The Belize dollar is the official currency in Belize. It is abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or alternatively BZ$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies, it is divided into 100 cents. The official value is pegged at 2 BZ$ = 1 US$; the first dollars to circulate in British Honduras were Spanish dollars, some of which were counterstamped with the monogram of a crowned –G-R– They circulated between 1765 and 1825 at a value of 6 shillings 8 pence. I.e. one third of a pound sterling. In 1825, an imperial order-in-council was passed for the purpose of introducing the British sterling coinage into all the British colonies; this order-in-council made sterling coinage legal tender. This exchange rate was supposed to be based on the value of the silver in the Spanish dollars as compared to the value of the gold in the British sovereigns; the realistic exchange rate would have been $4.80 = £1, so the unrealistic exchange rate, contained in the 1825 order-in-council led to the initiative being a failure.
Remedial legislation came about in 1838 with a new order-in-council, which did not apply to the British North American colonies due to minor rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada. The 1838 legislation introduced the correct rating of $1 = 4s 2d; when the original order-in-council of 1825 was introduced in Jamaica and British Honduras, the local authorities set aside the mistaken rating of $1 = 4s 4d, they unofficially used the alternative rating of $1 = 4s. The Bahamas would adopt this same approach; when the 1838 remedial legislation came into force, sterling was well established in these territories, the Spanish dollar had been barred from circulation, the authorities had no desire to adopt the devaluation that would have been associated with the correct rating of $1 = 4s 2d. The British shilling, referred to locally as a'Maccaroni', was equal to one quarter of a dollar, the system was working satisfactorily. For a period in the middle of the nineteenth century British Honduras operated the British sterling monetary system just like Jamaica and Bermuda.
In the wake of the international silver crisis of 1873 the silver peso of neighbouring Guatemala drove the British currency out of circulation. In an attempt to return British Honduras to the gold standard, influenced by the fact that most imports were coming from New Orleans in the United States, a new currency was introduced into British Honduras based on the US dollar, bringing British Honduras into line with Canada. At that time, the Canadian dollar was on the gold standard, one Canadian dollar was equal to one American dollar; this is the point where the currency history of British Honduras diverges from that of the rest of the British West Indies. In 1885, 1 cent coins were issued, followed by higher denominations in 1894; this year saw the first issue of banknotes by the government and a switch from the silver Guatemalan peso to the gold U. S. dollar as the base for the currency, with $4.866 = 1 pound. The rate of $4.866 as opposed to $4.80 is explained by the fact that when the US dollar was first created in 1792, it was based on the average weight of a selection of worn Spanish dollars.
Hence, the US dollar was at a slight discount in relation to the Spanish dollar. Following the introduction of the US dollar gold standard to British Honduras, the 25 cent coins were referred to as shillings due to their closeness in value to shilling sterling; when the United Kingdom abandoned the gold standard in 1931 the British Honduras dollar continued with its attachment to the US dollar and as such it did not become part of the sterling bloc. At the outbreak of the second world war, unlike in the case of Canada and Hong Kong, British Honduras did join the sterling area though it maintained its fixed exchange rate with respect to the US dollar; the sterling bloc should not be confused with the sterling area. The former was a group of countries who pegged their local currencies to sterling when the United Kingdom abandoned the gold standard in 1931, whereas the latter was an exchange control arrangement introduced as an emergency measure at the outbreak of the second world war. In 1949 the British pound was devalued from US$4.03 to US$2.80.
Since the British Honduras dollar was pegged to the US dollar, this caused a sudden increase in the value of the British Honduran dollar relative to the pound. Protests ensued which led to a devaluation of the British Honduran dollar to a value of 70 U. S. cents. Following Harold Wilson's devaluation of sterling in November 1967, the British Honduran dollar again devalued in sympathy with the British pound to 60 US cents. In 1978, the link to the British pound of BZ$4 = £1 was abandoned and once again the Belize unit was pegged to the US dollar at a fixed rate of BZ$2 = US$1; this new rate which still continues today, reflects the devaluation of 50% in relation to the original parity with the US dollar in 1885, which last applied in 1949. In 1885, bronze 1 cent coins were introduced, followed by silver 5, 10, 25 and 50 cents in 1894; these coins were minted at the Royal Mint and their style was similar to that of other British colonial dollar fractional coinage used in Hong Kong and Canada. Cupronickel replaced silver in the 5 cents in 1907.
