evacuee his number two helicopter was crash-landed.
Without hesitation and with total disregard for his personal safety, Captain Walker landed near the wrecked helicopter and searched for the crew. The situation became suicidal, compelling Captain Walker and his crew to withdraw; when he was airborne he spotted the missing crew and yet again, without hesitation and despite the fact that all enemy fire was now in his direction, he landed and lifted the crew to safety. Through this courageous deed he prevented the loss of two men, his distinguished actions, devotion to duty and courage make him a credit to the South African Defence Force in general, the South African Air Force in particular and makes him a worthy recipient of the Bar to the Honoris Crux Gold. He was awarded the Southern Cross Medal for his work in developing Koevoet, a paramilitary-trained police counter insurgency unit in South-West Africa. Walker died of cancer on 28 March 2016 at the age of 63
Masvingo is a province in southeastern Zimbabwe. It has a population of 1.485 million as of the 2012 census, ranking fifth out of Zimbabwe's ten provinces. Established as Victoria Province by the British South Africa Company, it was one of the five original provinces of Southern Rhodesia. In 1982, two years after Zimbabwean independence, it was renamed Masvingo Province; the Great Zimbabwe national monuments, a world heritage site are located in the northern part of the province near Masvingo City. The province is divided into seven districts, including Masvingo District, which contains the provincial capital Masvingo City. Masvingo Province is bordered by Matabeleland South Province to the southwest, Midlands Province to the northwest, Manicaland Province to the northeast, Mozambique to the southeast, it has an area of 56,566 square kilometres, equal to 14.48% of the total area of Zimbabwe. It is the third-largest in area of Zimbabwe's provinces, after Matabeleland North and Mashonaland West.
A diverse province, the Karanga, a Shona subgroup, form the majority, with minorities of Shangani in the southeast and Ndebele in the west. Its economy is centered around agriculture and tourism. Masvingo Province is home to the Great Zimbabwe ruins, a World Heritage site and major tourist attraction; the town of Masvingo was founded in 1890 and was the first large settlement to be established by the Pioneer Column of the BSAC which makes it the oldest town in Zimbabwe. It was named Fort Victoria after Queen Victoria; the province is populated by members of the Karanga tribe, who are the most populous tribe in Zimbabwe, are a sub-group of the Shona speaking tribes that include the Zezuru and Ndau. Masvingo province, known before 1982 as Victoria province, is in the drier lowveldt area in the south of Zimbabwe; the boundaries were changed in the 1980s. From white settlement until 2000 most of the area was devoted to cattle ranching, with mining and sugar cane growing, communal areas where subsistence farming is carried out.
With the land reforms of the early 21st century large scale cattle and mixed farms are being redistributed to small farmers. Masvingo is the capital of the province. Chiredzi and Triangle are other major towns in the province; the province is dominated by the Save, Runde and Limpopo river systems which all either join or drain directly into the Indian Ocean. The only notable mountain range is the Chimanimani Mountain Range in the east. Kopjes and bald in the hot sun, dot the countryside. Mopane trees, drought tolerant and sturdy, are found throughout the province. Masvingo province is located in the low veld of the country where rainfall is uncertain. A large of the southern part of the province is drought prone, set as region 5 in the country's climatic regions. Most parts of the province, are unfit for agriculture, apart from cattle ranching. Masvingo have most of the educated population in Zimbabwe. Hippo Valley estates in Chiredzi and Triangle use the water from Lake Kyle for irrigation. Despite the aridness, the residents of the province are proud tillers of the earth and like most Bantu tribes in Southern Africa they practise animal husbandry to supplement their diets.
In fact, like the rest of the country, their most prized possessions are cattle, which patriarchs demand as lobola, bride-price, in return for the hand of their daughters in marriage. The status of men in the villages in the province is assessed according to the number of cattle they possess - those with no cattle are not considered men. Cattle owners were dismayed during the drought of 1992 when 90 percent of the cattle in the province died of famine; the province has an area of 56,566 km² and a population of 1.3 million. The Karanga form a majority in the province. In Chiredzi District, there are communities of Shangani people while those of the Ndebele are found on the western edge of the province. To the north-east, are found the Ndau; the white population has declined continuously since independence, heightened during the invasions of white commercial farms in 2000. In fact, the first farm invasion occurred in Masvingo Province and the rest of the country followed suit; the province's leader is a governor appointed by the country's president for a five-year term of office.
