1838 Mormon War
The 1838 Mormon War known as the Missouri Mormon War, was a conflict between Mormons and non-Mormons in Missouri from August to November 1838, the first of the three "Mormon Wars". Members of the Latter Day Saint movement, founded by Joseph Smith, had migrated from New York to northwestern Missouri since 1831 settling in Jackson County, where tensions with non-Mormon residents led to episodes of anti-Mormon violence; the Mormons were evicted from Jackson County in 1833 and resettled in new counties nearby, where tensions grew again and attempts to evict them resumed. On August 6, 1838, the war began following a brawl at an election in Gallatin, resulting in increased organized violence between Mormons and non-Mormons backed by the Missouri Volunteer Militia in northwestern Missouri; the Battle of Crooked River in late October led to Lilburn Boggs, the Governor of Missouri, issuing the Missouri Executive Order 44 ordering the Mormons to leave Missouri or be killed. On November 1, 1838, Smith surrendered at the church's headquarters, ending the war.
Smith was charged for treason but escaped in custody and fled to Illinois with the remainder of the estimated 10,000 Missouri Mormons, establishing the new settlement of Nauvoo. During the conflict 22 people were killed and an unknown number of non-combatants died due to exposure and hardship as a result of being expelled from their homes in Missouri. All of the conflicts in the Mormon War occurred in a corridor 100 miles to the east and northeast of Kansas City. Shortly after what Mormons consider to be the restoration of the gospel in 1830, Smith stated he had received a revelation that the Second Coming of Christ was near, that the City of Zion would be near the town of Independence in Jackson County and that his followers were destined to inherit the land held by the current settlers. If ye are faithful, ye shall assemble yourselves together to rejoice upon the land of Missouri, the land of your inheritance, now the land of your enemies. Smith's followers known as Mormons, began to settle in Jackson County in 1831 to "build up" the city of Zion.
Tensions built up between the growing Mormon community and the earlier settlers for a number of reasons: They believed—after a revelation recorded on June 6, 1831—that if they were righteous they would inherit the land held by others in Missouri. Their economic cohesion allowed the Mormons to dominate local economies, they believed that the Native Americans were descendants of Israelites, proselytized among them extensively. Most Mormon immigrants to Missouri came from areas; these tensions led to mob violence against the Mormon settlers. In October 1833, anti-Mormon mobs drove the Mormons from Jackson County. At that time, opponents of the Mormons used a pattern that would be repeated four times, culminating in the expulsion of the Mormons from the entire state. Lilburn Boggs, as a Jackson county resident, as Lieutenant Governor, was in a position to observe and assist in executing the tactics described by one Mormon historian: In 1833 Boggs passively saw community leaders and officials sign demands for Mormon withdrawal, next force a gunbarrel contract to abandon the county before spring planting...anti-Mormon goals were reached in a few simple stages.
Executive paralysis permitted terrorism, which forced Mormons to self-defense, labeled as an "insurrection", was put down by the activated militia of the county. Once Latter-day Saints were disarmed, mounted squads visited Mormon settlements with threats and enough beatings and destruction of homes to force flight. Forcefully deprived of their homes and property, the Latter-day Saints temporarily settled in the area around Jackson County in Clay County. Mormon petitions and lawsuits failed to bring any satisfaction: the non-Mormons in Jackson refused to allow the Mormons to return and reimbursement for confiscated and damaged property was refused. In 1834, Mormons attempted to effect a return to Jackson County with a quasi-military expedition known as Zion's Camp, but this effort failed when the governor failed to provide the expected support. New converts to Mormonism continued to settle in Clay County. Tensions rose in Clay County. In an effort to keep the peace, Alexander William Doniphan of Clay County pushed a law through the Missouri legislature that created Caldwell County, Missouri for Mormon settlement in 1836.
