BlizzCon is an annual gaming convention held by Blizzard Entertainment to promote its major franchises Warcraft, StarCraft, Hearthstone, Heroes of the Storm and Overwatch. The first BlizzCon was held in October 2005 and since all of conventions have been held at the Anaheim Convention Center in Anaheim, California, in the same metropolitan area as Blizzard's headquarters in Irvine; the convention features game-related announcements, previews of upcoming Blizzard Entertainment games and content, Q&A sessions and panels, costume contests and playable versions of various Blizzard games. The closing night has featured concerts by The Offspring, Tenacious D, Foo Fighters, Ozzy Osbourne, Blink-182, Linkin Park, "Weird Al" Yankovic, Muse. A similar event was the Blizzard Worldwide Invitational, held outside the U. S. from 2004–2008. Tickets for the first BlizzCon were US$50 for admission to both days of activities. For the 2007 and 2008 events, prices were $100. In 2009, the price was raised to $125.
For 2010, the price was raised to $150. For 2011, the price was raised to $175 and for 2013 the price remained at $175. For 2014, the price was raised to $199 and the BlizzCon Benefit Dinner went from $500 to $750, which includes admission. From 2015 to 2018, the prices have remained at the 2014 level; the ticket price includes a goody bag that contains items such as in-game prizes, beta keys for upcoming Blizzard games and exclusive Blizzard paraphernalia. BlizzCon was not held in 2006 or 2012. Attendees were able to try one of the two new playable races, the Blood Elves, for upcoming expansion based in Outland, released as World of Warcraft: The Burning Crusade in 2007. Playable demos of the single and multiplayer modes of the since cancelled Starcraft: Ghost were available. A songwriting competition was judged by Jonathan Davis of Korn. Level 60 Elite Tauren Chieftain, comedian Christian Finnegan, The Offspring performed at the closing concert. StarCraft II was available for play, as single player or 2v2 as Protoss.
Much of the game was explained as well as Q&A with attendees. The Zerg race was, not unveiled at that time; the second expansion to World of Warcraft, titled Wrath of the Lich King, was announced and it was available to play. Comedian Jay Mohr entertained at the closing ceremony followed by Level 70 Elite Tauren Chieftain alongside Video Games Live performing at the closing concert. In the opening ceremonies, Blizzard president Michael Morhaime revealed the third playable class for Diablo III: the Wizard, as well as the major announcement that Starcraft II would be separated into three games. Playable versions of Diablo III, StarCraft II, World of Warcraft: Wrath of the Lich King were available to test during the convention; as well, there were tournaments and competitions for the World of Warcraft Trading Card Game, World of Warcraft miniatures game, StarCraft, StarCraft II, Warcraft III: The Frozen Throne, World of Warcraft arena. The Zerg race was now playable in the StarCraft II demos. BlizzCon 2008 was broadcast live on both days as a PPV event on DirecTV for US viewers only, for eight hours per day in high definition.
Official Blizzard fansite WoW Radio broadcast live audio via SHOUTcast. For the closing ceremonies on Saturday, comedians Kyle Kinane and Patton Oswalt performed; the closing concert was performed by Video Games Live, playing arrangements from all of the Blizzard games, a performance including the Wrath of the Lich King music. In an attempt to reduce frustrations linked to lack of ticket availability for previous BlizzCons, there were four halls of space available. Blizzard implemented a new system designed to make buying tickets easier; the new system implemented an online queue creating an organized online "line" for anyone who wants to purchase tickets, an improvement on 2008's chaotic sale of tickets. As in 2008, DirecTV carried both days of BlizzCon 2009 as a PPV event for eight hours per day in both standard and high definition. All BlizzCon 2009 Pay Per View event purchasers received an exclusive "Grunty the Murloc Marine" World of Warcraft in-game pet. and had access to the online stream for no additional cost.
