Tourism in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe boasts several tourist attractions, located in every region of the country. Before the economic changes, much of the tourism for these locations came to the Zimbabwean side but now Zambia benefits from the tourism; the Victoria Falls National Park is a tourist attraction in this area and is one of the eight main National Parks in Zimbabwe, largest of, Hwange National Park. The Eastern Highlands are a series of mountainous areas near the border with Mozambique; these hufhlands stretch from Nyanga in the north with the highest peak in Zimbabwe, Mount Nyangani at 2593 metres is located here as well with the Bvumba Mountains further south and the magnificent quartzite Chimanimani range are the southern most slopes. Mt. Binga is the highest of the Chimanimani peaks, it straddles both Zimbabwe. The endemic species of this transfrontier park attract scientists and hikers from all over the world. Views from all of the Nyanga mountains are famed that places as far away as 60–70 km are visible and, on clear days, the town of Rusape can be seen.
Zimbabwe is distinctive in Africa for its large number of medieval era city ruins built in a unique dry stone style. The most famous of these are the Great Zimbabwe ruins in Masvingo which survive from the Kingdom of Zimbabwe era. Other ruins include Khami Ruins, Dhlo-Dhlo and Naletale; the Matobo Hills are an area of granite kopjes and wooded valleys commencing some 35 kilometres south of Bulawayo, southern Zimbabwe. The Hills were formed over 2000 million years ago with granite being forced to the surface, this has eroded to produce smooth "whaleback dwalas" and broken kopjes, strewn with boulders and interspersed with thickets of vegetation. Mzilikazi, founder of the Ndebele nation, gave the area its name, meaning'Bald Heads', they have become famous and a tourist attraction because Cecil John Rhodes famous for his vision that led to foundation of Rhodesia, other early white pioneers like Leander Starr Jameson, Major Allan Wilson, most of the members of the Shangani Patrol are buried in these hills at another site named World's View.
Hwange National Park and Mana Pools, a UNESCO World Heritage site, are some of the best National Parks and safari destinations in the region. The tourism sector in Zimbabwe has been on the rise for past 2 years; the deployment of widespread police roadblocks issuing fines for minor or non-existent infringements has had a negative impact on tourism to the country. In previous years, most visitors arriving to Zimbabwe on short term basis were from the following countries of nationality
In many national currencies, the cent represented by the cent sign is a monetary unit that equals 1⁄100 of the basic monetary unit. Etymologically, the word cent derives from the Latin word "centum" meaning hundred. Cent refers to a coin worth one cent. In the United States, the 1¢ coin is known by the nickname penny, alluding to the British coin and unit of that name. In the European Union, coins designs are chosen nationally, while the reverse and the currency as a whole is managed by the European Central Bank. In Canada, production of the 1¢ coin was ended in 2012. A cent is represented by the cent sign, a minuscule letter "c" crossed by a diagonal stroke or a vertical line: ¢. Cent amounts from 1 cent to 99 cents can be represented as one or two digits followed by the appropriate abbreviation, or as a subdivision of the base unit. Back in the days of typewriters, the cent sign appeared as the shift of the 6 key; the cent sign has not survived the changeover from typewriters to computer keyboards.
There are alternative ways, however, to create the character in most common code pages, including Unicode and Windows-1252: On DOS- or Windows-based computers, hold Alt while typing 0162 or 155 on the numeric keypad. If there is no numeric keypad, as on many laptops, type A2 in Windows Wordpad followed by Alt+X and copy/paste the resulting ¢ into the target document. For the US International keyboard: <Right Alt> <Shift> c. On Macintosh systems, hold ⌥ Option and press 4 on the number row. On Unix/Linux systems with a compose key, Compose+|+C and Compose+/+C are typical sequences; the cent sign has Unicode code point: U+00A2 ¢ CENT SIGN, U+FFE0 ￠ FULLWIDTH CENT SIGN. When written in English, the cent sign follows the amount, in contrast with a larger currency symbol, placed before the amount. For example, 2¢ and $0.02, or 2c and €0.02. Examples of currencies around the world featuring centesimal units called cent, or related words from the same root such as céntimo, centésimo, centavo or sen, are: Argentine peso Aruban florin Australian dollar Barbadian dollar Bahamian dollar Belize dollar Bermudian dollar Bolivian boliviano Brazilian real Brunei dollar Canadian dollar Cayman Islands dollar Chilean peso.
