Latter Day Saint movement
The Latter Day Saint movement is the collection of independent church groups that trace their origins to a Christian primitivist movement founded by Joseph Smith in the late 1820s. Collectively, these churches have over 16 million members, although the vast majority of these—about 98%—belong to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints; the predominant theology of the churches in the movement is Mormonism, a form of Christianity categorized as Restorationist. A minority of Latter Day Saint adherents, such as members of the Community of Christ, believe in traditional Protestant theology, have distanced themselves from some of the distinctive doctrines of the LDS Church. Other groups include the Remnant Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, which supports lineal succession of leadership from Smith's descendants, the more controversial Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, which defends the practice of polygamy; the movement began in western New York during the Second Great Awakening when Smith said that he received visions revealing a new sacred text, the Book of Mormon, which he published in 1830 as a complement to the Bible.
Based on the teachings of this book and other revelations, Smith founded a Christian primitivist church, called the "Church of Christ". The Book of Mormon attracted hundreds of early followers, who became known as "Mormons", "Latter Day Saints", or just "Saints". In 1831, moved the church headquarters to Kirtland, in 1838 changed its name to the "Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints". After the church in Ohio collapsed due to a financial crisis and dissensions, in 1838, Smith and the body of the church moved to Missouri where they were persecuted and forced to Illinois. After Smith's death in 1844, a succession crisis led to the organization splitting into several groups; the largest of these, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, migrated under the leadership of Brigham Young to the Great Basin and became known for its 19th-century practice of polygamy. The LDS Church renounced this practice in 1890, discontinued it, resulting in the Utah Territory becoming a U. S. state. This change resulted in the formation of a number of small sects who sought to maintain polygamy and other 19th-century doctrines and practices, now referred to as "Mormon fundamentalism".
Other groups originating within the Latter Day Saint movement followed different paths in Missouri, Illinois and Pennsylvania. For the most part, these groups rejected plural marriage and some of Smith's teachings; the largest of these, the Community of Christ, was formed in Illinois in 1860 by several groups uniting around Smith's son, Joseph Smith III. The founder of the Latter Day Saint movement was Joseph Smith, to a lesser extent, during the movement's first two years, Oliver Cowdery. Throughout his life, Smith told of an experience he had as a boy having seen God the Father and Jesus Christ as two separate beings, who told him that the true church of Jesus Christ had been lost and would be restored through him, that he would be given the authority to organize and lead the true Church of Christ. Smith and Cowdery explained that the angels John the Baptist, Peter and John visited them in 1829 and gave them priesthood authority to reestablish the Church of Christ; the first Latter Day Saint church was formed on April 6, 1830, consisting of a community of believers in the western New York towns of Fayette and Colesville.
The church was formally organized under the name of the "Church of Christ". By 1834, the church was referred to as the "Church of the Latter Day Saints" in early church publications, in 1838 Smith announced that he had received a revelation from God that changed the name to the "Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints". In 1844, William Law and several other Latter Day Saints in church leadership positions publicly denounced Smith's secret practice of polygamy in the Nauvoo Expositor, formed their own church; the city council of Nauvoo, led by Smith, subsequently had the printing press of the Expositor destroyed. In spite of Smith's offer to pay damages for destroyed property, critics of Smith and the church considered the destruction heavy-handed; some called for the Latter Day Saints to be either destroyed. Joseph Smith and his brother Hyrum, the Assistant President of the Church, were both assassinated by a mob while in a Carthage, Illinois jail, several bodies within the church claimed to be the senior surviving authority and appointed successors.