The province sends six elected members to the Senate plus a number of chiefs. In addition, twenty six members of parliament, selected from the province's seven districts, are sent to the House of Assembly; the districts are run by the rural district councils, which are composed of members elected from the wards in the district. Masvingo is divided into seven administrative districts, although these can be further divided by the delimitation committee during elections depending on population figures; the districts are Bikita, Chivi and Masvingo in the center of the province, Gutu in the north, Mwenezi, Chiredzi in the south and east respectively. All these seven districts have business centres known as growth points except for Mpandawana, they are as follows with estimation of distance from Masvingo city centre: Masvingo- Nemanwa, Bikita- Nyika, Zaka- Jerera, Gutu- Mupandawana. Masvingo was regarded as a stronghold of ZANU-PF, the ruling party. In the parliamentary elections of 2005, ZANU-PF won all but one district of the fourteen seats up for grabs.
For the election of March, 2008 the seven districts were redistributed into twenty-six constituencies. Tourism is a major contributor to the province's GDP; the busy A1 highway connects the major centers of Beitbridge. The province has a number of attractions. In the e
Zimbabwe the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of 16 million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English and Ndebele the most used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade; the British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia; the state endured a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces. Zimbabwe joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then-government, from which it withdrew in December 2003; the sovereign state is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community, the African Union, the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa.
It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity under the former Rhodesian administration. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator"; the country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état.
On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed. On 30 July 2018 Zimbabwe held its general elections, won by the ZANU-PF party led by Emmerson Mnangagwa. Nelson Chamisa, leading the main opposition party MDC Alliance contested the election results and filed a petition to the Constitution Court of Zimbabwe; the court confirmed Mnangagwa's victory. The name "Zimbabwe" stems from a Shona term for Great Zimbabwe, an ancient ruined city in the country's south-east whose remains are now a protected site. Two different theories address the origin of the word. Many sources hold that "Zimbabwe" derives from dzimba-dza-mabwe, translated from the Karanga dialect of Shona as "houses of stones"; the Karanga-speaking Shona people live around Great Zimbabwe in the modern-day province of Masvingo. Archaeologist Peter Garlake claims that "Zimbabwe" represents a contracted form of dzimba-hwe, which means "venerated houses" in the Zezuru dialect of Shona and references chiefs' houses or graves.
Zimbabwe was known as Southern Rhodesia and Zimbabwe Rhodesia. The first recorded use of "Zimbabwe" as a term of national reference dates from 1960 as a coinage by the black nationalist Michael Mawema, whose Zimbabwe National Party became the first to use the name in 1961; the term "Rhodesia"—derived from the surname of Cecil Rhodes, the primary instigator of British colonisation of the territory during the late 19th century—was perceived by African nationalists as inappropriate because of its colonial origin and connotations. According to Mawema, black nationalists held a meeting in 1960 to choose an alternative name for the country, proposing names such as "Matshobana" and "Monomotapa" before his suggestion, "Zimbabwe", prevailed. A further alternative, put forward by nationalists in Matabeleland, had been "Matopos", referring to the Matopos Hills to the south of Bulawayo, it was unclear how the chosen term was to be used—a letter written by Mawema in 1961 refers to "Zimbabweland" — but "Zimbabwe" was sufficiently established by 1962 to become the preferred term of the black nationalist movement.
In a 2001 interview, black nationalist Edson Zvobgo recalled that Mawema mentioned the name during a political rally, "and it caught hold, and, that". The black nationalist factions subsequently used the name during the Second Chimurenga campaigns against the Rhodesian government during the Rhodesian Bush War of 1964–1979. Major factions in this camp included the Zimbabwe African National Union, the Zimbabwe African People's Union. Archaeological records date human settlement of present-day Zimbabwe to at least 100,000 years ago; the earliest known inhabitants were San people, who left behind arrowheads and cave paintings. The first Bantu-speaking farmers arrived during the Bantu expansion around 2000 years ago. Societies speaking proto-Shona languages fir
New Zealand Defence Force
The New Zealand Defence Force consists of three services: the New Zealand Army, the Royal New Zealand Air Force and the Royal New Zealand Navy. As of 2018 the Commander-in-Chief of the NZDF, Dame Patsy Reddy, Governor-General of New Zealand, exercises power on the advice of the Minister of Defence, Ron Mark, under the Defence Act 1990. A previous Chief of Defence Force, Lieutenant General Tim Keating, had served in the capacity of Vice Chief of Defence Force, was appointed to the top position on 31 January 2014. Mark was appointed Minister of Defence as a member of the Labour-NZ First government following the 2017 New Zealand general election, replacing the former Minister of Defence, Mark Mitchell. Air Marshal Kevin Short took over as Chief of Defence Force on 1 July 2018; the NZDF has announced that Air Vice-Marshal Tony Davies will serve as the next Vice Chief of Defence Force. New Zealand's armed forces have three defence-policy objectives: to defend New Zealand against low-level threats to contribute to regional security to play a part in global security effortsNew Zealand regards its own national defence needs as modest, due to its geographical isolation and benign relationships with neighbours.