Mormons had begun buying land in the proposed Caldwell County, including areas that were carved off to become parts of Ray and Daviess Counties. They had founded the Caldwell County town of Far West as their Missouri headquarters. Once they were established in a county of their own, a period of relative peace ensued. According to an article in the Elders' Journal – a Latter Day Saint newspaper published in Far West – "The Saints here are at perfect peace with all the surrounding inhabitants, persecution is not so much as once named among them..."John Corrill, one of the Mormon leaders, remembered: Friendship began to be restored between and their neighbors, the old prejudices were fast dying away, they were doing well, until the summer of 1838 In 1837, problems at the church's headquarters in Kirtland, centering on the Kirtland Safety Society bank, led to schism. The church relocated from Kirtland to Far West. Mormon settlement increased as hundreds of members from
Church of Christ (Temple Lot)
The Church of Christ, informally called "Hedrickites" and the Church of Christ, is a denomination of the Latter Day Saint movement headquartered in Independence, Missouri, on what is known as the Temple Lot. The nickname for members of the church comes from the surname of Granville Hedrick, ordained as the church's leader in July 1863. Unlike The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and Community of Christ, the Temple Lot church rejects the office of prophet or president, being instead led by its Quorum of Twelve Apostles; the church rejects the doctrines of baptism for the dead and celestial marriage promulgated by the Utah-based LDS Church, as well as the Doctrine and Covenants and Pearl of Great Price. While once avidly engaged in dialogue with other Latter Day Saint factions, the church no longer has any official contact with any other organization, its most notable claim to fame today rests in its sole ownership of the Temple Lot, which it has held for nearly 150 years. As of 2013, membership is 7,310 members in 11 countries.
Most of the members live in the United States, but there are parishes in Canada, Honduras, Kenya, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania and the Philippines. The Temple Lot church shares its early history with the larger Latter Day Saint denominations, including the LDS Church and the Community of Christ. After the death of Joseph Smith, the Latter Day Saint movement's founder, on June 27, 1844, several leaders vied for control and established rival organizations. By the 1860s, five early Mormon branches found themselves unaffiliated with any larger group. Located in Bloomington, Illinois. On July 18, 1863, Hedrick was ordained as "President, Prophet and Revelator". Participating in Hedrick's ordination was John E. Page, an apostle under Smith; the Temple Lot church affirms a founding date of April 6, 1830, in Fayette, New York, claims to be the sole legitimate continuance of Smith's original Church of Christ. Hedrick distanced himself from the title of "President", as he came to believe that this was an unscriptural office.
At the time of its commencement in 1863, Hedrick retained the name of "The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints" for his organization, reflecting his insistence that it was a continuation of Smith's church, which had adopted that name in 1838. This was soon shortened to "Church of Christ", however, as this had been the name under which Smith incorporated the church in 1830. Hedrick wished to distinguish his church from the LDS Church in Utah; the parenthetical "", while not part of the legal name of the church, is appended to the name to distinguish the church from the many other Latter Day Saint and non–Latter Day Saint churches that use the name "Church of Christ". The church occupies a property in Independence, known as the Temple Lot; this grassy, 2-acre plot is considered by Latter Day Saints of nearly all persuasions to be the site designated by Smith for the temple of the New Jerusalem, a sacred city to be built preparatory to the Second Coming of Jesus Christ. The Hedrickites returned to Independence in 1867 to purchase the designated lot for this temple, the church has been headquartered there since.
In 1891, the church was sued by the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints for title to the Temple Lot. The RLDS Church won at trial. In the 1930s, the Temple Lot church excavated the site in an attempt to build a temple, but their efforts stalled because of the Great Depression and internal disputes, the excavation was filled in 1946; the lot was re-landscaped, is today occupied only by the church's headquarters and a few trees in its northeast corner. No further plans to erect such an edifice have been announced. In July 1898, W. D. C. Pattison, a suspended member of the LDS Church from Boston, was arrested and detained after attempting to remove a fence placed around the Temple Lot. Late in the following month, he demanded that church officials sign ownership of the property over to him because he believed he was the "One Mighty and Strong", he was released a few days later. Early on September 5, 1898, he set fire to the tiny headquarters building, walked to the police station and turned himself in.
After he testified in court appearances in November 1898, Pattison was found guilty but insane and sentenced to a stay in a mental institution. The building was reconstructed in 1905. On January 1, 1990, a member of the Church of Christ who had joined the LDS Church set fire to the unoccupied church building on the Temple Lot, claiming that his actions were part of a political protest and a prophecy that war was coming to America; the fire caused significant damage to the second story of the building, although the first floor containing church records and documents remained intact. On February 1, 1990, the remainder of the building was razed. Construction of a new headquarters building began in August 1990; the man was convicted by a jury of second-degree arson and breaking and entering on January 16, 1991. In 1929, the Temple Lot church split between adherents and opponents of a series of "messages" given by John the Baptist to Otto Fetting, an apostle of the church. While the first eleven of these missives were accepted by the Temple Lot membership, the twelfth was rejected, leading Fetting to withdraw with a portion of the membership and found The Church of Christ.