These various claims resulted in a succession crisis. Many supported the President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. Emma Hale Smith failed to persuade William Marks, the president of the Presiding High Council and a Rigdon supporter, to assume leadership and the surviving members of Smith's immediate family remained unaffiliated with any larger body until 1860, when they formed the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints with Joseph's eldest son as prophet; these various groups are sometimes referred to under two geographical headings: "Prairie Saints". Today, the vast majority of Latter Day Saints belong to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, which reports over 16 million members worldwide; the second-largest
Jerusalem is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea. It is one of the oldest cities in the world, is considered holy to the three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism and Islam. Both Israel and the Palestinian Authority claim Jerusalem as their capital, as Israel maintains its primary governmental institutions there and the State of Palestine foresees it as its seat of power. During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times and recaptured 44 times, attacked 52 times; the part of Jerusalem called the City of David shows first signs of settlement in the 4th millennium BCE, in the shape of encampments of nomadic shepherds. Jerusalem was named as "Urusalim" on ancient Egyptian tablets meaning "City of Shalem" after a Canaanite deity, during the Canaanite period. During the Israelite period, significant construction activity in Jerusalem began in the 9th century BCE, in the 8th century the city developed into the religious and administrative center of the Kingdom of Judah.
In 1538, the city walls were rebuilt for a last time around Jerusalem under Suleiman the Magnificent. Today those walls define the Old City, traditionally divided into four quarters—known since the early 19th century as the Armenian, Christian and Muslim Quarters; the Old City became a World Heritage Site in 1981, is on the List of World Heritage in Danger. Since 1860 Jerusalem has grown far beyond the Old City's boundaries. In 2015, Jerusalem had a population of some 850,000 residents, comprising 200,000 secular Jewish Israelis, 350,000 Haredi Jews and 300,000 Palestinians. In 2011, the population numbered 801,000, of which Jews comprised 497,000, Muslims 281,000, Christians 14,000 and 9,000 were not classified by religion. According to the Bible, King David conquered the city from the Jebusites and established it as the capital of the united kingdom of Israel, his son, King Solomon, commissioned the building of the First Temple. Modern scholars argue that Jews branched out of the Canaanite peoples and culture through the development of a distinct monolatrous — and monotheistic — religion centered on El/Yahweh, one of the Ancient Canaanite deities.
These foundational events, straddling the dawn of the 1st millennium BCE, assumed central symbolic importance for the Jewish people. The sobriquet of holy city was attached to Jerusalem in post-exilic times; the holiness of Jerusalem in Christianity, conserved in the Septuagint which Christians adopted as their own authority, was reinforced by the New Testament account of Jesus's crucifixion there. In Sunni Islam, Jerusalem is the third-holiest city, after Medina. In Islamic tradition, in 610 CE it became the first qibla, the focal point for Muslim prayer, Muhammad made his Night Journey there ten years ascending to heaven where he speaks to God, according to the Quran; as a result, despite having an area of only 0.9 square kilometres, the Old City is home to many sites of seminal religious importance, among them the Temple Mount with its Western Wall, Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa Mosque, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Outside the Old City stands the Garden Tomb. Today, the status of Jerusalem remains one of the core issues in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.
During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, West Jerusalem was among the areas captured and annexed by Israel while East Jerusalem, including the Old City, was captured and annexed by Jordan. Israel captured East Jerusalem from Jordan during the 1967 Six-Day War and subsequently annexed it into Jerusalem, together with additional surrounding territory. One of Israel's Basic Laws, the 1980 Jerusalem Law, refers to Jerusalem as the country's undivided capital. All branches of the Israeli government are located in Jerusalem, including the Knesset, the residences of the Prime Minister and President, the Supreme Court. While the international community rejected the annexation as illegal and treats East Jerusalem as Palestinian territory occupied by Israel, Israel has a stronger claim to sovereignty over West Jerusalem. A city called Rušalim in the execration texts of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt is but not universally, identified as Jerusalem. Jerusalem is called Urušalim in the Amarna letters of Abdi-Heba.