As of September 2017 the NZDF had 302 personnel deployed overseas on operations and on UN missions in the South Pacific, Africa and the Middle East areas. After the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, New Zealand's security was dependent on British Imperial troops deployed from Australia and other parts of the empire. By 1841 the settlers those in the New Zealand Company settlement of Wellington, were calling for local militia to be formed. In 1843 a local militia had been formed in Wellington without official sanction; this prompted the Chief Police Magistrate Major Matthew Richmond to order its immediate disbandment. Richmond dispatched 53 soldiers from the 96th Regiment from Auckland to Wellington; these calls. The calls lead to a bill being introduced to the Legislative Assembly in 1844; those present noted their disapproval of the bill. On 22 March 1845 the Flagstaff War broke out. In 1844 a Select Committee of the House of Commons had recommended that a militia, composed of both settlers and native Maori, a permanent native force be set up.
On 25 March 1845, the Militia Ordinance was passed into law. Twenty-six officers were appointed in Auckland, thereby forming the start of New Zealand's own defence force. Major Richmond was appointed commander of the Wellington Battalion of the militia; the newspaper article of the time notes. The Nelson Battalion of Militia was formed 12 August 1845. In June 1845, 75 members of the Auckland Militia under Lieutenant Figg became the first unit to support British Imperial troops in the Flagstaff War, serving as pioneers. Seven militia were wounded in action between 30 June and 1 July 1845. One, a man named Rily died of his wounds; the Auckland Militia was disbanded in August or early September 1845 because of budgetary constraints. Disbandment of the Nelson and Wellington Militias followed much to the dismay of their supporters; those at Nelson under Captain Greenwood decided, regardless of not, to continue training. Trouble in the Hutt Valley, near Wellington, in early March 1846 prompted the new Lieutenant Governor George Grey to proclaim martial law and call out the Hutt Militia.
Following on from this the local paper noted that the No 1 Company of the Wellington Militia had been called out, while the troops stationed in the town had been in the Hutt. The paper further noted; as problems continued in the area at least 160 Militia remained. These were supplemented by volunteers, Maori warriors from the Te Aro pah. On 28 October 1846, with the passing of the Armed Constabulary Ordinance in 1846, a fresh call was made by Mr Donnelly of the Legislature to do away with the Militia because of its expense; however the cost to Britain of maintaining a military force in New Zealand was considerable, prompting a dispatch on 24 November 1846 from The Right Hon Earl Grey to advise Lieutenant Governor George Grey that... the formation of a well-organised Militia and of a force of Natives in the service of Her Majesty, would appear to be the measures most to be adopted. Further pressure in the early 1850s from Britain for removing their forces prompted pleas for them to remain as the Militia were deemed insufficient for the purpose.1854 brought a new threat to the attention of the colony, because up to that time the military focus had been upon internal conflicts between settlers and the native population.
War had broken out between Turkey. This war began to involve the major European powers and exposed New Zealand and Australia to a possible external threat from Russian naval forces. Parliament discussed providing guns at ports around the country for use in the event of a war with a foreign power. By 1858 attention had swung back to local issues with a land dispute in New Plymouth prompting Governor Thomas Gore Brown to call out its militia under Captain Charles Brown. A prelude to what was to become the First Taranaki War and a period of conflict in the North Island until 1872. Parliament revised and expanded the Militia Ordinance, replacing it with the Militia Act 1858; some of the main changes were clauses enabling volunteers to be included under such terms and conditions as the Governor may specify. The act outlined the purposes under which Mi
Rhodesian Air Force
The Rhodesian Air Force was an air force based in Salisbury which represented several entities under various names between 1935 and 1980: serving the British self-governing colony of Southern Rhodesia, it was the air arm of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland between 1953 and 31 December 1963. Named the Royal Rhodesian Air Force from 1954, the "Royal" prefix was dropped in 1970 when Rhodesia declared itself a republic – the official abbreviation changed appropriately; when the internationally recognised country of Zimbabwe came into being in 1980, the RhAF became the Air Force of Zimbabwe. Formed in 1935 under the name Southern Rhodesia Staff Corps Air Unit as a territorial unit, the first regular servicemen with the unit went to Britain for ground crew training in 1936, its first pilots were awarded their flying wings on 13 May 1938. The reservists were posted to Kenya by 28 August. On 19 September 1939, two weeks after the United Kingdom declared war against Germany, the Air Unit became the Southern Rhodesia Air Force, Air Unit flights become Number 1 Squadron SRAF.