This was itself replaced by nickel-brass in 1942. In 1952, cupro-nickel replaced silver in the 25 cent coins, with the same happening for the 50 and 10 cents in 1954 and 1956, respectively. Following a reduction in size in 1954, the 1 cent coin switched to a scalloped shape in 1956. In 1976, aluminium 1 and 5 cent coins were introduced. A nickel-brass, decagonal 1 dollar c
National Heroes Acre (Zimbabwe)
National Heroes Acre or Heroes Acre is a burial ground and national monument in Harare, Zimbabwe. The 57-acre site is situated on a ridge seven kilometres towards Norton, its stated purpose is to commemorate Patriotic Front guerrillas killed during the Rhodesian Bush War, contemporary Zimbabweans whose dedication or commitment to their country justify their interment at the shrine. Persons buried here are considered heroes by the incumbent Zimbabwe African National Union - Patriotic Front regime, which has administered the country since independence at 1980. Indeed, most of the recipients of the'hero status' were known to be Zanu-PF sympathisers; the actual monument itself is modeled after two AK-47s lying back-to-back. The monument is an early example of work of the North Korean firm Mansudae Overseas Projects, it mirrors the design of the Revolutionary Martyrs' Cemetery in Taesong-guyŏk, just outside Pyongyang, North Korea. Work was initiated on the National Heroes' Acre in September 1981, a year after Zimbabwean independence.
Ten Zimbabwean and seven North Korean architects and artists were recruited to map the site's layout. 250 local workers were involved in the project at the height of its construction. Black granite used for the main structures was quarried from Mutoko, about 140 kilometres northeast of the capital known as Salisbury. National Hero Status is the highest honour that can be conferred to an individual by Zimbabwe and the recipient is entitled to be buried at the National Heroes' Acre; as of 7 August 2001, 47 persons had been interred on site. The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier recognises unidentified insurgents who lost their lives during the liberation war. Included is a bronze statue of three guerrillas – one female, two male – a flagpole, an ornate artifice; the Eternal Flame rests atop a tower measuring some forty metres. It embodies the spirit of Zimbabwean independence; the tower is the highest point at Heroes' Acre. Two walls on either side of the monument carry murals depicting the history of Zimbabwe, from pre-colonial times through the Chimurenga, the Rhodesian Bush War, independence under national hero Robert Mugabe.
Near the entrance of Heroes' Acre is a museum dedicated to the rise of African nationalism in Zimbabwe and the anti-colonial struggle, showcasing artifacts, photographs and other paraphernalia from the war and the period shortly after independence Zimbabwe National heroes buried at the shrine. Cephas Cele Felix Ngwarati Muchemwa Sabina Mugabe Edgar Tekere Samuel "Mayor Urimbo" Mamutse Dzingai Mutumbuka Lameck Makanda Daniel Nyamayaro Madzimbamuto Stanford Shamu Joshua Mqabuko Nyongolo Nkomo Simon C. Mazorodze Josiah Magama Tongogara Sally Hayfron Mugabe Jason Ziyaphapha Moyo Alfred Nikita Mangena Herbert Wiltshire Chitepo Leopold Takawira Masotsha Ndlovu T. M. George Silundika Johanna "Mama" MaFuyana Major General Charlse Njodzi Dauramanzi Edson Jonasi Mudadirwa Zvobgo Julia Tukai Zvobgo Simon Vengai Muzenda Lookout Masuku Herbert Sylvester Masiyiwa Ushewokunze Moven Mahachi Ernest R. Kadungure Sydney Donald Malunga Joseph Culverwell General Solomon Rex Nhongo Mutusva- Mujuru Brig General John Zingoni Josiah Tungamirai Brigadier General Gumbo Zororo Duri Christopher Machingura Ushewokunze Sikwili Kohli Moyo Vitalis Zvinavashe Chenjerai Hunzvi Border Gezi Robson Manyika Josiah Mushore Chinamano Swithun Mombeshora Sabina Mugabe Maurice Nyagumbo Bernard Chidzero Elliot Manyika David Ishemunyoro Karimanzira Livingstone Mernard Negidi Muzariri Brig. Gen. Armstrong Gunda Misheck "Makasha" Chando Guy Clutton-Brock John Landa Nkomo Herbert Mahlaba Lt. Gen. Amoth Chingombe Edson Ncube Elias Kanengoni Nathan Shamuyarira Kantibhai Gordanbhai George Lifa Cornelius Nhloko Lieutenant Colonel Harold Chirenda Mike Karakadzai Kumbirayi Kangai Enos Nkala Solomon Chirume Tawengwa George Bodzo Nyandoro Joseph Msika Witness Mangwende Gary Settled Tamayi Hlomayi Magadzire Vivian Mwashita Victoria Chitepo Charles Utete Cephas G. Msipa Peter Chanetsa Shuvai Mahofa