The name "Jerusalem" is variously etymologized to mean "foundation of the god Shalem". Shalim or Shalem was the name of the god of dusk in the Canaanite religion, whose name is based on the same root S-L-M from which the Hebrew word for "peace" is derived; the name thus offered itself to etymologizations such as "The City of Peace", "Abode of Peace", "dwelling of peace", alternately "Vision of Peace" in some Christian authors. The ending -ayim indicates the dual, thus leading to the suggestion that the name Yerushalayim refers to the fact that the city sat on two hills; the form Yerushalem or Yerushalayim first appears in the Book of Joshua. According to a Midrash, the name is a combination of "Yireh" and "Shalem" the two names were un
Theocracy is a form of government in which a religious institution is the source from which all authority derives. The Oxford English Dictionary has this definition: 1. A system of government in which priests rule in the name of a god. 1.1. The commonwealth of Israel from the time of Moses until the election of Saul as King. An ecclesiocracy is a situation where the religious leaders assume a leading role in the state, but do not claim that they are instruments of divine revelation: for example, the prince-bishops of the European Middle Ages, where the bishop was the temporal ruler; such a state may use the administrative hierarchy of the religion for its own administration, or it may have two "arms"—administrators and clergy—but with the state administrative hierarchy subordinate to the religious hierarchy. Theocracy differs from theonomy, the latter of, government based on divine law; the papacy in the Papal States occupied a middle ground between theocracy and ecclesiocracy, since the Pope did not claim he was a prophet who received revelation from God and translated it into civil law.
Religiously endorsed monarchies fall between theocracy and ecclesiocracy, according to the relative strengths of the religious and political organs. Most forms of theocracy are oligarchic in nature, involving rule of the many by the few, some of whom so anointed under claim of divine commission; the word theocracy originates from the Greek θεοκρατία meaning "the rule of God". This in turn derives from θεός, meaning "god", κρατέω, meaning "to rule", thus the meaning of the word in Greek was "rule by god" or human incarnation of god. The term was coined by Flavius Josephus in the first century A. D. to describe the characteristic government of the Jews. Josephus argued that while mankind had developed many forms of rule, most could be subsumed under the following three types: monarchy and democracy; the government of the Jews, was unique. Josephus offered the term "theocracy" to describe this polity, ordained by Moses, in which God is sovereign and his word is law. Josephus' definition was accepted until the Enlightenment era, when the term started to collect more universalistic and negative connotations in Hegel's hands.
The first recorded English use was in 1622, with the meaning "sacerdotal government under divine inspiration". In some religions, the ruler a king, was regarded as the chosen favorite of God who could not be questioned, sometimes being the descendant of, or a god in their own right. Today, there is a form of government where clerics have the power and the supreme leader could not be questioned in action. From the perspective of the theocratic government, "God himself is recognized as the head" of the state, hence the term theocracy, from the Koine Greek θεοκρατία "rule of God", a term used by Josephus for the kingdoms of Israel and Judah. Taken theocracy means rule by God or gods and refers to an internal "rule of the heart" in its biblical application; the common, generic use of the term, as defined above in terms of rule by a church or analogous religious leadership, would be more described as an ecclesiocracy. In a pure theocracy, the civil leader is believed to have a personal connection with the civilization's religion or belief.
For example, Moses led the Israelites, Muhammad led the early Muslims. There is a fine line between the tendency of appointing religious characters to run the state and having a religious-based government. According to the Holy Books, Prophet Joseph was offered an essential governmental role just because he was trustworthy and knowledgeable; as a result of the Prophet Joseph's knowledge and due to his ethical and genuine efforts during a critical economic situation, the whole nation was rescued from a seven-year drought. When religions have a "holy book", it is used as a direct message from God. Law proclaimed by the ruler is considered a divine revelation, hence the law of God; as to the Prophet Muhammad ruling, "The first thirteen of the Prophet's twenty-three year career went on apolitical and non-violent. This attitude changed only after he had to flee from Mecca to Medina; this hijra, or migration, would be a turning point in the Prophet's mission and would mark the beginning of the Muslim calendar.
Yet the Prophet did not establish a theocracy in Medina. Instead of a polity defined by Islam, he founded a territorial polity based on religious pluralism; this is evident in a document called the ’Charter of Medina’, which the Prophet signed with the leaders of the other community in the city."According to the Quran, Prophets were not after power or material resources. For example in surah 26 verses, the Koran quotes from Prophets, Hud, Salih and Shu'aib that: "I do not ask you for it any payment. While, in theocracy many aspects of the holy book are overshadowed by material powers. Due to be considered divine, the regime entitles itself to interpret verses to its own benefit and abuse them out of the context for its political aims. An ecclesiocracy, on the other hand, is a situation where the religious leaders assume a leading role in the state, but do not claim that they are instruments of divine revelation. For example, the prince-bishops of the European Middle Ages, where the bishop was the temporal ruler.