New in 2009, BlizzCon was broadcast live via an internet stream, calling it a "Virtual Ticket". The site covered both days of the convention featuring exclusive interviews and commentary, main stage presentations including the opening ceremony and tournament coverage with team highlights. All purchasers received an exclusive "Grunty the Murloc Marine" World of Warcraft in-game pet; the third expansion, World of Warcraft: Cataclysm was announced. Diablo III, StarCraft II: Wings of Liberty were available to play. Ozzy Osbourne performed for the closing concert; the fifth playable Diablo III class was revealed to be the Demon Hunter and the StarCraft II modification called "Blizzard DotA" was presented, which evolved into Heroes of the Storm. Diablo III, StarCraft II: Wings of Liberty and World of Warcraft: Cataclysm were playable. Similar to 2009, BlizzCon 2010 was available live via an online broadcast on the "BlizzCon Virtual Ticket"; the Virtual Ticket provided four live feeds from the convention floor, offering 50+ hours of HD BlizzCon programming.
DirecTV again offered both days of BlizzCon 2010 as a PPV event for ten hours per day in both standard and high definition. Korean pro-gamer MVP_Genius won the StarCraft II Blizzcon Invitational; the vinyl record Revolution Overdrive: Songs of Liberty was released for the event. Tenacious D played for the closing concert with Dave Grohl. Recordings of the event were released for free as part of the Live Music Archive. Th
World of Warcraft
World of Warcraft is a massively multiplayer online role-playing game released in 2004 by Blizzard Entertainment. It is the fourth released game set in the Warcraft fantasy universe. World of Warcraft takes place within the Warcraft world of Azeroth four years after the events at the conclusion of Blizzard's previous Warcraft release, Warcraft III: The Frozen Throne; the game was announced in 2001, was released for the 10th anniversary of the Warcraft franchise on November 23, 2004. Since launch, World of Warcraft has had seven major expansion packs released for it: The Burning Crusade, Wrath of the Lich King, Mists of Pandaria, Warlords of Draenor and Battle for Azeroth. World of Warcraft was the world's most popular MMORPG by player count of nearly 10 million in 2009; the game had a total of over a hundred million registered accounts by 2014. By 2017, the game had grossed over $9.23 billion in revenue, making it one of the highest-grossing video game franchises of all time. At BlizzCon 2017, a "classic" version of the game was announced, planned to provide a way to experience the base game before any of its expansions launched.
Blizzard announced at BlizzCon 2018 that WoW Classic will be released in the summer of 2019, will be included with the standard subscription. As with other MMORPGs, players control a character avatar within a game world in third- or first-person view, exploring the landscape, fighting various monsters, completing quests, interacting with non-player characters or other players. Similar to other MMORPGs, World of Warcraft requires the player to pay for a subscription by using a credit or debit card, using prepaid Blizzard game cards or using a WoW Token purchased in-game. Players without a subscription may use a trial account that lets the player character reach up to level 20 but has many features locked. To enter the game, the player must select a server, referred to in-game as a realm; each realm falls into one of two categories. Available realms types are: Normal – a regular type realm where the gameplay is focused on defeating monsters and completing quests, with player-versus-player fights and any roleplay are optional.
RP – which works the same way as a "Normal" realm, but focuses on players roleplaying in-character. Before the introduction of World of Warcraft's seventh expansion "Battle for Azeroth", both "Normal" and "RP" servers were each divided into two separate categories; this has since been removed after the implementation of the "War Mode" option, which allows any player on any server to determine whether they want to participate in PvP combat or not, by enabling War Mode in two of the game's capital cities. Realms are categorized by language, with in-game support in the language available. Players can make new characters on all realms within the region, it is possible to move established characters between realms for a fee. To create a new character, in keeping with the storyline of previous Warcraft games, players must choose between the opposing factions of the Alliance or the Horde. Characters from the opposing factions can perform rudimentary communication, but only members of the same faction can speak, mail and join guilds.
The player selects the new character's race, such as orcs or trolls for the Horde, or humans or dwarves for the Alliance. Players must select the class for the character, with choices such as mages and priests available. Most classes are limited to particular races; as characters become more developed, they gain various talents and skills, requiring the player to further define the abilities of that character. Characters can choose two primary professions that can focus on producing items, such as tailoring, blacksmithing or jewelcrafting or on gathering from resource nodes, such as skinning or mining. Characters can learn all four secondary skills: archeology, cooking and first aid. Characters may form and join guilds, allowing characters within the guild access to the guild's chat channel, the guild name and optionally allowing other features, including a guild tabard, guild bank, guild repairs, dues. Much of World of Warcraft play involves the completion of quests; these quests are available from NPCs.