Centavos exist and are considered in financial transactions. Cook Islands dollar Cuban peso East Caribbean dollar Eritrean nakfa Estonian kroon European Union's euro – the coins bear the text "EURO CENT". Greek coins have ΛΕΠΤΑ on the obverse of the others; the actual usage varies depending on the language. Fijian dollar Guyanese dollar Indonesian rupiah Jamaican dollar Kenyan shilling Lesotho loti Liberian dollar Malaysian ringgit Mauritian rupee Mexican peso Moroccan dirham Namibian dollar Netherlands Antillean gulden New Zealand dollar Panamanian balboa Peruvian nuevo sol Philippine peso Seychellois rupee Sierra Leonean leone Singapore dollar South African rand Sri Lankan rupee Surinamese dollar Swazi lilangeni New Taiwan dollar Tanzanian shilling Tongan paʻanga Trinidad and Tobago dollar Ugandan shilling United States dollar Uruguayan peso Zimbabwean dollarExamples of currencies featuring centesimal units not called cent British pound – divided into 100 pence since 1971 Bulgarian lev (as stotinka, Bulgarian: стотинка Chinese Yuan/Renminbi – divided into 100 fēn.
Croatian kuna – divided into 100 lipa Danish krone – divided into 100 øre Estonian mark – divided into 100 penni Indian rupee – divided into 100 paise Israeli new shekel – divided into 100 agorot Macao pataca – divided into 100 avos Macedonian denar – divided into 100 deni Norwegian krone – divided into 100 øre Pakistani rupee – divided into 100 paise Polish złoty – divided into 100 groszy Romanian and Moldovan leu – divided into 100 bani Russian ruble – divided into 100 kopeks Saudi riyal. Examples of currencies which do not feature centesimal units: Costa Rican colón – no fractional denomination in circulation since the 1980s divided into 100 céntimos. Czech koruna – no fractional denomination in circulation divided into 100 hellers Japanese yen – no fractional denomination in circulation divided into 100 sen and 1000 rin. South Korean Won no fractional denomination in circulation divided into 100 jeon. Icelandic króna – no fractional denomination in circulation divided into 100 eyrir. Kuwaiti dinar – divided into 1000 fils Omani rial – divided into 1000 baisa Mauritanian ouguiya – divided into 5 khoums Malagasy ariary – divided into 5 iraimbilanjaExamples of currencies which use the cent symbol for other purpose: Costa Rican colón – The common symbol'¢' is used locally to represent'₡', the proper
Transport in Zimbabwe
The government of Zimbabwe is the main provider of air and road services. The railway operator is National Railways of Zimbabwe. Total: 3,427 km. Narrow gauge: 3,427 km at 1,067 mm gauge, 313 km of, electrified. Note: this includes the 318 km Beitbridge Bulawayo Railway company line. South Africa - yes - same gauge 1,067 mm Botswana - yes - same gauge 1,067 mm Zambia - yes - same gauge 1,067 mm Mozambique - yes - same gauge 1,067 mm UN map UNHCR map There are 88,100 km of classified roads in Zimbabwe and 17,400 km of them are paved; this class is sometimes called "National Roads or Highways". About 5% of the entire road network are primary roads. Primary roads are the most link neighbouring countries. One such road is the Zimbabwean portion of the Trans-African Highway as it passes through western Zimbabwe; this part of the road network plays a major role in the importation and exportation of the country's ware and transit freight. Among the primary roads some roads are classified as Regional Road Corridors, while some are just primary roads.