For other places with the same name, see Kirtland Kirtland is a city in Lake County, United States. The population was 6,859 at the 2010 census. Kirtland is known for being the early headquarters of the Latter Day Saint movement from 1831–1837 and is the site of the first Mormon temple, the Kirtland Temple, completed in 1836; the city is the location for many parks in the Lake Metroparks system, as well as the Holden Arboretum. After the founding of the United States, northern Ohio was designated as the Western Reserve and was sold to the Connecticut Land Company; the area was first surveyed by Moses Cleaveland and his party in 1796. Kirtland is named for Turhand Kirtland, a principal of the Connecticut Land Company and judge in Trumbull County, the first political entity in Ohio that included Kirtland township. Kirtland, a veteran of the American Revolutionary War, demonstrated "both breadth of vision and integrity" in his fair dealings with the local Native Americans, he was known for his bravery and passion for justice.
Dr. Jared Potter Kirtland was the son of the former; the bird Kirtland's warbler is named for Jared Kirtland. This rare species has been documented in the city during migration. Being less well suited to agriculture, the densely forested, clay soiled, hilly, land of Kirtland was settled than surrounding townships: Mentor in 1798, Chester in 1802. Kirtland's first European settlers were the John Moore family, soon followed by the Crary family who came to Kirtland in 1811. In 1893 Christopher Crary wrote a memoir of his Kirtland life, which provided a great deal of material for Anne B. Prusha's 1982 history of Kirtland. From 1831 to 1838 Kirtland was the headquarters for the Latter Day Saint movement. Joseph Smith moved the church to Kirtland in 1831, shortly after its formal organization in April 1830 in Palmyra, New York. Latter Day Saints built their first temple there, a historic landmark, now owned and operated by Community of Christ, one of the main Latter Day Saint movement groups; the temple was built with a degree of opulence, considering the underdeveloped nature of the area and the poverty of most early church members.
Many attending the Kirtland Temple dedication in 1836 claimed to see multiple heavenly visions and appearances of heavenly beings, including deity. For this and other reasons, Kirtland remains a place of importance to those of all Latter Day Saint denominations. Many sections from the Doctrine and Covenants, considered modern revelations and canonical by most denominations within the Latter Day Saint movement, originated in Kirtland during the 1830s. Ownership of the Kirtland Temple came into question after the main body of Latter Day Saints moved west; the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints sought to have the matter settled in civil court. Today, besides giving tours, the Community of Christ allows others to use the temple for special meetings. After the majority of the Latter Day Saints departed Kirtland in 1837-38, during the latter part of the 19th century, Kirtland’s population diminished and life was typical of that of the region. Crary recalls the last rattlesnakes being killed on Gildersleeve Mountain in the 1830s.
During this period most of the wooded areas near Kirtland were cleared for agriculture, with corn and apples being the predominant crops. In the early 20th century, Kirtland School was built to consolidate 3 school houses. One of the old school houses can still be found at the corner of Baldwin and Booth Roads in Kirtland Hills. Kirtland saw few changes until after World War II. In 1957 a high school was built and in 1961, Gildersleeve Elementary was built along Chardon Rd.. In 1968 a middle school was completed for grades 6–8. In 1968 the citizens of Kirtland voted in a special election to incorporate the township. James Naughton was the first mayor of the village, which became a city when the 1970 census showed population exceeded 5000. Naughton was succeeded as mayor by Doug Guy, Wesley Phillips, Mario Marcopoli, Edward Podajol, Mark Tyler; the 1960s saw an expansion of local businesses. A shopping center was built, which combined the hardware, drug store, barber shop, plus the local doctor and dentist in one building.