Quests reward the player with some combination of experience points, in-game money. Quests allow characters to gain access to new skills and abilities, as well as the ability to explore new areas, it is through quests that much of the game's story is told, both through the quest's text and through scripted NPC actions. Quests are linked by a common theme, with each consecutive quest triggered by the completion of the previous, forming a quest chain. Quests involve killing a number of creatures, gathering a certain number of resources, finding a difficult to locate object, speaking to various NPCs, visiting specific locations, interacting with objects in the world, or delivering an item from one place to another to acquire experience and treasures. While a character can be played on its own, players can group with others to tackle more challenging content. Most end-game challenges are designed in a way. In this way, character classes are used in specific roles within a group. World of Warcraft uses a "rested bonus" system, increasing the rate that a character can gain experience points after the player has spent time away from the game.
When a character dies, it becomes a ghost—or wisp for Night Elf characters—at a nearby graveyard. Characters c
Races and factions of Warcraft
The fantasy setting of the Warcraft series includes many fictional races and factions. Most of the primary protagonists of the series belong to either the Alliance. However, there are a variety of neutral races and factions, who are either friendly or hostile to both the Horde and the Alliance. In World of Warcraft, all player characters belong to either the Horde or the Alliance, with a character's faction decided by its race. One exception is the pandaren. By the time of Warcraft III the Horde and the Alliance both fight against the Burning Legion and the undead Scourge, who are the primary villains of Warcraft III and World of Warcraft. By the time of World of Warcraft, the Alliance and the Horde are not engaged in all out war any longer. However, they are still hostile towards each other and skirmishes between the two sides erupt. With Garrosh Hellscream appointed as the new Warchief of the Horde in Cataclysm, war has once more erupted between the two factions; this war plays a large role in the storyline of that expansion, continues to do so in Mists of Pandaria.
The Alliance has been present in some form in all Warcraft games. In all three real-time strategy games, the Alliance are the protagonists of their campaign, are one of the two main protagonist factions in World of Warcraft, they are the primary antagonists of Warcraft and the orc campaigns in Warcraft II. The Alliance began in Warcraft II when the human kingdoms and demihumans strategically united to fend off the conquering Horde, thus they are enemies to the Horde. The Alliance has evolved over the course of the franchise, losing allies and gaining new members, but the Alliance has endured over the years, they are united to uphold their common noble ideals and are bound together by a sense of brotherhood forged by all the battles they've endured together. The major races of the Alliance are the humans of Stormwind, the Night Elves of Teldrassil, the Dwarves of Ironforge. Other races who have joined or allied with the Alliance include the Gnomes of Gnomergan, The Draenei of Outland, the Worgen humans of Gilneas, the Tushui Pandaren.
The Alliance is led by a military commander who coordinates the military actions of all the races in the Alliance. The title for this position depends on the rank of the individual; this title may require an aspect of diplomacy or has strong political clout as the other leaders can choose not to commit their forces to the commander if they dislike the commander's leadership. Though how much forces and resources are contributed to the war effort is left to each individual leader's discretion, when the military commander issues a call to arms, all races of the Alliance are expected to contribute. Throughout the Warcraft games, the humans are modeled on medieval Europe. In Warcraft and Warcraft II they were depicted as the protagonists of the human campaigns and the antagonists of the orc campaigns; the humans fought for the side of Heaven against the Hellish orcs. Humans have a devout reverence for the Holy Light: an abstract deity that promotes theological virtues and chivalry and grants its practitioners magical powers ranging from healing and protection, to smiting power against the undead and evil beings.
After being taught the ways of magic by the high elves during the Troll Wars, humans have become one of the most proficient races in the ways of magic as well. The humans descended from an ancient nomadic tribe known as the Arathi, who conquered and united the other warring human tribes and founded the empire of Arathor and the great city of Strom known as Stromgarde; the Arathi formed an alliance with the high elves of the far north after they aided them in a war against the Amani Empire of trolls. In World of Warcraft: Wrath of the Lich King it is revealed that humans are the descendants of mutated vrykul. By the time of the first Warcraft, seven kingdoms had arisen from the former lands of Arathor; the primary human faction in the first two games and World of Warcraft is the Kingdom of Azeroth. The remaining kingdoms were introduced in Warcraft II, all centered in the northern part of the Eastern Kingdoms: Lordaeron, Stromgarde, Kul Tiras, Alterac; the humans use horses as land griffons for flying mounts.
