The Baltic Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark, Finland, Lithuania, northeast Germany, Poland and the North and Central European Plain. The sea stretches from 53 ° N from 10 ° E to 30 ° E longitude. A mediterranean sea of the Atlantic, with limited water exchange between the two bodies, the Baltic Sea drains through the Danish islands into the Kattegat by way of the straits of Øresund, the Great Belt, the Little Belt, it includes the Gulf of Bothnia, the Bay of Bothnia, the Gulf of Finland, the Gulf of Riga, the Bay of Gdańsk. The Baltic Proper is bordered on its northern edge, at the latitude 60°N, by the Åland islands and the Gulf of Bothnia, on its northeastern edge by the Gulf of Finland, on its eastern edge by the Gulf of Riga, in the west by the Swedish part of the southern Scandinavian Peninsula; the Baltic Sea is connected by artificial waterways to the White Sea via the White Sea Canal and to the German Bight of the North Sea via the Kiel Canal. Administration The Helsinki Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area includes the Baltic Sea and the Kattegat, without calling Kattegat a part of the Baltic Sea, "For the purposes of this Convention the'Baltic Sea Area' shall be the Baltic Sea and the Entrance to the Baltic Sea, bounded by the parallel of the Skaw in the Skagerrak at 57°44.43'N."Traffic history Historically, the Kingdom of Denmark collected Sound Dues from ships at the border between the ocean and the land-locked Baltic Sea, in tandem: in the Øresund at Kronborg castle near Helsingør.
The narrowest part of Little Belt is the "Middelfart Sund" near Middelfart. Oceanography Geographers agree that the preferred physical border of the Baltic is a line drawn through the southern Danish islands, Drogden-Sill and Langeland; the Drogden Sill is situated north of Køge Bugt and connects Dragør in the south of Copenhagen to Malmö. By this definition, the Danish Straits are part of the entrance, but the Bay of Mecklenburg and the Bay of Kiel are parts of the Baltic Sea. Another usual border is the line between Falsterbo and Stevns Klint, Denmark, as this is the southern border of Øresund. It's the border between the shallow southern Øresund and notably deeper water. Hydrography and biology Drogden Sill sets a limit to Øresund and Darss Sill, a limit to the Belt Sea; the shallow sills are obstacles to the flow of heavy salt water from the Kattegat into the basins around Bornholm and Gotland. The Kattegat and the southwestern Baltic Sea have a rich biology; the remainder of the Sea is poor in oxygen and in species.
Thus, the more of the entrance, included in its definition, the healthier the Baltic appears. Tacitus called it Mare Suebicum after the Germanic people of the Suebi, Ptolemy Sarmatian Ocean after the Sarmatians, but the first to name it the Baltic Sea was the eleventh-century German chronicler Adam of Bremen; the origin of the latter name is speculative and it was adopted into Slavic and Finnic languages spoken around the sea likely due to the role of Medieval Latin in cartography. It might be connected to the Germanic word belt, a name used for two of the Danish straits, the Belts, while others claim it to be directly derived from the source of the Germanic word, Latin balteus "belt". Adam of Bremen himself compared the sea with a belt, stating that it is so named because it stretches through the land as a belt, he might have been influenced by the name of a legendary island mentioned in the Natural History of Pliny the Elder. Pliny mentions an island named Baltia with reference to accounts of Xenophon.
It is possible. Baltia might be derived from belt and mean "near belt of sea, strait." Meanwhile, others have suggested that the name of the island originates from the Proto-Indo-European root *bhel meaning "white, fair". This root and its basic meaning were retained in both Latvian. On this basis, a related hypothesis holds that the name originated from this Indo-European root via a Baltic language such as Lithuanian. Another explanation is that, while derived from the aforementioned root, the name of the sea is related to names for various forms of water and related substances in several European languages, that might have been associated with colors found in swamps, yet another explanation is that the name meant "enclosed sea, bay" as opposed to open sea. Some Swedish historians believe. In the Middle Ages the sea was known by a variety of names; the name Baltic Sea became dominant only after 1600. Usage of Baltic and similar terms to denote the region east of the sea started only in 19th century.