The Balancing Rocks are geomorphological features of igneous rocks found in many parts of Zimbabwe, are noteworthy in Matopos National Park and near the township of Epworth to the southeast of Harare. The formations are of natural occurrence in a balanced state without other support, their popularity grew when the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe featured the formations on the last series of Zimbabwean banknotes. The Balancing Rocks have been used as a metaphorical theme to explain the importance of development coupled with preserving the fragile environment of Zimbabwe as similar to that of the Balancing Rocks found in Epworth, Matopos and in other areas; the Balancing Rock formations are seen throughout Zimbabwe. They were created when ancient granite intrusions were exposed to weathering, as softer rocks around them eroded. Known as Balancing Rock kopjes, they are seen in the form of huge angular blocks of granite "piled on top of and beside one another, forming pillars and stacks, like a child's building blocks."
Two prominent formations are at Epworth. The natural shelters formed by the rock formations in the Matopos Hills, which are part of the Matopos National Park in Central Zimbabwe, have been in existence since the Stone Age; these have contributed to the development of rock art in Southern Africa, development of religious traditions of the people who inhabited the area and to the evolution of the Mwari religion. The land forms here are examples of the granite formations, which dominate Zimbabwe's land form as "crenellated ridges, dwalas or hump-backed domes, what look like randomly heaped boulders which have evolved in various forms over millions of years of weathering." The most impressive Balancing Rock formation in these granite ranges is of the Motabo Hills, the inselberg of "Mother and Child Rock formation". The Balancing Rocks found here are described as the best granite outcrops in "Dali-esque compositions of lichen streaked balancing rocks." A famous balancing rocks formation is located 13 kilometres southeast of Harare, off the Chiremba Road.
These rocks achieved fame when they were featured prominently in the design of Zimbabwe's bank notes. Other balancing rocks formations are located 17 kilometres east of Harare, off the Harare Mutare Road as well as other parts of Zimbabwe such as in Chikanga Mutare; the Balancing Rocks has been depicted on the Zimbabwean 50 Cents coin, various Zimbabwean dollar banknotes, now on the Zimbabwean Bond Notes
Postage stamps and postal history of Zimbabwe
This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe Southern Rhodesia is a landlocked country located in the southern part of Africa between the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers, it is bordered by South Africa to the south, Botswana to the southwest, Zambia to the northwest and Mozambique to the east. Early European explorers and traders, in the area that became Zimbabwe, hired private couriers, or made other arrangements to have their mail carried to the nearest post office which first meant one in the Cape of Good Hope Colony, included the post offices in the South African Republic; the first post was established in 1888 by the British South Africa Company consisting of a route from Gubulawayo in Matabeleland to Mafeking in Bechuanaland, with post offices in Tati and Gubulawayo. Mail was carried by police riders and franked with the stamps of British Bechuanaland. In fact the post offices in Bulawayo and Tati remained under the control of the Bechuanaland Protectorate until 1894.
