A given name is a part of a person's personal name. It identifies a person, differentiates that person from the other members of a group who have a common surname; the term given name refers to the fact that the name is bestowed upon a person to a child by their parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian name, a first name, given at baptism, is now typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner. In more formal situations, a person's surname is more used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname; the idioms "on a first-name basis" and "being on first-name terms" refer to the familiarity inherent in addressing someone by their given name. By contrast, a surname, inherited, is shared with other members of one's immediate family. Regnal names and religious or monastic names are special given names bestowed upon someone receiving a crown or entering a religious order; such a person typically becomes known chiefly by that name.
The order given name – family name known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by European culture, including North and South America. The order family name – given name known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, in Hungary; this order is common in Austria and Bavaria, in France, Belgium and Italy because of the influence of bureaucracy, which puts the family name before the given name. In China and Korea, part of the given name may be shared among all members of a given generation within a family and extended family or families, in order to differentiate those generations from other generations; the order given name – father's family name – mother's family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed in Spain and Uruguay using given name – mother's family name – father's family name.
The order given name – mother's family name – father's family name is used in Portuguese-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. In many Western cultures, people have more than one given name. One of those, not the first in succession might be used as the name which that person goes by, such as in the cases of John Edgar Hoover and Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland. A child's given name or names are chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a naming ceremony, with family and friends in attendance. In most jurisdictions, a child's name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate, or its equivalent. In western cultures, people retain the same given name throughout their lives. However, in some cases these names may be changed by repute. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions. In certain jurisdictions, a government-appointed registrar of births may refuse to register a name that may cause a child harm, considered offensive or which are deemed impractical.
In France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge. Some jurisdictions, such as Sweden, restrict the spelling of names. Parents may choose a name because of its meaning; this may be a personal or familial meaning, such as giving a child the name of an admired person, or it may be an example of nominative determinism, in which the parents give the child a name that they believe will be lucky or favourable for the child. Given names most derive from the following categories: Aspirational personal traits. For example, the name Clement means "merciful". English examples include Faith and August. Occupations, for example George means "earth-worker", i.e. "farmer". Circumstances of birth, for example Thomas meaning "twin" or the Latin name Quintus, traditionally given to the fifth male child. Objects, for example Peter means "rock" and Edgar means "rich spear". Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald". Variations on another name to change the sex of the name or to translate from another language.
Surnames, for example Winston and Ross. Such names can honour other branches of a family, where the surname would not otherwise be passed down. Places, for example Brittany and Lorraine. Time of birth, for example day of the week, as in Kofi Annan, whose given name means "born on Friday", or the holiday on which one was born, for example, the name Natalie meaning "born on Christmas day" in Latin. Tuesday, May, or June. Combination of the above, for example the Armenian name Sirvart means "love rose". In many cultures, given names are reused to commemorate ancestors or those who are admired, resulting in a limited repertoire of names that sometimes vary by orthography; the most familiar example of this, to Western readers, is the use of Biblical and saints' names in most of the Christian countries (with Ethiopia, in which names were ideals or abstractions
Efrem Zimbalist Jr.
Efrem Zimbalist Jr. was an American actor known for his starring roles in the television series 77 Sunset Strip and The F. B. I, he is known as recurring character "Dandy Jim Buckley" in the series Maverick and as the voice behind the character Alfred Pennyworth in Batman: The Animated Series and associated spin-offs. He voiced Doctor Octopus in the 1990s Spider-Man animated series and the 2000 PC, Dreamcast and PlayStation Spider-Man action-adventure video game, Justin Hammer from the second season of the 1994 Iron Man animated series. Zimbalist was born in 1918 in New York City to Jewish immigrants Efrem Zimbalist Sr. a Russian-born violinist, Alma Gluck, a Romanian-born operatic soprano. He had an older sister, along with a half-sister from his mother's first marriage, author Marcia Davenport, his stepmother was the founder of the Curtis Institute of Music. Both parents converted to Anglican Christianity, he attended Fay School in Massachusetts. Zimbalist boarded at St. Paul's School in New Hampshire, taking part in school plays.
He attended Yale University but was expelled and expelled a second time on account of low grades. He moved back to New York City in 1936 to work as a page for NBC radio where he had small on-air roles as well as presenting shows, he furthered his acting training at Neighborhood Playhouse before serving in the United States Army during World War II, where he became friends with writer and director Garson Kanin. After five years of service, he was awarded the Purple Heart for a leg wound received during the battle of Hürtgen Forest. Following the war, Zimbalist returned to New York and made his Broadway acting debut in The Rugged Path, starring Spencer Tracy; this led to a stage career as both producer. His producing successes included bringing three Gian Carlo Menotti operas to Broadway, one of which, The Consul, won the Pulitzer Prize for Music in 1950. In 1954 -- 1955, he co-starred Concerning Miss Marlowe. In 1956, Zimbalist was moved to Hollywood. Zimbalist's first recurring role in a Warner Bros.