The Baltic Sea was known in ancient Latin language sources as Mare Suebicum or Mare Germanicum. Older native names in languages that used to be spoken on the shores of the sea or near it indicate the geographical location of the sea, or its size in relation to smaller gulfs, or tribes associated with it. In modern lang
Ostrava is a city in the north-east of the Czech Republic and is the capital of the Moravian-Silesian Region. It is 15 km from the border with Poland, at the meeting point of four rivers: the Odra, Ostravice and Lučina. In terms of both population and area Ostrava is the third largest city in the Czech Republic, the second largest city in Moravia, the largest city in Czech Silesia, it straddles the border of the two historic provinces of Silesia. The population was around 300,000 in 2013; the wider conurbation – which includes the towns of Bohumín, Havířov, Karviná, Orlová, Petřvald and Rychvald – is home to about 500,000 people, making it the largest urban area in the Czech Republic apart from the capital, Prague. Ostrava grew in importance due to its position at the heart of a major coalfield, becoming an important industrial centre, it was known as the country's "steel heart" thanks to its status as a coal-mining and metallurgical centre, but since the Velvet Revolution it has undergone radical and far-reaching changes to its economic base.
Industries have been restructured, the last coal was mined in the city in 1994. However, remnants of the city's industrial past are visible in the Lower Vítkovice area, a former coal-mining, coke production and ironworks complex in the city centre which retains its historic industrial architecture. Lower Vítkovice has applied for inclusion in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Since the 1990s Ostrava has been transformed into a modern cultural city, with numerous theatres and other cultural facilities. Various cultural and sporting events take place in Ostrava throughout the year, including the Colours of Ostrava music festival, the Janáček May classical music festival, the Summer Shakespeare Festival and NATO Days. Ostrava is home to two public universities: the VŠB-Technical University and the University of Ostrava. In 2014 Ostrava was a European City of Sport; the city co-hosted the IIHF Ice Hockey World Championship in 2004 and 2015. The city's coat of arms features a blue shield with a rearing silver horse standing on a green lawn.
The horse wears a red coverlet. At the top right of the shield there is a golden rose with a red core; the horse in the coat-of-arms wears no bridle. The oldest known depiction of this coat-of-arms is on a seal dating from 1426; the first coloured version dates from 1728. The horse is interpreted as a symbol of Ostrava's position on a major trade route, or as a figure taken from the coat-of-arms of Ostrava's first vogt, while the golden rose comes from the family coat-of-arms of the bishop of Olomouc Stanislav Thurzo; this explanation is supported by most modern literature. Another theory suggests that the Bishop granted Ostrava the right to use the horse in its coat-of-arms out of gratitude for the assistance that the town provided to the people of the Bishop's estate in Hukvaldy when the estate was being looted and pillaged; the help came so that the pillagers did not have time to attach bridles to their horses before making their escape. There is a legend which tells of a siege of Ostrava during which the besieged townspeople released unbridled horses to run in circles around the town.
This is said to have confused the attacking armies so much. In 2008, Ostrava's new marketing logo was unveiled. Designed by Studio Najbrt, the logo "OSTRAVA!!!" is used in public presentations of the city both in the Czech Republic and abroad. The three exclamation marks are meant to symbolise the dynamism and self-confidence of Ostrava and its people; the light blue colour of the city's name is based on the heraldic tradition, while the exclamation marks are a contrasting darker blue. The first written mention of Slezská Ostrava dates from 1229; the first mention of Moravian Ostrava describes it as a township. Ostrava grew up from which it took its name; this river still divides the city into two main parts: Silesian Ostrava. The settlement occupied a strategic position on the border between the two historical provinces of Moravia and Silesia, on the ancient trade route from the Baltic Sea to the Adriatic known as the Amber Road; this location helped the town to flourish. However, Ostrava began to decline in importance after the Thirty Years’ War, when it was occupied by Swedish forces from 1621–1645.