The post was introduced to Mashonaland and western Manicaland in 1890 by the BSA who had sent occupying forces there, the Pioneer Column accompanied by the company's police force. By 1894 Matabeleland was included within the company's postal system following the First Matabele War. BSA had stamps printed in London in 1890, they arrived in the colony on 1891. Although there was some revenue use of the stamps in 1891, the first postal use began in January 1892 when the postal route through Beira on the east coast was opened up. Over the next couple of years the area controlled by the BSA grew and land north of the Zambezi River was added; the name "Rhodesia" first appeared on BSA stamps in 1909 when four stamps were overprinted with new values. The stamps of the BSA were not, at first, recognized for international postage, letters going through Bechuanaland were franked with additional Bechuanaland stamps until Rhodesia joined the South African Postal Union in mid 1892, while mail sent via Beira required additional Mozambique stamps until 1894.
The area continued to use the stamps of the BSA until 1923 when it became the Crown Colony of Southern Rhodesia. The area north of the Zambezi River remained under the BSA, became Northern Rhodesia. Southern Rhodesia issued its first stamps on 1st April, 1924. In 1953, Southern Rhodesia joined the Federation of Nyasaland. During a short interim period, stamps from Southern Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland could be used in any of the three countries; the Federation dissolved in 1963 and the 10th Anniversary of Federation stamps designed for December release were not issued. In 1964, the country issued a definitive series under Southern Rhodesia; this remained until the Unilateral Declaration of Independence after which it released its stamps under the name of the Rhodesia. Rhodesia unilaterally proclaimed independence in 1965 and issued stamps until 1978. No stamps were issued in 1979 during the Rhodesia-Zimbabwe period; the first stamps with the name Zimbabwe were issued on 18 April 1980, they were a set of definitives and featured the same designs as the previous definitive stamps of Rhodesia.
List of people on stamps of Zimbabwe Postage stamps of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland Revenue stamps of Rhodesia Rhodesian Study Circle
The euro is the official currency of 19 of the 28 member states of the European Union. This group of states is known as the eurozone or euro area, counts about 343 million citizens as of 2019; the euro is the second largest and second most traded currency in the foreign exchange market after the United States dollar. The euro is subdivided into 100 cents; the currency is used by the institutions of the European Union, by four European microstates that are not EU members, as well as unilaterally by Montenegro and Kosovo. Outside Europe, a number of special territories of EU members use the euro as their currency. Additionally, 240 million people worldwide as of 2018 use currencies pegged to the euro; the euro is the second largest reserve currency as well as the second most traded currency in the world after the United States dollar. As of August 2018, with more than €1.2 trillion in circulation, the euro has one of the highest combined values of banknotes and coins in circulation in the world, having surpassed the U.
S. dollar. The name euro was adopted on 16 December 1995 in Madrid; the euro was introduced to world financial markets as an accounting currency on 1 January 1999, replacing the former European Currency Unit at a ratio of 1:1. Physical euro coins and banknotes entered into circulation on 1 January 2002, making it the day-to-day operating currency of its original members, by March 2002 it had replaced the former currencies. While the euro dropped subsequently to US$0.83 within two years, it has traded above the U. S. dollar since the end of 2002, peaking at US$1.60 on 18 July 2008. In late 2009, the euro became immersed in the European sovereign-debt crisis, which led to the creation of the European Financial Stability Facility as well as other reforms aimed at stabilising and strengthening the currency; the euro is managed and administered by the Frankfurt-based European Central Bank and the Eurosystem. As an independent central bank, the ECB has sole authority to set monetary policy; the Eurosystem participates in the printing and distribution of notes and coins in all member states, the operation of the eurozone payment systems.
The 1992 Maastricht Treaty obliges most EU member states to adopt the euro upon meeting certain monetary and budgetary convergence criteria, although not all states have done so. The United Kingdom and Denmark negotiated exemptions, while Sweden turned down the euro in a 2003 referendum, has circumvented the obligation to adopt the euro by not meeting the monetary and budgetary requirements. All nations that have joined the EU since 1993 have pledged to adopt the euro in due course. Since 1 January 2002, the national central banks and the ECB have issued euro banknotes on a joint basis. Euro banknotes do not show. Eurosystem NCBs are required to accept euro banknotes put into circulation by other Eurosystem members and these banknotes are not repatriated; the ECB issues 8% of the total value of banknotes issued by the Eurosystem. In practice, the ECB's banknotes are put into circulation by the NCBs, thereby incurring matching liabilities vis-à-vis the ECB; these liabilities carry interest at the main refinancing rate of the ECB.