Television series was as roguish gambler "Dandy Jim Buckley" on Maverick, opposite James Garner in 1957, making five appearances as the character. In 1958, Zimbalist played the co-lead Stuart "Stu" Bailey in 77 Sunset Strip, a popular detective series running until 1964. During this period, he made several concurrent appearances in other Warner Bros. television shows, such as Hawaiian Eye, The Alaskans, Bronco. He starred as the lead in several feature films for Warners, such as Bombers B-52, The Deep Six, A Fever in the Blood and The Chapman Report. Zimbalist was in such demand that he was given leave by Jack L. Warner due to exhaustion from his busy schedule. Jack Warner lent him to Columbia Pictures for By Love Possessed in exchange for adding several years to his Warners' contract, but refused to let him make BUtterfield 8 for MGM. In 1959, he was awarded the Golden Globe for "Most Promising Newcomer – Male". Zimbalist was most known for his starring role as Inspector Lewis Erskine in the Quinn Martin television production The F.
B. I. which premiered on September 19, 1965 and aired its final episode on September 8, 1974. Zimbalist was generous in his praise of producer Martin and of his own experience starring in the show; those who worked with him were admiring of the star's professionalism and likable personality. Zimbalist maintained a strong personal relationship with F. B. I. director J. Edgar Hoover, who requested that the show be technically accurate and portray his agents in the best possible light, he insisted actors playing F. B. I. employees undergo a background check. Zimbalist subsequently spent a week in contact with Hoover in Washington, D. C. and at the F. B. I. Academy in Quantico, Virginia; the men remained mutual admirers for the rest of Hoover's life. Hoover held up Zimbalist as a model for F. B. I. employees' personal appearance. The Society of Former Special Agents of the Federal Bureau of Investigation honored the character of Lewis Erskine in 1985 with a set of retired credentials, on June 8, 2009 FBI Director Robert Mueller presented Zimbalist with a plaque honoring him for his work on the series.
The show was revived in the 1980s as Today's FBI starring Mike Connors. After 77 Sunset Strip he appeared in other series, including CBS's short-lived The Reporter starring Harry Guardino as journalist Danny Taylor of the fictitious New York Globe, he appeared in leading and supporting roles in several feature films, including Harlow, A Fever in the Blood, Wait Until Dark and Airport 1975. Zimbalist had a recurring role as Daniel Chalmers, a white-collar con man, on his daughter Stephanie Zimbalist's 1980s television detective series Remington Steele, in the television dramatic series Hotel. In 1990, he played the father of Zorro in the Christian Broadcasting Network's The New Zorro. Zimbalist relinquished the role after the program's first season due to the filming at studios outside Madrid and the role subsequently went to Henry Darrow, he had a small recurring role in the 1990s hit science fiction television series Babylon 5 as William Edgars. In the 1990s, Zimbalist played Alfred Pennyworth in Batman: The Animated Series as well as in Superman: The Animated Series, The New Batman Adventures, Justice League, Static Shock, the animated films Batman: Mask of the Phantasm, Batman & Mr. Freeze: SubZero, Batman: Mystery of the Batwoman.
He appeared on the Trinity Broadcasting Network and as himself in the 1998 Smithsonian Instituti
Alfred N. Zimbalist was a producer of low-budget films such as Robot Monster, Monster from Green Hell, Cat-Women of the Moon and Baby Face Nelson. Al Zimbalist was known for B movies, science fiction and horror. Al Zimbalist's son, Donald R. Zimbalist, was a frequent collaborator. Al Zimbalist was the son of Nuchim Zimbalist, a New York dressmaking foreman, Feiga Fannie Weiner. Zimbalist was one of four children and immigrated to the US, arriving November 13, 1911, aboard the SS Lituania, he completed his education to the eight grade. It is unclear. Zimbalist started his career in the film industry when he joined the Stanley-Warner Theatres home-office in New York in 1929, working as an editor for the company's house organ, The Warner Club News. At 19, Zimbalist was said to be one of the youngest editors in the industry. During this time, he was co-author and director of the Warner Gaieties and executive assistant to producer Edward L. Alperson. Zimbalist continued producing company club events when he joined the publicity and advertising department at RKO-Pathe in 1931.