A turning point in Ostrava's history came in 1763 with the discovery of extensive deposits of high-quality bituminous coal on the Silesian bank of the Ostravice River. In 1828 the owner of the local estates, Archbishop Rudolf Jan of Olomouc, established an ironworks, named after him as the Rudolfshütte; the ironworks passed into the ownership of the Rothschild family, became known as the Vítkovice Ironworks. This company became the driving force behind Ostrava's industrial boom. By the second half of the 20th century the city was nicknamed the country's "steel heart". After the Second World War and the liberation of Ostrava by the Red Army, the city entered its greatest period of expansion; the new housing projects were on a small scale, focused on the Poruba district and featuring architecture in the Socialist realist style. The authorities built larger-scale developments of prefabricated apartment blocks in Poruba and created a series of satellite estates to the south of the city; the city centre was depopulated and people were moved out to the suburbs.
This was part of a long-term plan to
The Warta is a river in western-central Poland and a tributary of the Oder. With a length of 795 kilometres, it is the country's second-longest river located within its borders and third-longest in terms of total length; the Warta has a basin area of 54,520 square kilometers and it is navigable from Kostrzyn nad Odrą to Konin half of its length. It is connected to the Vistula by the Noteć River and the Bydgoszcz Canal near the city of Bydgoszcz, it rises in the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland at Kromołów in Zawiercie, Silesian Voivodeship, flows through Łódź Land, Greater Poland and Lubusz Land, where it empties into the Oder near Kostrzyn at the border with Germany. The Greater Polish Warta Basin was the original Poland; the river is mentioned in the second stanza of the Polish national anthem, "Poland Is Not Yet Lost." Widawka Ner Wełna Noteć Liswarta Prosna Obra Postomia Rivers of Poland Geography of Poland Warta Landscape Park Ujście Warty National Park
Brzeg is a town in southwestern Poland with 36,110 inhabitants and the capital of Brzeg County. It is situated in Silesia in the Opole Voivodeship on the left bank of the Oder; the town of Brzeg was first mentioned as a trading and fishing settlement in the year 1234. In 1248, Silesian Duke Henry III the White granted the settlement German town rights and by the late 13th century the city became fortified. Sometimes referred to as “the garden town”, the town's size expanded after the construction of dwelling houses which were located on the city outskirts. Towards the end of World War II, on 6 February 1945, the Soviet army captured Brzeg, which resulted in moderate destruction of the town's buildings and infrastructure. In accordance with the Yalta and Potsdam agreements, the area was assigned to Poland. Subsequently, the town's native German population was deported and replaced with Polish settlers from the Eastern Borderlands and Central Poland, thereby completely exchanging the town's population.
Since 1950 the reconstructed town has been a part of the Opole Voivodeship. Brzeg was in earlier documents referred to as Civitas Altae Ripae, meaning "city at high banks" of the Oder river; the historian Konstanty Darmot, in his book of the etymology of Silesian localities, states that in a Latin document from 1234, the settlement's name was Visoke breg. The locality in and around present-day Brzeg has been settled by people since the Mesolithic era, with the earliest signs of settlement between 8000–4200 BC, as concluded from archaeological findings in Myślibórz, Kościerzyce and Lipki; the early human populous left behind traces of lithic flakes, flint flakes and other flint related tools. The earliest signs of agriculture come around during the Neolithic Era; the Neolithic culture developed agriculture and domesticated farm animals. The era saw the development of weaving and mining in the Brzeg Plain, with archaeological finds in Brzeg, Buszyce, Prędocin, Lewin Brzeski, Małujowice, Lipki, Myśliborze, Mąkoszyce and Obórki.
The time period of 1300–700 BC bears the existence of the Lusatian culture of the late Bronze Age and the early Iron Age. The culture settled in the region and in large continued to develop agriculture and the domestication of farm animals; the natural economy of the culture was based on weaving and metal works. The Lusatian culture's populous that inhabited the Brzeg Lands was identified by archaeological excavations, revealing 17 individual localities, including 3 hamlets and 8 burial sites, namely a fortified wooden settlement in Rybna and an open-pit crematory in Pisarzowice. To follow the Lusatian culture, which witnessed its declension around 500 BC, were the Celts, around 400–300 BC in Silesia, as identified with archaeological findings in Lubsza and Pawłów. Around 100 BC, the peoples of Silesia began trading with the Roman Empire, as evidenced through the findings of Roman currency in the locality. In the 7th century Slavic peoples started settling in the region. At the same time Iron tools and blacksmith-based hamlets found in Kantorowice and Pępice are evidenced for the first time in this region.