In World of Warcraft, humans can be played as the following classes: Hunter, Paladin, Rogue, Warrior, Death Knight, Monk. The humans of Stormwind are led by the Wrynn family, who functions as the High King of the Alliance as a whole. In World of Warcraft: Battle for Azeroth, Kul Tiran humans were added as an Allied Race; the Draenei are the last of the original Eredar, who fled their homeworld of Argus to escape the corruption of the rogue titan Sargeras and his Burning Legion. The exiled Eredar took the name Draenei, meaning "exiled ones", traveled through the Twisting Nether aboard the naaru dimensional ship, Oshu'Gun, landed on a remote world, naming the planet Draenor or "Exile's Refuge"; the Burning Legion pursued the Draenei to Draenor, having turned the orcs against the Draenei, resulting in the destruction of much of the Draenei race. After a great cataclysm saw to the destruction of Draenor, the Draenei used a satellite ship of Tempest Keep called the Exodar to abandon the world arriving on Azeroth and crashing to the west of the coastal region of Darkshore on an island named Azuremyst Isle.
They joined the Alliance respecti
Gameplay of World of Warcraft
The game of World of Warcraft, or WoW, is set in a fictional world known as Azeroth and in the expansion The Burning Crusade extended the game to another world called Outland. The expansion Wrath of the Lich King added the frigid northern continent of Azeroth. In the expansion Cataclysm, the classic continents of Azeroth were drastically changed as some zones were destroyed and new ones were unveiled; the expansion Mists of Pandaria added the southern continent hidden behind a perennial mist cover, Pandaria. The expansion, Warlords of Draenor added Draenor, an Outland was before its partial destruction; the expansion Legion adds the Broken Isles, an island chain near the Maelstrom in the middle of the Great Sea, the damaged planet Argus, the headquarters of the Burning Legion. The latest expansion Battle for Azeroth adds 2 new continents to the center of the map of Azeroth and introduces 8 new races called Allied Races. In the game, players design a character to play based on a number of starting options, such as the race of a character and its type or class.
Gameplay consists of completing quests, dungeon runs and raids, other in-game activities, in order to obtain rewards which will allow one to improve one's character and equipment in order to be able to complete the more difficult quests, dungeon runs and raids. Players can participate in player versus player combat, either in large groups, small team matches, or individual skirmishes. Over time, a number of additional features and improvements have been added to the game world, such as additional locations to explore, seasonal and periodic events such as Halloween and weekly fishing competitions. Among the newer features added are a pet battle system akin to Pokémon, where players can collect pets all over the game world and battle with them and garrisons, a player-controlled area where players recruit non-player characters to carry out quests to earn players or the NPCs items. Players can modify their in-game experience through the use of third-party modifications such as macros and add-ons.
A player can select one of two opposing factions to place their character in: the Horde or the Alliance. Characters can only group with other characters of the same faction; each faction has seven races. Race determines the character's appearance, starting location, initial skill set, called "racial traits"; the Alliance consists of humans, night elves, gnomes and worgen. The draenei and blood elves were added as part of the Burning Crusade expansion. Worgen and goblins were added for the Alliance and Horde in the following expansion pack, Cataclysm. In Mists of Pandaria, the pandaren were added as World of Warcraft's first "neutral" race. At the conclusion of the beginner zone quests for pandaren, the player must choose to permanently join either the Alliance or the Horde. In Battle for Azeroth there will be six additional allied races for players to use. Further options to customize the appearance, such as hairstyles, skin tones, etc. are available. Once set, the face and skin tone are not able to be changed.