Regional Road Corridors are numbered R2, R3 and so on. They may be called by their original type and route name like A1, A2, A3 etc. In some cases one type "R" road may be comprise two or more type "A" routes. Ordinary primary roads are numbered P2, P3 etc.. These are primary roads but not convenient for cross-border traffic and services. • R1 = • R2 = • R3 = • R4 = ( A2 • R5= • R6 = • R7 = • R8 = • R9 = Source: • P1 = • P2 =? • P3= P4= P5= • P6= = • P7= • P8= • P9= • P10= • P11= • P12= • P13= • P14= Secondary roads make up 14% of the network in Zimbabwe. Secondary roads link the major centers within the country; these form a dependable network for the movement of goods. Some secondary roads are paved and some are gravel unlike primary roads which are all paved; the primary and secondary roads are collectively the trunk road system. The trunk road system carries 70% of the vehicular traffic. Traffic in question here is measured in vehicle kilometers; the trunk road system is managed by the Department of Roads.
The roads that link rural areas to the secondary road network are called tertiary feeder and access road. These roads are managed by the Rural District Councils; these roads have traffic volumes less than 50 vehicles per day. Together with the unclassified roads and tracks they link rural communities to service centers and health centers; these roads provide government services to reach rural areas. Urban roads make 9% of the road network. Urban roads are managed by urban municipalities. About 0.23 km per square kilometre is the road density in Zimbabwe. This is high compared with many developing countries. Only OECD countries have a higher road density than Zimbabwe. Waterways are not used for commercial transport. There is a pipeline for petroleum products 270 km long. Binga and Kariba are on Lake Kariba. 196 List of airports in Zimbabwe total: 17 Over 3,047 m: 3 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 914 to 1,523 m: 6 total: 179 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 104 under 914 m: 72 Zimbabwe UN Map, showing major transport links
Pretoria is a city in the northern part of Gauteng province in South Africa. It straddles the Apies River and has spread eastwards into the foothills of the Magaliesberg mountains, it is one of the country's three capital cities, serving as the seat of the administrative branch of government, of foreign embassies to South Africa. Pretoria has a reputation for being an academic city with three universities, the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research and the Human Sciences Research Council; the city hosts the National Research Foundation and the South African Bureau of Standards making the city a hub for research. Pretoria is the central part of the Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality, formed by the amalgamation of several former local authorities including Centurion and Soshanguve. There have been proposals to change the name of Pretoria itself to Tshwane, the proposed name change has caused some public controversy. Pretoria is named after the Voortrekker leader Andries Pretorius, within South Africa sometimes called the "Jacaranda City" due to the thousands of jacaranda trees planted in its streets and gardens.
Pretoria was founded in 1855 by Marthinus Pretorius, a leader of the Voortrekkers, who named it after his father Andries Pretorius and chose a spot on the banks of the "Apies rivier" to be the new capital of the South African Republic. The elder Pretorius had become a national hero of the Voortrekkers after his victory over Dingane and the Zulus in the Battle of Blood River; the elder Pretorius negotiated the Sand River Convention, in which the UK acknowledged the independence of the Transvaal. It became the capital of the South African Republic on 1 May 1860; the founding of Pretoria as the capital of the South African Republic can be seen as marking the end of the Boers' settlement movements of the Great Trek. During the First Boer War, the city was besieged by Republican forces in December 1880 and March 1881; the peace treaty which ended the war was signed in Pretoria on 3 August 1881 at the Pretoria Convention. The Second Boer War resulted in the end of the Transvaal Republic and start of British hegemony in South Africa.
The city surrendered to British forces under Frederick Roberts on 5 June 1900 and the conflict was ended in Pretoria with the signing of the Peace of Vereeniging on 31 May 1902 at Melrose House. The Pretoria Forts were built for the defence of the city just prior to the Second Boer War. Though some of these forts are today in ruins, a number of them have been preserved as national monuments; the Boer Republics of the ZAR and the Orange River Colony were united with the Cape Colony and Natal Colony in 1910 to become the Union of South Africa. Pretoria became the administrative capital of the whole of South Africa, with Cape Town the legislative capital and Bloemfontein served as the judicial capital. Between 1910 and 1994, the city was the capital of the province of Transvaal. On 14 October 1931, Pretoria achieved official city status; when South Africa became a republic in 1961, Pretoria remained its administrative capital. Pretoria is situated 55 km north-northeast of Johannesburg in the northeast of South Africa, in a transitional belt between the plateau of the Highveld to the south and the lower-lying Bushveld to the north.