In 1939, the Southern Rhodesia government amalgamated the SRAF with the civilian airline Rhodesia And Nyasaland Airways. The ex-RANA aircraft formed the Communication Squadron, which operated internal services within Southern Rhodesia, plus services to South Africa and Mozambique. By January 1940, with Britain at war with Germany, Royal Air Force Air Vice-Marshal Sir Arthur'Bomber' Harris was desperate for trained aircrew and turned for help to Southern Rhodesia. Harris was frustrated by delays launching Commonwealth Air Training Plan stations in Canada, New Zealand and South Africa. Southern Rhodesian Prime Minister Godfrey Huggins recognised an opportunity not just to aid Britain and the Allies, but to boost the domestic economy; the Rhodesian Air Training Group installed aviation infrastructure, trained 10,000 Commonwealth and Allied airmen 1940–45 and provided the stimulus for manufacturing, lacking in the 1920s and 1930s. Southern Rhodesia's textile, metallurgy and food processing industries expanded rapidly.
The SRAF was absorbed into the RAF proper in April 1940 and redesignated No. 237 Squadron RAF. This squadron equipped with Hawker Harts, participated in the East African Campaign against the Italians. On 1 June 1941, the Southern Rhodesian Women's Auxiliary Air Services came into being. British No. 44 Squadron RAF and No. 266 Squadron RAF were assigned the name "" because of the large number of Rhodesian airmen and crew in these units. Rhodesians fought in many of the theatres of World War II, including future prime minister Ian Smith who, after being shot down over Italy behind enemy lines, was able to avoid capture and return to Allied lines. Rhodesian airmen suffered 20 percent fatalities, becoming emblematic of a "nation in arms" ideal that peppered settler nationalism and erupted in the 1960s; the RAF remained until 1954, indirectly assisting Rhodesian aviation, many airmen returned with young families as settlers. The SRAF was re-established in 1947 and two years Huggins appointed a 32-year-old South African-born Rhodesian Spitfire pilot, Ted Jacklin, as air officer commanding tasked to build an air force in the expectation that British African territories would begin moving towards independence, air power would be vital for land-locked Southern Rhodesia.
The threadbare SRAF bought, borrowed or salvaged a collection of vintage aircraft, including six Tiger Moths, six Harvard trainers, an Anson freighter and a handful of De Havilland Rapide transport aircraft, before purchasing a squadron of 22 Mk22 war surplus Spitfires from the RAF which were flown to Southern Rhodesia. Huggins was anxious to maintain the strong wartime links established with the RAF, not only for access to training and new technology but because of his growing concern over the expansionist ideas of the newly established apartheid Afrikaner nationalist regime in South Africa; the booming Rhodesian economy allowed more money to be allocated for new aircraft and aerodrome facilities, growing co-operation with the RAF in the 1950s saw the SRAF operating in Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Cyprus, Jordan, Iraq and South Yemen. Huggins maintained his enthusiasm for air power when he became the first prime minister of the semi-independent Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland known as the Central African Federation comprising Southern Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland.
The CAF was viewed as an experiment, a democratic multiracial alternative to apartheid South Africa, it was expected that the new federal state would become independent within a decade. The SRAF received its first jets, 16 de Havilland Vampire FB9 aircraft. On 15 October 1954 the federal air arm was designated as the "Royal Rhodesian Air Force". In a well-received move aimed to distinguish the RRAF from the South African Air Force, khaki uniforms and army ranks were abandoned in favour of those utilised by other Commonwealth air forces such as the RAF, RCAF, RAAF and RNZAF. Despite efforts to broker a consensus and white Rhodesians complained that the pace of reform was too slow or too fast and by 1961, it became clear that the Federation was doomed. Following the dissolution of the CAF in 1963, the British government granted independence to Northern Rhodesia and Nyasalan