The entire appearance of a character can be changed via Blizzard's paid character re-customization service. Depending on the race chosen and the expansions installed, a player has five to eight of the game's thirteen character classes to choose from; the mechanics of each class vary, with some geared towards melee combat, while others are more suited to attacking from range or casting spells. The game has DPS, tank and healer. Available classes are: druids, death knight, demon hunters, mages, paladins, rogues, shamans and warriors. Paladins were available only to Alliance races and shamans were only available to Horde races, but both classes were made available to both sides in The Burning Crusade; the death knight, introduced in Wrath of the Lich King, is a hero class, with the characters beginning at level 55 equipped with powerful gear. Creation of a death knight
G4 (U.S. TV channel)
G4 was an American digital cable and satellite television channel, owned by G4 Media, a joint venture between the NBCUniversal Cable division of NBCUniversal and Dish Network. The channel was geared toward young male adult viewers and focused on the world of video games, before transitioning to a more general entertainment format. G4 was headquartered in Los Angeles. In late 2012, G4's studio programming ceased in preparation for its relaunch as Esquire Network on September 23, 2013, as part of a licensing deal with Hearst Corporation, owner of Esquire magazine. However, on September 9, 2013, NBCUniversal announced that Esquire Network would instead replace sister channel, leaving G4 "as is for the foreseeable future, though it's unlikely the company will invest in more original programming". In August 2013, it was reported that 61,217,000 American households were receiving G4, though this declined with removals by several cable services as carriage agreements expired. According to a statement by some of the remaining providers carrying the network, G4 would end all operations on November 30, 2014.
Programming ceased at 11:59 PM ET on December 31, 2014. The channel was launched on April 2002 under the ownership of Comcast; the initial concept was to create a service similar to TechTV but "geared more toward MTV's demographics". The channel was launched with a nonstop Pong marathon being shown on the channel for a whole week. On May 1, 2002, G4 first aired the following shows: Arena: a multi-player game competition between two teams of four players. Filter: a top-ten countdown voted by viewers. Blister: focused on action/adventure game news; this was the first show to air on G4. Cinematech: described as a showcase for the best high-end digital art. Game On: two hosts competed in video game action come to life with dire consequences for the loser. Sweat: focused on sports game news. Cheat!: tips and cheat codes on video games. Portal: focused on multiplayer online games. Pulse: news on the video-game industry. Judgment Day: known as Reviews on the Run, "two video-game gurus will opine on the latest entries."
G4tv.com: an interactive talk show on video games. G4 was created and led by Charles Hirschhorn, a former president of Walt Disney Television and Television Animation, he expected video game creators themselves to produce programming for the channel. He envisioned that G4 could follow in the footsteps of MTV, which in his opinion provided music video producers with a venue for non-traditional television programming. Hirschhorn intended G4 to become a vehicle for unconventional advertising. In 2002, G4 offered advertisers wide latitude to place their products on G4's programs, allowed their commercials to appear as if they were a part of the program. G4 offered what was called a "2 minute unit", an advertising package played as if it were part of a G4 program, long enough to run an entire movie trailer. G4 offered to sell the right to have a game showcased on the show Pulse. On March 25, 2004, Vulcan Inc. announced that G4 Media would acquire TechTV and merge it with G4. The combined channel was branded G4techTV.
Days before the announced sale, Comcast made plans to close the original TechTV production facilities in San Francisco and offered new headquarters in Los Angeles with openings for 80 to 100 TechTV employees available if they were willing to relocate. Hirschhorn headed the combined entity; as a result of the merger, TechTV's weeknight anime programming block, Anime Unleashed, moved to the new network. On February 15, 2005, less than a year after the merger, "TechTV" was dropped from the channel's name in the U. S. and the channel became known again as G4. However, the channel's Canadian version retained the "G4techTV" name until mid-2009, when it was renamed G4. In September 2005, Neal Tiles replaced Hirschhorn as the channel's president. Tiles had been a senior marketing executive at DirecTV, Fox Sports and ESPN, he announced that G4 would be retooled as a male-oriented channel, stating that "guys like to play games, but not watch a bunch of shows with games on the screen". On March 16, 2006, G4 took Anime Unleashed off the air.
In a commercial that aired on G4, promoting the network's newest additions and changes in late March and April 2006, it contained both a clip of anime and a quick flash of the Anime Unleashed logo, the logo being more visible when watched frame by frame. Despite this, indications by G4 personnel that the block might have a chance of returning, it never came back on the air and G4 canceled it. Comcast announced on October 12, 2006, that it would consolidate its west coast entertainment operations, including G4, E! and Style into a new group headed by Ted Harbert, who had run E!. It was announced that the upper management of the G4 channel would relocate to E!'s Los Angeles office. Harbert gave his opinion at the time that the focus of the channel on "gaming has been demonstrated as being too narrow." He gave assurances that while G4 might change, it would not become extinct. On March 4, 2007, it was announced that the G4 Studios in Santa Monica, would close on April 15. Production of G4 programs was relocated to the Comcast Entertainment Group facility, which housed E! and Style Network, in the Wilshire Courtyard complex in the Miracle Mile neighborhood of Los Angeles.