By 1965, Interstate 90 was open, allowing a quicker trip into Ohio. Kirtland continued to grow in population through the 1970s and 1980s. In April 1989, Jeffrey Lundgren, a religious extremist, coerced some in his cult into murdering a family of five and hiding their bodies in a pit dug inside a barn, on Chardon Road; those of Lundgren's cult who participated in the murders were sentenced to life in prison. The site of the murders was converted from a owned home into a church beginning in 2007. New Promise Church opened in April 2009. In the 1990s, as Kirtland became an popular tourist destination, Historic Kirtland Village was created in the Kirtland flats along the East Branch of the Chagrin River; the buildings in this area replicate structures that were present in the 1830s. Historic Kirtland structures, many of which are related to early Mormon history, include the NK Whitney home, Newel K. Whitney Store, a sawmill, an ashery, the Sidney Rigdon home, the John Johnson Inn; this area provides insight into what life was like during the period when Kirtland was the home of Joseph Smith, B
Zion (Latter Day Saints)
Within the Latter Day Saint movement, Zion is used to connote an association of the righteous. This association would practice a form of communitarian economics called the United Order meant to ensure that all members maintained an acceptable quality of life, class distinctions were minimized, group unity achieved. While Zion has been linked with theocracy, the concept of Zion did not theoretically require such a governmental system. In this way, Zion must be distinguished from the ideal political system called theodemocracy, which Latter Day Saints believed would be adopted upon Christ's Second Coming. However, "Zion" maintains several possible meanings within the Latter Day Saint lexicon. Depending on context, "Zion" can have multiple meanings in the Latter Day Saint movement. Examples include: Zion retains its Biblical meaning and refers to Jerusalem. Zion is the name of a physical city founded by the prophet Enoch known as the City of Enoch. Zion refers to the New Jerusalem, a physical, Millennial city expected to be located in Independence, Jackson County, Missouri.
Zion metaphorically refers to any group of people that are unified and "pure in heart". The City of Enoch is one example of "a Zion people", the people described in Fourth Nephi is another. For Zion to be realized, the society must be willing to live the law of consecration based on mutual feelings of charity, the pure love of Christ. Zion is the central physical location; the term has been applied to: Kirtland, Ohio. Zion is according to Joseph Smith, the entirety of the Americas. Smith stated that "the whole of America is Zion itself from north to south". Zion is a metaphor for a unified society of Latter Day Saints, metaphorically gathered as members of the Church of Christ. In this sense any stake of the church may be referred to as a "stake of Zion." In one interpretation, Zion refers to a specific location to which members of the millennial church are to be gathered together to live. Stipulated by what is believed by the Latter-day Saints to be the revelation of Joseph Smith, this is said to be located in Jackson County and its county seat, Independence.
The region of Kansas City Metropolitan Area remains important today in the doctrine of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and the Community of Christ, as well as many smaller branches and offshoots of the Latter Day Saint movement, who view it as having a crucial role to play in their Christian Millennialist theology. The word "Zion" appears 53 times in the Book of Mormon, a key part of the Latter Day Saint canon, 268 times in the LDS Church's version of the Doctrine and Covenants, a part of its canon consisting of what members believe to be modern-day revelation and written down by Smith in the 19th century. Following the disappointments and strife which took place in Missouri during initial attempts to establish a "City of the Saints" in the region, the concept of Zion evolved to encompass a less geographically-specific idea similar to the orthodox Christian concept of the "ekklesia" or community of believers regardless of location; this concept is hinted at in such scriptural passages as the following: "Therefore, thus saith the Lord, let Zion rejoice, for this is Zion—THE PURE IN HEART.
Latter Day Saints use the name to signify a group of God's followers, or any location pertaining to where they live. As well as signifying a group and place it is applied to more than one situation and may be fulfilled at more than one time. Thus, "Zion" has several related but not synonymous applications; these applications make reference to the following: 1) The Jerusalem of Judah. Exoterically considered, a gathering place in the modern Latter Day Saint organizational context refers to wards and homes or communities where believers are striving to live what is referred to as "the fulness of the gospel" in righteousness, it is a worldwide movement in which the faithful work towards becoming a pure people, willing to serve God. The community of such faithful church members are referred to metonymically as "the pure in heart" in their scriptures; the ancient people of Enoch sum it up by saying "the Lord called his people Zion, because they were of one heart and one mind, dwelt in righteousness.