The other 92% of euro banknotes are issued by the NCBs in proportion to their respective shares of the ECB capital key, calculated using national share of European Union population and national share of EU GDP weighted. The euro is divided into 100 cents. In Community legislative acts the plural forms of euro and cent are spelled without the s, notwithstanding normal English usage. Otherwise, normal English plurals are sometimes used, with many local variations such as centime in France. All circulating coins have a common side showing the denomination or value, a map in the background. Due to the linguistic plurality in the European Union, the Latin alphabet version of euro is used and Arabic numerals. For the denominations except the 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, the map only showed the 15 member states which were members when the euro was introduced. Beginning in 2007 or 2008 the old map is being replaced by a map of Europe showing countries outside the Union like Norway, Belarus, Russia or Turkey.
The 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, keep their old design, showing a geographical map of Europe with the 15 member states of 2002 raised somewhat above the rest of the map. All common sides were designed by Luc Luycx; the coins have a national side showing an image chosen by the country that issued the coin. Euro coins from any member state may be used in any nation that has adopted the euro; the coins are issued in denominations of €2, €1, 50c, 20c, 10c, 5c, 2c, 1c. To avoid the use of the two smallest coins, some cash transactions are rounded to the nearest five cents in the Netherlands and Ireland and in Finland; this practice is discouraged by the Commission, as is the practice of certain shops of refusing to accept high-value euro notes. Commemorative coins with €2 face value have been issued with changes to the design of the national side of the coin; these include both issued coins, such as the €2 commemorative coin for the fiftieth anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Rome, nationally i
CNBC is an American pay television business news channel, owned by NBCUniversal Broadcast, Cable and News, a division of NBCUniversal, with both being owned by Comcast. Headquartered in Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, the network carries business day coverage of U. S. and international financial markets. CNBC was established on April 17, 1989 as a joint venture between NBC and Cablevision as the Consumer News and Business Channel. Two years in 1991, the network acquired its main competitor, the Financial News Network, a move which expanded both its distribution and its workforce. Cablevision subsequently sold its stake to NBC; as of February 2015, CNBC is available to 93,623,000 pay television households in the United States. In 2007, the network was ranked as the 19th most valuable cable channel in the United States, worth $4 billion. In addition to the domestic U. S. feed, various localized versions of CNBC operate, serving different regions and countries. NBCUniversal is a minority stakeholder, in many of these versions.
CNBC had its beginnings around 1980 as the Satellite Program Network, showing a low-budget mix of old movies and entertainment programs. The channel changed its name to Tempo Television. After signing a letter of intent to acquire Tempo, NBC opted for a deal to lease the channel's transponder in June 1988. On this platform, under the guidance of Tom Rogers, the channel was relaunched on April 17, 1989 as the Consumer News and Business Channel. NBC and Cablevision operated CNBC as a 50-50 joint venture, choosing to headquarter the channel in Fort Lee, New Jersey. CNBC had considerable difficulty getting cable carriage at first, as many providers were skeptical of placing it alongside the longer-established Financial News Network. By the winter of 1990, CNBC was only in 17 million homes – less than half of FNN's potential reach – despite having the muscle of NBC standing behind it. However, around this time, FNN encountered serious financial difficulties. After a protracted bidding war with a Dow Jones-Westinghouse Broadcasting consortium, CNBC acquired FNN for $154.3 million on May 21, 1991 and merged the two operations, hiring around 60 of FNN's 300-strong workforce.
The deal increased the distribution of the newly enlarged network to over 40 million homes. Cablevision sold its 50% stake to NBC upon completion of the deal. With the full name "Consumer News and Business Channel" dropped, the network's daytime business programming was branded "CNBC/FNN Daytime," although this was phased out by 1992. Roger Ailes was hired as the new president of CNBC in 1993, tasked by NBC CEO Roger Wright with turning around the struggling network. Under Ailes' leadership from 1993 through 1995, the $400 million network doubled in value, its revenues tripled. In addition, Ailes oversaw the launch of a 1994 spin-off channel from CNBC, called "America's Talking." Ailes left CNBC and America's Talking in late 1995 when Microsoft and NBC created a joint venture to reprogram America's Talking as MSNBC. CNBC grew during the 1990s, launching Asian and European versions of the channel in 1995 and 1996 respectively. In 1997, CNBC formed a strategic alliance with Dow Jones, including content sharing with Dow Jones Newswires and The Wall Street Journal and the rebranding of the channel as "a service of NBC Universal and Dow Jones".