It lies at an altitude of about 1,339 m above sea level, in a warm, fertile valley, surrounded by the hills of the Magaliesberg range. Pretoria has a humid subtropical climate with long hot rainy summers and short cool to cold, dry winters; the city experiences the typical winters of South Africa with cold, clear nights and mild to moderately warm days. Although the average lows during winter are mild, it can get cold due to the clear skies, with nighttime low temperatures in recent years in the range of 2 to −5 °C; the average annual temperature is 18.7 °C. This is rather high, considering the city's high altitude of about 1,339 metres, is due to its sheltered valley position, which acts as a heat trap and cuts it off from cool southerly and south-easterly air masses for much of the year. Rain is chiefly concentrated in the summer months, with drought conditions prevailing over the winter months, when frosts may be sharp. Snowfall is an rare event. During a nationwide heatwave in November 2011, Pretoria experienced temperatures that reached 39 °C, unusual for that time of the year.
Similar record-breaking extreme heat events occurred in January 2013, when Pretoria experienced temperatures exceeding 37 °C on several days. The year 2014 was one of the wettest on record for the city. A total of 914 mm fell up with 220 mm recorded in this month alone. In 2015 Pretoria saw its worst drought since 1982. January 2016 saw Pretoria reach a new record high of 44 °C on 7 January 2016. Depending on the extent of the area understood to constitute "Pretoria", the population ranges from 700,000 to 2.95 million. The main languages spoken in Pretoria are Sepedi, Setswana, Xitsonga and English; the city of Pretoria has the largest white population in Sub-Saharan Africa. Since its founding it has been a major Afrikaner population centre
The Fijian dollar has been the currency of Fiji since 1969 and was the currency between 1867 and 1873. It is abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or alternatively FJ$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies, it is divided into 100 cents. Fiji followed the pattern of South Africa and New Zealand in that when it adopted the decimal system, it decided to use the half pound unit as opposed to the pound unit of account; the choice of the name dollar was motivated by the fact that the reduced value of the new unit corresponded more to the value of the US dollar than it did to the pound sterling. The dollar was reintroduced on 15 January 1969, replacing the Fijian pound at a rate of 1 pound = 2 dollars, or 10 shillings = FJ$1. Despite Fiji having been a republic since 1987, coins and banknotes continued to feature Queen Elizabeth II until 2013, when her portrait was replaced with pictures of plants and animals. In 1969, coins were introduced in denominations of 1c, 2c, 5c, 10c & 20c, with a 50c coin issued in 1975.
The coins had the same sizes and compositions as the corresponding Australian coins, with the 50 cents matching the cupronickel dodecagonal type introduced in Australia in 1969. In 1990, new compositions were introduced, with copper-plated zinc used for the 1¢ and 2¢ coins, nickel-plated steel for the 5c, 10c, 20c & 50c. An aluminium-bronze $1 coin was introduced in 1995. 2009 saw the introduction of a new smaller coinage from 5 to 50 cents. These are made with the three-ply electroplate method; the 1 and 2 cents were discontinued and withdrawn the same year. A thinner brass plated steel $1 coin was introduced in 2010 phasing out the older type. In 2013 Fiji released a whole family of new coins, with fauna themes, without the Queen's portrait; this new series saw the introduction of a $2 coin, replacing the corresponding note just as the $1 coin had done before. This coin faced controversy due to being too mistaken as a $1, as it was only larger of the same color, it was replaced by a larger and thicker Spanish flower shaped $2 coin in 2014.