The ages of AD 500–1000 saw the establishment of the early feudal system in Silesia. The era was characteristic of the establishment of gord settlements and the continued development of trade and crafts, it is believed. The first mention of the Silesian tribes is made in the mid-ninth-century document known as the Bavarian Geographer, which included the Silesian gord of Ryczyn, located 8.3 kilometres north-west of Brzeg, in the eastern Oława County. The Ryczyn gords became the main line of defence for the Silesians, namely to protect the river trade routes along the River Oder and the land trade route between Ryczyn and Brzeg; the importance of the Ryczyn gords is demonstrated by Henry V of the Holy Roman Empire's army halting their advancement before the gords in 1109. Between the ninth and early-tenth century, the Brzeg Lands, together with that of Silesia, were part of the Kingdom of Great Moravia until its demise in AD 906, after which, until 990 the region was under the rule of the Przemyslids.
Around the year 990, Silesia was annexed into Mieszko I's Poland. During the Fragmentation of Poland, the area of the Brzeg Lands, together with Silesia, came under the control of King of Poland, Bolesław III Wrymouth's oldest son, Władysław II the Exile; the most favourable area for the settlement of Brzeg is located between the Castle Square, with elevated ground extending south-east towards the Square of the American Polonia. Before the town's foundation, three separate settlements existed in its modern-day territory, with "Wysoki Brzeg" bearing the main administrative role in the region. Between the late-twelfth and early-thirteen century, the Dukes of Wrocław set up a curia, led by a claviger. In 1235, Henry the Bearded occupied the area around Oława, by which Walloons had to turn over a tribute of 1 scale of grain and of oat to the settlement of Brzeg, suggesting the existence of a granary and other outbuildings in the curia's established headquarters; some two-hundred m south-west from the curia was the former location, on what was to be called Mary's Hill
The Kaczawa is a river in the Lower Silesian Voivodeship in Poland. It springs from the Kaczawskie Mountains near Kaczorów and flows north and northeast through the towns of Świerzawa, Złotoryja and Legnica. Among its tributaries is the Czarna Woda. After a length of 98 km the Kaczawa empties into the Oder river at Prochowice. Kaczawa between Legnica and Dunino was the site of the Battle of Katzbach on 26 August 1813 during the Napoleonic Wars. "Katzbach". The American Cyclopædia. 1879
The Olza is a river in Poland and the Czech Republic, a right tributary of the River Oder. It flows from the Silesian Beskids mountains through southern Cieszyn Silesia in Poland and the Frýdek-Místek and Karviná districts of the Czech Republic forming the border with Poland, it flows into the Oder River north of Bohumín. The Olza-Oder confluence forms a part of the border; the river is a symbol of the Zaolzie region, which lies on its west bank, constituting a part of the western half of Cieszyn Silesia, as depixted in the words of the unofficial anthem of this region and of local Poles, Płyniesz Olzo po dolinie, written by Jan Kubisz. The Olza has inspired many other artists. Among those who have written about the river are Adolf Fierla, Pola Gojawiczyńska, Emanuel Grim, Julian Przyboś, Vladislav Vančura, Adam Wawrosz; the singer Jaromír Nohavica has used the Olza as a motif in several of his songs. The oldest surviving written mention is in a letter dating from 1290, which refers to the river Olza.
The river was mentioned in a written document in 1611 as the Oldza. At the end of the 19th century, with the rise of mass nationalism, both Polish and Czech activists claimed the name Olza to be not Polish enough, on the one hand, insufficiently Czech, on the othrt; some Polish activists proposed Czech activists Olše. The Czech linguist and writer Vincenc Prasek demonstrated in 1900 that the name Olza has, in fact, an independent Old Slavic origin which predates both Polish and Czech; this revelation has been confirmed by various etymological studies in the 20th century. The regionally used form Olza is derived from the ancient Oldza. German Olsa pronounced the same. Local people always used the Olza form, regardless of their ethnic origin. However, the central administration in Prague saw Olza as a Polish name and when most of the river became a part of Czechoslovakia in 1920 it tried to change its name to the Czech form, Olše. However, a degree of dualism in the naming persisted until the 1960s, when the Central State Administration of Geodesy and Cartography ruled that the only official form in the Czech Republic is Olše.