CNBC's international channels were merged into a 50-50 joint venture with their Dow Jones-owned rivals, London-based EBN and Singapore-based ABN in 1998, while ratings grew on the U. S. channel until the new millennium's dot-com bubble burst in 2000. The new millennium brought changes to the network in 2003, moving its world headquarters from 2200 Fletcher Avenue, Fort Lee to 900 Sylvan Avenue in Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, which features digital video production and studios made by PDG Ltd of Beeston and the FX Group of Ocoee, Florida. NBC Universal reacquired full control of loss-making CNBC Europe and CNBC Asia from Dow Jones at the end of 2005; the licensing agreement between Dow and CNBC U. S. remained intact, however. Today, CNBC provides business news programming on weekdays from 4:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m. Eastern Time, while broadcasting talk shows, investigative reports, documentaries and other programs at all other times. A rolling ticker provides real-time updates on share prices on the NYSE, NASDAQ, AMEX, as well as market indices, news summaries, weather updates by NBC meteorologists.
A rotating top band of the screen rotates provides real-time updates on index and commodity prices from world markets. On October 13, 2014 - coincidentally the 11th anniversary of CNBC's relocation to its current facilities in Englewood Cliffs, NJ - CNBC switched to a full 16:9 letterbox presentation, in line with its Asian and European siblings; as of January 4, 2016, the network's 480i standard definition feed now shows the same 16:9 HD feed on its 4:3 picture, due to the application of the AFD #10 flag. CNBC provides a variety of programs throughout the business day. Live programming is broadcast on weekdays from 4 am until 7 pm and provides reports on U. S. businesses, updates of stock market indices and commodities prices, interviews with CEOs and business leaders
Tourism in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe boasts several tourist attractions, located in every region of the country. Before the economic changes, much of the tourism for these locations came to the Zimbabwean side but now Zambia benefits from the tourism; the Victoria Falls National Park is a tourist attraction in this area and is one of the eight main National Parks in Zimbabwe, largest of, Hwange National Park. The Eastern Highlands are a series of mountainous areas near the border with Mozambique; these hufhlands stretch from Nyanga in the north with the highest peak in Zimbabwe, Mount Nyangani at 2593 metres is located here as well with the Bvumba Mountains further south and the magnificent quartzite Chimanimani range are the southern most slopes. Mt. Binga is the highest of the Chimanimani peaks, it straddles both Zimbabwe. The endemic species of this transfrontier park attract scientists and hikers from all over the world. Views from all of the Nyanga mountains are famed that places as far away as 60–70 km are visible and, on clear days, the town of Rusape can be seen.
Zimbabwe is distinctive in Africa for its large number of medieval era city ruins built in a unique dry stone style. The most famous of these are the Great Zimbabwe ruins in Masvingo which survive from the Kingdom of Zimbabwe era. Other ruins include Khami Ruins, Dhlo-Dhlo and Naletale; the Matobo Hills are an area of granite kopjes and wooded valleys commencing some 35 kilometres south of Bulawayo, southern Zimbabwe. The Hills were formed over 2000 million years ago with granite being forced to the surface, this has eroded to produce smooth "whaleback dwalas" and broken kopjes, strewn with boulders and interspersed with thickets of vegetation. Mzilikazi, founder of the Ndebele nation, gave the area its name, meaning'Bald Heads', they have become famous and a tourist attraction because Cecil John Rhodes famous for his vision that led to foundation of Rhodesia, other early white pioneers like Leander Starr Jameson, Major Allan Wilson, most of the members of the Shangani Patrol are buried in these hills at another site named World's View.
Hwange National Park and Mana Pools, a UNESCO World Heritage site, are some of the best National Parks and safari destinations in the region. The tourism sector in Zimbabwe has been on the rise for past 2 years; the deployment of widespread police roadblocks issuing fines for minor or non-existent infringements has had a negative impact on tourism to the country. In previous years, most visitors arriving to Zimbabwe on short term basis were from the following countries of nationality