The metallic content of both the $1 and $2 was changed in 2014 for better durability and resistance to wear after widespread complaints of the coins corroding and "turning black". In 1867, the government treasury issued 1 dollar notes; these were followed by notes for $1, $5, $10, $25 and $50 issued between 1871 and 1873. Between 1871 and 1873, King Seru Epenisa Cakobau issued notes in denominations of 12½¢, 25¢, 50¢, 100¢ and $5. Levuka issued $1 and $5 notes during the 1870s. On 15 January 1969, the government introduced notes in denominations of 50 cents, $1, $2, $10, $20; the Central Monetary Authority took over the issuance of paper money in 1974, issuing the same denominations, although the 50c note was replaced by a coin on 3 March 1975. In 1986, the Reserve Bank of Fiji began issuing notes; the $1 note was replaced by a coin in 1995. The $50 note was introduced in 1996, followed by a $100 note on 10 April 2007. Banknote denominations in circulation as of 2017 are: $5, $10, $20, $50 and $100.
2000 2 Dollars - Millennium. 2000 2,000 Dollars - Millennium. 2017 7 Dollars - Victory of the Fijian 7s rugby team at the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. On 16 August 2005, Finance Minister Ratu Jone Kubuabola announced that the Cabinet had approved the introduction of a $100 banknote and the withdrawal of the 1 and 2 cent coin, as the minting cost exceeded its face value. Kubuabola said that the $100 banknote would measure 156 × 67 mm, with the other banknotes receding at 5 mm towards the lowest banknote denomination; the portrait of Queen Elizabeth II would remain on all banknotes, he added in answer to calls from some politicians to remove the Queen's portrait from the currency after 18 years as a republic. Fiji is, however, a member of the Commonwealth, Queen Elizabeth is recognized as Paramount Chief of the Great Council of Chiefs of Fiji, her portrait was updated to a more mature one, released in 2007, becoming the fourth portrait of the Queen to appear on Fijian currency. In 2009, the demonetization of the 1 and 2 cent coins was made official and a new coin set of 5, 10, 20, 50 cent coins with reduced size were introduced.
The old coins based on the Australian size standard were withdrawn from circulation. The reformed coins were introduced to save on production costs; the new 50 cent piece is round with reeded edges rather than twelve-sided. On 2 March 2011, it was announced that Fiji would drop Queen Elizabeth II from its coins and notes, instead opting for local flora and fauna; the removal was seen as retaliation for Fiji's suspension from its full membership of the Commonwealth. The new set, unveiled on 12 December 2012 and was issued on 2 January 2013; the new series of Fijian coins include a bi-metallic $2 coin intended to replace the note, a thinner, reduced weight $1 coin. The new series of Fijian dollar banknotes feature Fijian flora and fauna to replace the portrait of Queen Elizabeth II. One change in the redesign of the Fijian dollar banknotes was the $5 note. Printed on paper, it is now issued as a polymer banknote; the Reserve Bank of Fiji Governor Savenaca Narube announced on 11 February 2006 that polymer plastic-coated notes would be introduced, featuring images of local people, culture and industry.
The new notes, which would be ready for distribution in early 2007, would vary in size, Narube said. A new series of notes, the "Flora and Fauna" design series, is being introduced starting in 2013 which will feature the country's endemic flora and fa
Cook Islands dollar
The dollar is the currency of the Cook Islands. The dollar is subdivided into 100 cents, although some 50 cent coins carry the denomination as "50 tene"; until 1967, the New Zealand pound was used on the Cook Islands, when it was replaced by the New Zealand dollar. In 1972, coins were issued for the Cook Islands, with banknotes appearing in 1987; the Cook Islands dollar is pegged at par to the New Zealand dollar and both currencies circulate within the Cook Islands. Coins have been struck on different occasions by the Royal Australian Mint, the Franklin Mint, the Perth Mint with the paper currency being printed by De La Rue. In 1972, bronze 1 and 2 cents, cupro-nickel 5-, 10-, 20- and 50-cents, 1-dollar coins were introduced. All were the same size and composition as the corresponding New Zealand coins, the unique crown-sized dollar coin circulated much more than its New Zealand equal; each coin depicted plants and items unique to the Cook Islands. In 1983, production of the 1 and 2-cents coins was ceased and the two coins were demonetized.