In the Mormon fundamentalism movement, a more literal interpretation of Zion as a specific geographical location is held to more and a more stringent emphasis is placed upon individual and community lifestyle requirements that are considered, to be necessary prerequisites to establishing such a community. These requirements are referred to as "the fulness of the gospel" and as "ordinances," specific commandments which have long set this movement apart from mainstream Christianity; the two most noted requirements are the United Order and plural marriage, both of which are de-emphasized in the mainstream LDS Church and, in the case of plural marriage, expressly prohibited and denounced. A modern-day proponent of the Mormon fundamentalist movement, Ogden Kraut, summarized the fundamentalist/dissident position on "Zion" as follows: The Saints failed to live the higher l
The Mississippi River is the second-longest river and chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system. Its source is Lake Itasca in northern Minnesota and it flows south for 2,320 miles to the Mississippi River Delta in the Gulf of Mexico. With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains all or parts of 32 U. S. two Canadian provinces between the Rocky and Appalachian mountains. The main stem is within the United States; the Mississippi ranks as the fifteenth-largest river by discharge in the world. The river either borders or passes through the states of Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Tennessee, Arkansas and Louisiana. Native Americans have lived along its tributaries for thousands of years. Most were hunter-gatherers, but some, such as the Mound Builders, formed prolific agricultural societies; the arrival of Europeans in the 16th century changed the native way of life as first explorers settlers, ventured into the basin in increasing numbers.
The river served first as a barrier, forming borders for New Spain, New France, the early United States, as a vital transportation artery and communications link. In the 19th century, during the height of the ideology of manifest destiny, the Mississippi and several western tributaries, most notably the Missouri, formed pathways for the western expansion of the United States. Formed from thick layers of the river's silt deposits, the Mississippi embayment is one of the most fertile regions of the United States. During the American Civil War, the Mississippi's capture by Union forces marked a turning point towards victory, due to the river's strategic importance to the Confederate war effort; because of substantial growth of cities and the larger ships and barges that replaced steamboats, the first decades of the 20th century saw the construction of massive engineering works such as levees and dams built in combination. A major focus of this work has been to prevent the lower Mississippi from shifting into the channel of the Atchafalaya River and bypassing New Orleans.
Since the 20th century, the Mississippi River has experienced major pollution and environmental problems – most notably elevated nutrient and chemical levels from agricultural runoff, the primary contributor to the Gulf of Mexico dead zone. The word Mississippi itself comes from Misi zipi, the French rendering of the Anishinaabe name for the river, Misi-ziibi. In the 18th century, the river was the primary western boundary of the young United States, since the country's expansion westward, the Mississippi River has been considered a convenient if approximate dividing line between the Eastern and Midwestern United States, the Western United States; this is exemplified by the Gateway Arch in St. Louis and the phrase "Trans-Mississippi" as used in the name of the Trans-Mississippi Exposition, it is common to qualify a regionally superlative landmark in relation to it, such as "the highest peak east of the Mississippi" or "the oldest city west of the Mississippi". The FCC uses it as the dividing line for broadcast call-signs, which begin with W to the east and K to the west, mixing together in media markets along the river.
The Mississippi River can be divided into three sections: the Upper Mississippi, the river from its headwaters to the confluence with the Missouri River. The Upper Mississippi runs from its headwaters to its confluence with the Missouri River at St. Louis, Missouri, it is divided into two sections: The headwaters, 493 miles from the source to Saint Anthony Falls in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The source of the Upper Mississippi branch is traditionally accepted as Lake Itasca, 1,475 feet above sea level in Itasca State Park in Clearwater County, Minnesota; the name "Itasca" was chosen to designate the "true head" of the Mississippi River as a combination of the last four letters of the Latin word for truth and the first two letters of the Latin word for head. However, the lake is in turn fed by a number of smaller streams. From its origin at Lake Itasca to St. Louis, the waterway's flow is moderated by 43 dams. Fourteen of these dams are located above Minneapolis in the headwaters region and serve multiple purposes, including power generation and recreation.
The remaining 29 dams, beginning in downtown Minneapolis, all contain locks and were constructed to improve commercial navigation of the upper river. Taken as a whole, these 43 dams shape the geography and influence the ecology of the upper river. Beginning just below Saint Paul and continuing throughout the upper and lower river, the Mississippi is further controlled by thousands of wing dikes that moderate the river's flow in order to maintain an open navigation channel and prevent the river from eroding its banks; the head of navigation on the Mississippi is the Coon Rapids Dam in Minnesota. Before it was built in 1913, steamboats could go upstream as far as Saint Cloud, depending on river conditions; the uppermost lock and dam on the Upper Mississippi River is the Upper St. Anthony Falls Lock an
Caldwell County, Missouri
Caldwell County is a county located in Missouri, United States. As of the 2010 census, the county's population was 9,424, it is part of the Kansas City metropolitan area. Its county seat is Kingston; the county was organized December 29, 1836 and named by Alexander Doniphan to honor John Caldwell, who participated in George Rogers Clark's Native American Campaign of 1786 and was the second Lieutenant Governor of Kentucky. Caldwell County was established as a haven for Mormons, driven from Jackson County in November 1833 and had been refugees in adjacent Clay County since; the county was one of the principal settings of the 1838 Missouri Mormon War, which led to the expulsion of all Latter Day Saints from Missouri, following the issuance of an "extermination order" by then–Governor Lilburn Boggs. Caldwell County was part of Ray County; the first white settler was Jesse Mann, Sr. who settled one-half mile northeast of the public square of Kingston on Shoal Creek in 1831. The early settlers moved back south in 1832 for better protection during the Black Hawk War uprising.