As a consequence, many G4 employees involved in production were terminated. The sets of G4's original programs were redesigned
Machinima is the use of real-time computer graphics engines to create a cinematic production. Most video games are used to generate the computer animation. Machinima-based artists, sometimes called machinimists or machinimators, are fan laborers, by virtue of their re-use of copyrighted materials. Machinima offers to provide an archive of gaming performance and access to the look and feel of software and hardware that may have become unavailable or obsolete. For game studies, "Machinima’s gestures grant access to gaming’s historical conditions of possibility and how machinima offers links to a comparative horizon that informs and participates in videogame culture."The practice of using graphics engines from video games arose from the animated software introductions of the 1980s demoscene, Disney Interactive Studios' 1992 video game Stunt Island, 1990s recordings of gameplay in first-person shooter video games, such as id Software's Doom and Quake. These recordings documented speedruns—attempts to complete a level as as possible—and multiplayer matches.
The addition of storylines to these films created "Quake movies". The more general term machinima, a blend of machine and cinema, arose when the concept spread beyond the Quake series to other games and software. After this generalization, machinima appeared in mainstream media, including television series and advertisements. Machinima has disadvantages when compared to other styles of filmmaking, its relative simplicity over traditional frame-based animation limits control and range of expression. Its real-time nature favors speed, cost saving, flexibility over the higher quality of pre-rendered computer animation. Virtual acting is less expensive and physically restricted than live action. Machinima can be filmed by relying on in-game artificial intelligence or by controlling characters and cameras through digital puppetry. Scenes can be scripted, can be manipulated during post-production using video editing techniques. Editing, custom software, creative cinematography may address technical limitations.
Game companies have provided software for and have encouraged machinima, but the widespread use of digital assets from copyrighted games has resulted in complex, unresolved legal issues. Machinima productions can remain close to their gaming roots and feature stunts or other portrayals of gameplay. Popular genres include dance videos and drama. Alternatively, some filmmakers attempt to stretch the boundaries of the rendering engines or to mask the original 3-D context; the Academy of Machinima Arts & Sciences, a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting machinima, recognizes exemplary productions through Mackie awards given at its annual Machinima Film Festival. Some general film festivals accept machinima, game companies, such as Epic Games, Blizzard Entertainment and Jagex, have sponsored contests involving it. 1980s software crackers added custom introductory credits sequences to programs whose copy protection they had removed. Increasing computing power allowed for more complex intros, the demoscene formed when focus shifted to the intros instead of the cracks.
The goal became to create the best 3-D demos in real-time with the least amount of software code. Disk storage was too slow for this, so graphics had to be calculated on the fly and without a pre-existing game engine. In Disney Interactive Studios' 1992 computer game Stunt Island, users could stage and play back stunts; as Nitsche stated, the game's goal was "not... a high score but a spectacle." Released the following year, id Software's Doom included the ability to record gameplay as sequences of events that the game engine could replay in real-time. Because events and not video frames were saved, the resulting game demo files were small and shared among players. A culture of recording gameplay developed, as Henry Lowood of Stanford University called it, "a context for spectatorship.... The result was nothing less than a metamorphosis of the player into a performer." Another important feature of Doom was that it allowed players to create their own modifications and software for the game, thus expanding the concept of game authorship.
In machinima, there is a dual register of gestures: the trained motions of the player determine the in-game images of expressive motion. In parallel of the video game approach, in the media art field, Maurice Benayoun’s Virtual Reality artwork The Tunnel under the Atlantic compared to video games, introduced a virtual film director autonomous intelligent agent, to shoot and edit in real time a full video from the digging performance in the Pompidou Center in Paris and the Museum of Contemporary art in Montreal; the full movie, Inside the Tunnel under the Atlantic, 21h long, was followed in 1997 by Inside the Paris New-Delhi Tunnel. Only short excerpts where presented to the public; the complex behavior of the Tunnel’s virtual director makes it a significant precursor of application to video games based machinimas. Doom's 1996 successor, offered new opportunities for both gameplay and customization, while retaining the ability to record demos. Multiplayer video games became popular, demos of matches between teams of players were recorded and studied.