Locals on both sides of the border and from both nationalities continue to refer to the river as the Olza nevertheless. Cicha, Irena. Olza od pramene po ujście. Český Těšín: Region Silesia. ISBN 80-238-6081-X. Gawrecki, Dan. "Olza a Olše". Těšínsko. 36: 13–15."Olše". Universum, Všeobecná encyklopedie. VI. Praha: Odeon. 2001. ISBN 80-207-1060-4."Olza". Słownik geograficzno-krajoznawczy Polski. Warszawa: PWN. 2000. ISBN 83-01-13080-6."Olza". Nowa Encyklopedia Powszechna PWN. VI. Warszawa: PWN. 2004. ISBN 83-01-14179-4
Not to be confused with Krosno in the Subcarpathian VoivodeshipKrosno Odrzańskie is a city on the east bank of Oder River, at the confluence with the Bóbr. The town in Western Poland with 12,500 inhabitants is the capital of Krosno County, it is assigned to the Lubusz Voivodeship part of Zielona Góra Voivodeship. The town was first mentioned as Crosno in 1005, when Duke Bolesław I Chrobry of Poland had a fortress built here in the course of his armed conflict with Emperor Henry II and the West Slavic Veleti confederation. Due to its strategic location as a point of passage across the Oder, it played an important role at the western border of the Polish kingdom with the Holy Roman Empire during the 11th to 13th centuries. In 1163 Krosno was part of the Duchy of Silesia ruled by Bolesław I the Tall of the Silesian Piasts at Wrocław. In 1201 it received its town charter by Bolesław's son Duke Henry I the Bearded. Henry erected a stone castle at Krosno, where he died in 1238 and where his widow, Hedwig of Andechs, took refuge during the 1241 Mongol invasion of Europe.
When the Duchy of Wrocław was divided in 1251, the town became part of the newly created Duchy of Głogów under Konrad I. The town changed hands several times; when the last Piast duke Henry XI of Głogów died without issue in 1476, his widow Barbara of Brandenburg, daughter of Elector Albert Achilles of Brandenburg, inherited the territory of Crossen. The Brandenburg influence met with fierce opposition by Henry's cousin Duke Jan II the Mad of Żagań, who devastated Krosno but in 1482 had to sign an agreement with Albert Achilles, able to retain the Krosno area; as a former part of the Duchy of Głogów it remained a lien of the Bohemian kingdom until in 1538 King Ferdinand I of Habsburg, renounced all rights to Crossen in 1538, thereby finalizing the district's belonging to the Neumark region of the Brandenburg margraviate. With Brandenburg Crossen became part of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701. In reforms after the Napoleonic Wars, the town became part of the Province of Brandenburg in 1815. In May 1886 the town was devastated by a whirlwind.
In 1945 during World War II, the town was conquered by the Soviet Red Army. According to the post-war Potsdam Conference, the town east of the Oder-Neisse line was placed under Polish administration; the German-speaking inhabitants were expelled westward for Poles to take their place. Due to war and expulsion, the population was reduced from 10,800 in 1939 to 2,000 in 1946. Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff German painter and architect Johann Friedrich Schönemann, German theater director Christiane Becker-Neumann, German actress Eduard Seler, German anthropologist, archaeologist and Mesoamerica scholar Rudolf Pannwitz, German author Hans Egidi, former president of the Federal Administrative Court of Germany Alfred Henschke ps. Klabund, German author Siegfried Müller aka. Kongo-Müller, German mercenary Tomasz Kuszczak - Poland national football team and Birmingham City goalkeeper Aneta Pastuszka - Polish canoe racer Official town website Jewish Community in Krosno Odrzańskie on Virtual Shtetl