Such a state may use the administrative hierarchy of the religion for its own administration, or it may have two "arms"—administrators and clergy—but
Theodemocracy is a theocratic political system propounded by Joseph Smith, founder of the Latter Day Saint movement. According to Smith, a theodemocracy is a fusion of traditional republican democratic principles - under the United States Constitution - along with theocratic rule. Smith described it as a system under which God and the people held the power to rule in righteousness. Smith believed that this would be the form of government that would rule the world upon the Second Coming of Christ; this polity would constitute the "Kingdom of God", foretold by the prophet Daniel in the Old Testament. Theodemocratic principles played a minor role in the forming of the State of Deseret in the American Old West. Early Latter Day Saints were Jacksonian Democrats and were involved in representative republican political processes. According to historian Marvin S. Hill, "the Latter-day Saints saw the maelstrom of competing faiths and social institutions in the early nineteenth century as evidence of social upheaval and found confirmation in the rioting and violence that characterized Jacksonian America."
Smith wrote in 1842 that earthly governments "have failed in all their attempts to promote eternal peace and happiness... is rent, from center to circumference, with party strife, political intrigues, sectional interest."Smith's belief was that only a government led by deity could banish the destructiveness of unlimited faction and bring order and happiness to the earth. Mormon Apostle Orson Pratt stated in 1855, the government of God "is a government of union." Smith believed that a theodemocratic polity would be the literal fulfillment of Christ's prayer in the Gospel of Matthew, "Thy kingdom come, Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven."Further, Smith taught that the Kingdom of God, which he called the restored gospel of Jesus Christ, would hold dominion in the last days over all other kingdoms as foretold in the Book of Daniel. Smith stated in May 1844, "I calculate to be one of the instruments of setting up the kingdom of Daniel by the word of the Lord, I intend to lay a foundation that will revolutionize the world...
It will not be by sword or gun that this kingdom will roll on: the power of truth is such that all nations will be under the necessity of obeying the Gospel."In 1859, LDS President Brigham Young equated the terms "republican theocracy" and "democratic theocracy", expressed his understanding of them when he taught, "The kingdom that the Almighty will set up in the latter days will have its officers, those officers will be peace. Every man that officiates in a public capacity will be filled with the Spirit of God, with the light of God, with the power of God, will understand right from wrong, truth from error, light from darkness, that which tends to life and that which tends to death.... They will say...'he Lord does not, neither will we control you in the least in the exercise of your agency. We place the principles of life before you. Do as you please, we will protect you in your rights....'"The theodemocratic system was to be based on principles extant in the United States Constitution, held sacred the will of the people and individual rights.
Indeed, the United States and the Constitution in particular were revered by Smith and his followers. However, in a theodemocratic system, God was to be the ultimate power and would give law to the people which they would be free to accept or reject based on republican principles. Somewhat analogous to a federal system within a theodemocracy, sovereignty would reside jointly with the people and with God. Various inconsistencies exist in this framework, such as how humans could resist the laws of an all-powerful God, or how citizens could be assured that the authority of God rather than the humans interpreting His will was being exercised. While Christ would be the "king of kings" and "lord of lords," He would only intermittently reside on Earth and the government would be left in the hands of mortal men. Young explained that a theodemocracy would consist of "many officers and branches...as there are now to that of the United States." It is known that the Council of Fifty, which Smith organized in Nauvoo, Illinois in 1844, was meant to be the central municipal body within such a system.
The Council included many members of the LDS central leadership. However it included several prominent non-Mormons. Full consensus was required for the Council to pass any measures, each participant was encouraged and in fact commanded to speak their minds on all issues brought before the body. Debate would continue. However, if consensus could not be reached Smith would "seek the will of the Lord" and break the deadlock through divine revelation. On the day of the council's organization, John Taylor, Willard Richards, William W. Phelps, Parley P. Pratt were appointed a committee to "draft a constitution which should be perfect, embrace those principles which the constitution of the United States lacked." Joseph Smith and other council members criticized the U. S. Constitution for not protecting liberty with enough vigor. After the council's committee reported its draft of the constitution, Smith instructed the council to "let the constitution alone." He dictated a revelation: "Verily thus saith the Lord, ye are my constitution, I am your God, ye are my spokesmen.