In 1987, a smaller, lighter scallop-edged $1 coin with a similar size and shape to the Hong Kong $2 piece. This coin was issued to replace its bulky predecessor. Along with the new dollar, a triangular $2 coin and a dodecagonal $5 piece in equal size and shape to the Australian 50-cents coin were introduced, with the new $1 and $2 composed of cupro-nickel and the $5 coin in aluminium bronze. 2003 saw the reintroduction of a 1-cent coin, this time composed of aluminium rather than bronze and smaller and thicker than the 10-cents piece. These were issued with five different reverses, each commemorating a few of the nation's historical themes. A large, stainless steel 5 cents coin was issued in 2000 centred on the theme of the FAO and food security, depicting the Tangaroa image present on the dollar piece; the Cook Islands has a long reputation for frequent monetary oddities. It was one of the last countries to hold on to large crown-sized coins while elsewhere, coins of such size are ever minted in large enough quantities intended for circulation.
In 1987, with the release of its new $2 piece, Cook Islands became the first modern country to issue a circulating three-sided coin, as well as one of only a handful of countries at the time with a circulating $5 piece. 1988 brought the redesign of the 50-cent piece, quite unique in becoming the first coin in the country to bear a denomination name. Although recognized as "cents" this coin depicts "tene", the native language equivalent to the English word cent, it abandoned its 1 and 2-cent pieces 10 years before both New Zealand and Australia, only to bring the 1 cent back 20 years later. It replaced $1 and $2 notes for coins two years before New Zealand did though the Cook Islands dollar is pegged to the NZD at par. Amidst minting $2 and $5 coins, it issued an oddball $3 note in between the dollar coins as part of the same series. With the reduction in size of New Zealand's 10, 20 and 50-cents coins in 2006, older cent coins began to be phased out in both countries. However, $1, $2, $5 pieces remained in use.
Although a 2010 commemorative Cook Islands coin set in denominations 1-, 2-, 5-, 10-, 20-, 50-cents and a bimetallic $1 have been minted with a similar size to some of the newer New Zealand ones, these coins appear to be collectors issues intended to raise money for the Cook Islands government rather than a true legal tender circulating coin set and it seems unlikely that these will be found anywhere on the islands. As part of a coinage reform, new coins were minted in 2015 by the Royal Australian Mint; the new coins carry similar designs to the older ones with the 10-, 20-, 50-cents struck in nickel-plated steel, while the 1-, 2-, 5-dollar coins are struck in brass-plated steel. The new 5 dollar coin features a traditional vaka instead of a conch; the cents are smaller than previous issues with closer size and weight to the current coins of New Zealand while the new dollars continue to have their distinctive shapes. The obverse of all coins of the Cook Islands depict Queen Elizabeth II; the reverse of standard issue coins are as depicts: A large number of commemorative non circulating collectors coins are issued by the Cook Islands featuring an endless array of themes as the government has a contract in which a coin design can be commissioned and minted with the name "Cook Islands" and dollar units for a fee, making coinage a resource for extra revenue.
Due to exchange schemes involving large stocks of non-circulating commemorative coins, mintages are regulated and not recognized or accepted as legal tender within the Cook Islands. On 20 July 1987, 3, 10, 20 dollar notes were introduced by the government, followed by 50 dollar notes as part of a new series of notes in 1992; the notes all bear images of items and panorama relevant to native Polynesian culture. In June 1995, the government of the Cook Islands began exchanging all of the larger banknotes for New Zealand currency, but the 3-dollar note and all coins remain in use. Cook Islanders are showing a preference for New Zealand's banknotes, however Cooks Islands notes can be acquired at any national bank branch upon request. Economy of the Cook Islands New Zealand dollar Pitcairn Islands dollar Niue dollar
The Zimbabwean dollar was the official currency of Zimbabwe from 1980 to 12 April 2009. During this time, it was subject to periods of above-average inflation, followed by a period of hyperinflation; the Zimbabwean dollar was introduced in 1980 to directly replace the Rhodesian dollar at par, at a similar value to the US dollar. Over time, hyperinflation in Zimbabwe reduced the Zimbabwe dollar to one of the lowest valued currency units in the world, it was redenominated three times, with denominations up to a $100 trillion banknote issued. The final redenomination produced the "fourth dollar", worth 1025 ZWD. Use of the Zimbabwean dollar as an official currency was abandoned on 12 April 2009, it was demonetised in 2015, with outstanding accounts able to be reimbursed until April 30, 2016. In place of the Zimbabwean dollar, currencies including the South African rand, Botswana pula, pound sterling, Indian rupee, Japanese yen, Australian dollar, Chinese yuan, the United States dollar are now used.