A few Mormon settlers, evicted from Jackson County, moved into the county in 1832, included Jacob Haun, whose mill on Shoal Creek would become the scene of the bloodiest incident in the Mormon War, known as the Haun's Mill Massacre. The settlers established the first town in the county, two miles southeast of Kingston. A larger number of Mormons moved to the county in the fall of 1836; the Missouri General Assembly created Caldwell County in December 1836, with the understanding that it would be dedicated to Mormon settlers. Its county seat was Missouri. By 1838 Far West reported a population of 4,000; the major figures of early Mormon history, including Joseph Smith, Hyrum Smith, Brigham Young, John Taylor, Edward Partridge, Sidney Rigdon, Parley P. Pratt and John D. Lee, were included in the migration. Mormon settlers moved further north into Daviess County at Adam-ondi-Ahman after Smith proclaimed that it was the Biblical place where Adam and Eve were banished after leaving the Garden of Eden.
He said. The Mormon War erupted following a skirmish between original Missouri settlers and Mormon settlers in the Gallatin Election Day Battle. After the Missouri militia was routed in the Battle of Crooked Creek, Governor Lilburn Boggs issued Missouri Executive Order 44 to evict the Mormons from the state. Three days a group from Livingston County killed 18 Mormons in the Haun's Mill massacre. Troops laid siege to Far West, where Smith surrendered in October 1838; the settlers agreed to leave. Following the dissolution of Far West, the county seat was moved to present-day Kingston. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 430 square miles, of which 426 square miles is land and 3.2 square miles is water. Daviess County Livingston County Carroll County Ray County Clinton County DeKalb County U. S. Route 36 Route 13 Route 116 As of the census of 2000, there were 8,969 people, 3,523 households, 2,501 families residing in the county; the population density was 8/km². There were 4,493 housing units at an average density of 4/km².
The racial makeup of the county was 98.56% White, 0.13% Black or African American, 0.33% Native American, 0.12% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 0.18% from other races, 0.67% from two or more races. 0.75% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,523 households out of which 32.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.20% were married couples living together, 8.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.00% were non-families. 25.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51, the average family size was 3.04. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.10% under the age of 18, 7.10% from 18 to 24, 25.10% from 25 to 44, 23.70% from 45 to 64, 17.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 97.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,240, the median income for a family was $37,087.
Males had a median income of $28,710 versus $19,523 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,343. 11.90% of the population and 9.70% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 15.10% of those under the age of 18 and 12.90% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. Braymer C-4 School District – Braymer Braymer Elementary School Braymer High School Breckenridge R-I School District – Breckenridge Breckinridge Elementary School Breckinridge High School Cowgill R-VI School District – Cowgill Cowgill Elementary School Kingston School District No. 42 – Kingston Kingston Elementary School Mirabile C-1 School District – Polo Mirabile Elementary School New York R-IV School District – Hamilton New York Elementary School Polo R-VII School District – Polo Polo Elementary School Polo Middle School Polo High School Breckenridge Public Library Hamilton Public Library The Republican Party controls politics at the local level in Caldwell County. Republicans hold all but three of the elected positions in the county.
All of Caldwell County is a part of Missouri's 8th District in the Missouri House of Representatives and is represented by Jim Neely. All of Caldwell County is a part of Missouri's 21st D
Adam-ondi-Ahman is a historic site in Daviess County, about five miles south of Jameson. It is located along the east bluffs above the Grand River. According to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, it is the site where Adam and Eve lived after being expelled from the Garden of Eden, it teaches that the place will be a gathering spot for a meeting of the priesthood leadership, including prophets of all ages and other righteous people, prior to the Second Coming of Jesus Christ. The Latter Day Saints once proposed building a temple on the site; such efforts were halted in the 19th century as a result of the 1838 Mormon War to evict the Latter Day Saints from Missouri. Their having declared Adam-ondi-Ahman as a sacred site for a temple was a flash point in that confrontation. After the Latter Day Saints were evicted, residents renamed the site Cravensville, it was the site of a skirmish during the American Civil War on August 4, 1862, when Union troops attempted to stop Confederate reinforcements in the First Battle of Independence.