Paul Marino, executive director of the AMAS, stated that deathmatches, a type of multiplayer game, became more "cinematic". At this point, they still documented gameplay without a narrative. On October 26, 1996, a well-known gaming clan, the Rangers, surprised the Quake community with Diary of a Camper, the first known machinima film; this short, 100-second demo file contained the action and gore of many others, but in the con
A game engine is a software-development environment designed for people to build video games. Developers use game engines to construct games for consoles, mobile devices, personal computers; the core functionality provided by a game engine includes a rendering engine for 2D or 3D graphics, a physics engine or collision detection, scripting, artificial intelligence, streaming, memory management, localization support, scene graph, may include video support for cinematics. Implementers economize on the process of game development by reusing/adapting, in large part, the same game engine to produce different games or to aid in porting games to multiple platforms. In many cases game engines provide a suite of visual development tools in addition to reusable software components; these tools are provided in an integrated development environment to enable simplified, rapid development of games in a data-driven manner. Game engine developers attempt to "pre-invent the wheel" by developing robust software suites which include many elements a game developer may need to build a game.
Most game engine suites provide facilities that ease development, such as graphics, physics and AI functions. These game engines are sometimes called "middleware" because, as with the business sense of the term, they provide a flexible and reusable software platform which provides all the core functionality needed, right out of the box, to develop a game application while reducing costs and time-to-market — all critical factors in the competitive video game industry; as of 2001, Gamebryo, JMonkeyEngine and RenderWare were such used middleware programs. Like other types of middleware, game engines provide platform abstraction, allowing the same game to be run on various platforms including game consoles and personal computers with few, if any, changes made to the game source code. Game engines are designed with a component-based architecture that allows specific systems in the engine to be replaced or extended with more specialized game middleware components; some game engines are designed as a series of loosely connected game middleware components that can be selectively combined to create a custom engine, instead of the more common approach of extending or customizing a flexible integrated product.
However extensibility is achieved, it remains a high priority for game engines due to the wide variety of uses for which they are applied. Despite the specificity of the name, game engines are used for other kinds of interactive applications with real-time graphical needs such as marketing demos, architectural visualizations, training simulations, modeling environments; some game engines only provide real-time 3D rendering capabilities instead of the wide range of functionality needed by games. These engines rely upon the game developer to implement the rest of this functionality or assemble it from other game middleware components; these types of engines are referred to as a "graphics engine", "rendering engine", or "3D engine" instead of the more encompassing term "game engine". This terminology is inconsistently used as many full-featured 3D game engines are referred to as "3D engines". A few examples of graphics engines are: Crystal Space, Genesis3D, Irrlicht, OGRE, RealmForge, Truevision3D, Vision Engine.
Modern game or graphics engines provide a scene graph, an object-oriented representation of the 3D game world which simplifies game design and can be used for more efficient rendering of vast virtual worlds. As technology ages, the components of an engine may become outdated or insufficient for the requirements of a given project. Since the complexity of programming an new engine may result in unwanted delays, a development team may elect to update their existing engine with newer functionality or components; such a framework is composed of a multitude of different components. The actual game logic has to be implemented by some algorithms, it is distinct from sound or input work. The rendering engine generates animated 3D graphics by any of a number of methods. Instead of being programmed and compiled to be executed on the CPU or GPU directly, most rendering engines are built upon one or multiple rendering application programming interfaces, such as Direct3D, OpenGL, or Vulkan which provide a software abstraction of the graphics processing unit.
Low-level libraries such as DirectX, Simple DirectMedia Layer, OpenGL are commonly used in games as they provide hardware-independent access to other computer hardware such as input devices, network cards, sound cards. Before hardware-accelerated 3D graphics, software renderers had been used. Software rendering is still used in some modeling tools or for still-rendered images when visual accuracy is valued over real-time performance or when the computer hardware does not meet needs such as shader support. With the advent of hardware accelerated physics processing, various physics APIs such as PAL and the physics extensions of COLLADA became available to provide a software abstraction of the physics processing unit of different middleware providers and console platforms. Game engines can be written in any programming language like C++, C or Java, though each language is structurally different and may provide different levels of access to specific functions; the audio engine is the component which consists of algorithms related to the loading and output of sound through the client's speaker system.
At a minimum i