The Zimbabwean dollar's predecessor, the Rhodesian dollar, was equal to half of the value of the pound sterling at the time of its adoption. The same practice, used in other Commonwealth countries such as South Africa and New Zealand; the selection of the name was motivated by the fact that the reduced value of the new unit correlated more to the value of the US dollar than to the pound sterling. The main illustration on the obverse of all of the banknotes was the Chiremba Balancing Rocks in Epworth, which were used as a metaphor demonstrating the importance of balancing development and the preservation of the fragile environment; the reverse side of dollar notes illustrated the culture or landmarks of Zimbabwe. The first Zimbabwean dollar replaced the Rhodesian dollar at par; the initial ISO 4217 code was ZWD. At the time of its introduction, the Zimbabwean dollar was worth more than the US dollar in the official exchange market, with 1 ZWD = 1.47 USD, although this did not reflect the actual purchasing power it held.
As a result, in both the official and parallel markets, the currency's value eroded over the years, by July 2006, the parallel market value of the Zimbabwean dollar fell to Z$1,000,000 = GB£1. In October 2005, the head of the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe, Dr. Gideon Gono, announced that Zimbabwe would have a new currency the following year, new banknotes and coins would be produced. However, in June 2006, it was decreed that, for a new currency to be viable, Zimbabwe had to first achieve macro-economic stability. Instead, in August 2006, the first dollar was redenominated to the second dollar at the rate of 1000 first dollars to 1 second dollar. At the same time, the currency was devalued against the US dollar, from 101000 first dollars to 250 second dollars, a decrease of about 60%. ISO assigned a new currency code of ZWN to this redenominated currency, but the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe could not deal with a currency change, so the currency code remained'ZWD'; the revaluation campaign, which Gideon Gono named "Operation Sunrise", was completed on 21 August 2006.
It was estimated. The following year, on 2 February 2007, the RBZ revealed. However, with inflation still exceeding 1000%, the banknotes were kept in storage. During the same month, the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe declared inflation illegal, outlawing any raise in prices on certain commodities between 1 March and 30 June 2007. Officials arrested executives of some Zimbabwean companies for increasing prices on their products, economists reported that "chaos had started to reign and people in the public sector has becoming frantic". On 6 September 2007, the Zimbabwe dollar was devalued again by 92%, creating an official exchange rate of ZW$30,000 to US$1, although the black market exchange rate was estimated to be ZW$600,000 to US$1; as an official exchange rate became more unreliable, the WM/Reuters company introduced a notional exchange rate, based on Purchasing Power Parity utilising the dual listing of companies on the Harare and London Stock exchanges. On 30 July 2008, the dollar was redenominated and given a new currency code of ZWR.
After 1 August 2008, 10 billion ZWN were worth 1 ZWR. Coins valued at Z$5, Z$10 and Z$25 and banknotes worth Z$5, Z$10, Z$20, Z$100, Z$500 were issued in ZWR. Due to frequent cash shortages and the worthless Zimbabwean dollar, foreign currency was legalised as a de facto currency on 13 September 2008 via a special program; this program allowed a number of retailers to accept foreign money. This reflected the reality of the dollarisation of the economy, with many shop keepers refusing to accept Zimbabwe dollars and requesting US dollars or South African rand instead. Despite redenomination, the RBZ was forced to print banknotes of higher values to keep up with surging inflation, with ten zeros reappearing by the end of 2008. On 2 February 2009, the RBZ announced that a further 12 zeros were to be taken off the currency, with 1,000,000,000,000 third Zimbabwe dollars being exchanged for 1 new fourth dollar. New banknotes were introduced with face values of Z$1, Z$5, Z$10, Z$20, Z$50, Z$100 and Z$500.
The banknotes of the fourth dollar circulated alongside the third dollar, which remained legal tender until 30 June 2009. The new ISO cur