Zimbalist worked in theatres and publicity for the 1930s and 1940s, including stints at Warner Bros and RKO Theatres. In 1947 he was head of publicity for Film Classics, he left Film Classics in 1949 and worked as an assistant on some Edward Albertson releases in 1951 and 1952. In 1952 Zimbalist announced he had formed Motion Picture Artists to make moderate-priced "class exploitation films"; these would include Half-caste Girl and La Virgin de Cadiz. Of these only the first was made; however he did produce Cat-Women of the Moon with Jack Rabin. Zimbalist produced King Dinosaur and intended to follow it with White Slave Ring but it was not made, he formed ZS Productions with Irving Shulman to make a film based on the latter's unpublished novel about Baby Face Nelson. They partnered with Mickey Rooney's Fryman Enterprises to make Baby Face Nelson; the film was popular enough for Zimbalist to be signed to MGM. His first film for them was Watusi a sequel to King Solomon's Mines, using footage from that film..
The second was a remake of Tarzan the Ape Man which used King Solomon's Mines footage. Zimablist made Valley of the Dragons at Columbia based on a Jules Verne novel; this movie made use of footage from One Million BC. He went back to MGM for Drums of Africa, using footage from King Solomon's Mines once more. After Drums of Africa Zimbalist was going to make Jazz Jungle but it was never made. In 1964 he was going to make The Sea Creature for Jack Warner Jnr; the film was never made. Zimablist set up at the Goldwyn studios and announced plans to make 12 films starting with Young Dillinger. Young Dillinger used footage from Baby Face Nelson. After Young Dillinger he and star Nick Adams wanted to make Guns of the G Men but it was never made. In 1969 he registered the title Sea of Tranquility but no film resulted. Robot Monster Cat-Women of the Moon Miss Robinson Crusoe King Dinosaur Monster from Green Hell Baby Face Nelson Watusi Tarzan, the ApeMan Prehistoric Valley, US title Valley of the Dragons Drums of Africa Young Dillinger Al Zimbalist on IMDb
Efrem Zimbalist Sr. was a concert violinist, teacher and director of the Curtis Institute of Music. Zimbalist was born in the southwestern Russian city of Rostov-on-Don, the son of Jewish parents Maria and Aron Zimbalist, a conductor. By the age of nine, Efrem Zimbalist was first violin in his father’s orchestra. At age 12 he studied under Leopold Auer, he graduated from the Conservatory in 1907 after winning a gold medal and the Rubinstein Prize, by age 21 was considered one of the world's greatest violinists. After graduation he debuted in Berlin and London in 1907 and in the United States in 1911, with the Boston Symphony Orchestra. In 1912, he played the Glazunov Concerto in a concert marking Leopold Stokowski's first appearance with the London Symphony Orchestra, he settled in the United States. He did much to popularize the performance of early music. In 1917, he was elected as an honorary member of Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia, the national fraternity for men in music, by the fraternity's Alpha Chapter at the New England Conservatory of Music in Boston.
He retired as a violinist in 1949, but returned in 1952 to give the first performance of the Violin Concerto by Gian Carlo Menotti, dedicated to him. He retired again in 1955, he served as a juror of the International Tchaikovsky Competition in 1962 and 1966. In 1928, Zimbalist began teaching at the Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia, he was director of the school from 1941 to 1968. His pupils included such distinguished musicians as Aaron Rosand, Oscar Shumsky, Joseph Silverstein, Jascha Brodsky, John Dalley, Michael Tree, Felix Slatkin, Shmuel Ashkenasi, Harold Wippler, Leonid Bolotine, Hidetaro Suzuki. See: List of music students by teacher: T to Z#Efrem Zimbalist, his own compositions include a violin concerto, a piano concerto, the American Rhapsody, a tone poem called Daphnis and Chloe, a Fantasy on themes from The Golden Cockerel by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, a Fantasy on Bizet's Carmen and a piece called Sarasateana, for viola and piano. He wrote an opera, which premiered in Philadelphia in 1956.