Six Confederates were killed and 10 wounded. The Union forces had five wounded. Today, most of the site is owned by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and is used predominantly as farmland. In the 1830s, Latter Day Saints being forced out of Jackson County, settled just south of Daviess County in Caldwell County, in the settlement of Far West. In February 1838, Lyman Wight built a home and established a ferry on the Grand River at a spot known as "Wight's Ferry." That spring, Joseph Smith visited the site. He proclaimed there were either three altars built by Adam at the site. One altar Smith called the "altar of prayer", it was described as "sixteen feet long, by nine or ten feet wide, having its greatest extent north and south. The height of the altar at each end was some two and a half feet rising higher to the center, between four and five feet high—the whole surface being crowning." The other altar—called the "altar of sacrifice"—was said to be a mile to the north on top of Spring Hill.
On May 19, 1838, Smith formally revealed his belief that Adam-ondi-Ahman was the place where Adam and Eve went after being exiled from the Garden of Eden. On June 25, 1838, at a conference in Wight's orchard, a Latter Day Saint settlement at Adam-ondi-Ahman was formally established. Within a few months, its population grew to 1500. Non-Mormon settlers grew worried that the Latter Day Saints would seize political control of Daviess County. On August 6, 1838, a group of non-Mormons tried to prevent Latter Day Saint settlers from voting in the local elections at Gallatin; the Mormons fought back and defeated the mob in a skirmish that came to be known as the Gallatin Election Day Battle. This was the opening skirmish in the Mormon War. In the course of the conflict, non-Mormon vigilantes from neighboring counties came to Daviess and burned Latter Day Saint homes. Latter Day Saint refugees gathered at Adam-ondi-Ahman for protection. Latter Day Saints responded to the attacks by leading their own forces from Caldwell County.
Missouri Governor Lilburn Boggs issued Missouri Executive Order 44, in which he called out 2500 militiamen and threatened to "exterminate" the Mormon community. In October 1838, Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball and other Latter Day Saint leaders gathered to dedicate the temple square on the highest point on the bluff. Smith and others surrendered on November 1, 1838, on charges of murder, theft and treason. After a preliminary court hearing was held November 12 to 29 in Richmond and Wight were transferred to the jail in Liberty. On November 7, 1838, the Latter Day Saints were told, they moved to Missouri. On April 9, 1839, Smith was sent to the Daviess County Jail in Gallatin for a hearing, where a grand jury indicted him. On April 15, following the granting of a change of venue, Smith was permitted by his guards to escape while en route to Boone County, Missouri, a day after getting supplies at Adam-ondi-Ahman. Most of the Latter Day Saints had left Missouri by early 1839; the refugees gathered in Illinois and regrouped at the new Mormon center of Nauvoo.
Although many Latter Day Saints were tried for their part in the war, no non-Mormon vigilantes were brought to trial. Because the Latter Day Saints held their lands in Adam-ondi-Ahman by preemption, all of their rights and improvements were lost when they were forced to leave, their losses are recorded in a set of Mormon Redress Petitions collected and edited by Clark V. Johnson. Most of the land in Adam-ondi-Ahman was purchased by John Cravens, who renamed the town "Cravensville." Today, 3000 acres of Adam-ondi-Ahman is owned and maintained as a historic site by the LDS Church and remains undeveloped farmland. Adam-ondi-Ahman is the subject of a revelation received by Joseph Smith and recorded in the LDS Church edition of the Doctrine and Covenants, a book of scripture within the Latter Day Saint movement: "Spring Hill is named by the Lord Adam-ondi-Ahman, said he, it is the place where Adam shall come to visit his people, or the Ancient of Days shall sit, as spoken of by Daniel the prophet."Contemporaries of Smith stated that he taught that the Garden of Eden was located in the vicinity of Independence and that after Adam and Eve were banished from the garden, they went to Adam-ondi-Ahman.
According to a revelation declared by Smith, Adam met his children at the site three years before his death to bestow his blessing. LDS Church leader Joseph Fielding Smith has written that before the Second Coming, Adam will convene another meeting there to turn the government of the hum