Pablo Casals writes in his biography and Sorrows, that Zimbalist was a member of the Musician's Committee to Aid Spanish Democracy which Casals founded and chaired in 1936. Zimbalist married the famous American soprano Alma Gluck and they toured together for a time. Alma Gluck died in 1938. In 1943, having been a widower for five years, he married the Curtis Institute of Music's founder, Mary Louise Curtis Bok, daughter of publisher Cyrus Curtis, 14 years his senior, he died in 1985, at the age of 95. His and Alma's son, Efrem Zimbalist Jr. and their granddaughter, Stephanie Zimbalist, both became popular actors. Efrem Zimbalist: A Life. – by Roy Malan. Pompton Plains, NJ: Amadeus Press, 2004 ISBN 1-57467-091-3 Great Masters of the Violin – Boris Schwarz, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1983 Works by or about Efrem Zimbalist at Internet Archive Discography of Efrem Zimbalist on Victor Records from the Encyclopedic Discography of Victor Recordings Streaming audio of Efrem Zimbalist recordings from the National Jukebox at the Library of Congress
The cimbalom is a type of chordophone composed of a large, trapezoidal box with metal strings stretched across its top. It is a musical instrument found in the group of Central-Eastern European nations and cultures, namely contemporary Hungary, Czech Republic, Romania, Ukraine and Poland, it is popular in Greece and in gypsy music. The cimbalom is played by striking two beaters against the strings; the steel treble strings are tuned in unison. The bass strings which are over-spun with copper, are arranged in groups of 3 and are tuned in unison; the Hornbostel–Sachs musical instrument classification system registers the cimbalom with the number 314.122-4,5. Moreover, the instrument name “cimbalom” denotes earlier, smaller versions of the cimbalom, folk cimbaloms, of different tone groupings, string arrangements, box types. In English, the cimbalom spelling is the most common, followed by the variants, derived from Austria-Hungary’s languages, cimbál, cymbalum, țambal and tsimbl etc. Santur, sandouri and a number of other non Austro-Hungarian names are sometimes applied to this instrument in regions beyond Austria-Hungary which have their own names for related instruments of the struck zither or hammered dulcimer family.
The first representation of a simple struck chordophone can be found in the Assyrian bas-relief in Kyindjuk dated back to 3500 BC. Since that time divergent versions of this percussive stretched-string instrument have developed in many far-flung regions of the world. Struck chordophones are sometimes generically referred to as being in the "hammered dulcimer" family, they are, formally classified as struck zithers under Hornbostel-Sachs. Building on the struck chordophones common to the region, the Hungarian concert cimbalom was designed and created by V. Josef Schunda in 1874 in Budapest; the impetus to create such an elaborate instrument – a more formal "concert" cimbalom – was in part, born out of a broader effort to establish a stronger 18th-century Hungarian national identity. This included a nationwide movement to "break away" from strong associations that confused Hungarian cultural identity with that of the Romany people; this confusion between cultures extended to perceptions abroad that conflated Hungarian traditional musical identity, with that of Romani musicians, who were seen on street corners throughout Budapest playing the more modest cimbaloms that were common.
Schunda began serial production of his concert cimbalom in 1874, manufacturing them in a piano shop located on Hajós utca, across the street from the Budapest Opera House in Pest. Thanks, in part, to attention given at the 1878 World's Fair in Paris, Schunda's concert cimbalom enjoyed a surge in national popularity in Hungary – being performed on by cimbalists of all Hungarian ethnic groups – including folk, Jewish and Romani musicians; the encounter and collaboration between Romani cimbalist Aladár Rácz and composer Igor Stravinsky in Geneva in 1915 gave birth to a global interest in Schunda's concert cimbalom. Folk hammered dulcimers have unique regional names around the globe. Throughout central and eastern Europe they are referred to as "cimbalom"; these instruments can differ from each other in size, number of strings and method of holding and moving the hammers or "beaters". They are more portable than the concert cimbalom. In performance they were carried by a single musician: using a strap around the player's neck and leaning one edge of the instrument against the waist.
Like the concert cimbalom, the folk hammered dulcimer / small cimbalom is played by striking the strings with two beaters. However, these are much shorter than the beaters used with the concert cimbalom, without soft coverings over the area which strikes the string; these instruments lacked damper mechanisms. Tunings are partially chromatic or diatonic rather than the chromatic tuning of the concert cimbalom, they can vary regionally. Construction of these instruments is more related to the particular style of music played on them than is the case with the concert cimbalom. In addition to the emergence of the concert cimbalom in Hungary, some other regions in Eastern Europe further developed their local version of folk dulcimer and more formal schools of playing followed; the concert cimbalom developed by József Schunda in 1874 in Budapest, Hungary was closer in its range of pitch, dynamic projection and weight to the proportions of a small piano than the various folk hammered dulcimers had been.
The Schunda cimbalom was equipped with a heavier frame for dynamic power. It included many more string courses for extended range and incorporated a damper pedal which allowed for more dynamic control. Four detachable legs were added to support this much larger instrument; the concert cimbalom continues to be played with beaters although other playing techniques are used. Concert instruments from Schunda onward are chromatic; the Schunda tuning system established a standard pitch range of four octaves plus a major 3rd. The concert cimbalom found its way to other areas of the Austro-Hungarian empire, such as Romania and Ukraine, as well as Moldova. In Romania, the large cimbalom is known as the țambal mare; the cimbalom has continued its development and modern concert instruments ar
Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe is most considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity; the division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary places two comparatively small countries and Georgia, in both continents.
Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2016; the European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals, it includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.
The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans. In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess; the word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor." Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water