From henceforth do. Saith the Lord." Although theodemocracy was envisioned to be a unifying force which would minimize faction, it should not be viewed as a repudiation of the individualistic principles underlying American Liberalism. According to James T. McHugh, Mormon theology was "comfortable...with human-centric vision of both the Protestant Reformation
Ward (LDS Church)
In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, a ward is the larger of two types of local congregations, the smaller being a branch. A ward is presided over by a bishop, the equivalent of a pastor in many other Christian denominations; as with all local LDS Church leadership, the bishop is considered lay clergy and as such is not paid. Two counselors serve with the bishop to help with administrative and spiritual duties of the ward and to preside in the absence of the bishop. Together, these three men constitute the bishopric. A branch is presided over by a branch president who may or may not have one or two counselors, depending on the size of the branch. Groups of wards are organized into stakes; the term ward referred to the political subdivision of some of the municipalities in the mid-western United States where members of the LDS Church resided, in particular the political organization of Nauvoo, Illinois, in the 1840s. Bishops were assigned duties and responsibility over specific ward boundaries in these cities, over time individual congregations were defined by these boundaries.
After the Mormon Exodus to Utah, this same terminology was preserved in the establishment of communities throughout the western United States. Voting districts of several Utah communities still follow the historical boundaries of their original LDS Church congregations. Due to the religious connection of this term, traditional Mormon pioneer communities do not use the term ward to define voting districts for political purposes. A ward consists of 150 to 500 church members in an area within a reasonable travel time of the meetinghouse. A stake, the next highest level of organization, may be created if there are at least five ward-sized branches in adjacent areas. Once the stake has been organized, the ward-sized branches are organized into wards. Within the United States and Canada, a minimum of 300 members is required to create a ward; each ward requires at least 15 full-tithe-paying Melchizedek priesthood holders. If there are not sufficient congregations in an area to form a stake, a district is formed to oversee local congregations.
There is no minimum or maximum geographical size for a ward: In areas where there are greater numbers of active church members, several wards can exist in only 1 square mile. When the ward membership grows to a certain size, the ward will be divided. If both geographic divisions are in a reasonable distance of the meetinghouse, they will meet at the same building, but at different times. Most meetinghouses are designed to house up to four wards. Individuals can find out what ward they reside in by either talking to a local LDS leader or by using the meetinghouse locator tool on the church's webpage; this tool will determine if there are any singles wards or special language wards that serve the area. Unlike most religions, members are expected to attend the specific ward they reside in and are discouraged from choosing a different congregation that meets in a different place or at a more convenient time. There are some exceptions to this rule but for the most part members are discouraged from "shopping" for a different ward, more convenient for them, or that has one where they might attend with friends or relatives, or that has a more likeable leader.
Singles wards are set up in areas with high populations of single adults. Young Single Adult wards are intended for single members ages 18 to 30, Single Adult wards are for single members over the age of 30. Non-custodial parents may be members of these wards on a case-by-case basis; these wards provide. Members are taught the same principles of the gospel as a traditional ward, while receiving attention particular to their spiritual needs. Singles wards are different in that they overlap several other regular wards geographically crossing stake boundaries. Single adult members may choose to attend their regular "home" ward. Since it is a doctrinal requirement that the bishop of a ward be married, this man will be called from another ward in the host stake of the singles ward. Men to fill the other positions, such as counselors in the bishopric, an executive secretary, ward clerks, may be called from other wards in the stake or may be called from among the members of the singles ward. A primary goal of a singles ward is to provide its members the chance to meet other singles of the opposite sex and to be married.
Singles in a certain area can more find other singles of similar interests and beliefs, find a spouse. Home Evening groups are formed to allow both the young single adults and single adults to conduct activities similar to those practiced in Family Home Evening. Although there may be Home Evening groups wherever there are LDS wards, they are more prominent in LDS singles wards; the groups are sometimes led by a young man and a young woman jokingly referred to as the Home Evening group "mom" and "dad."YSA ward culture was portrayed and parodied in the 2002 movie The Singles Ward. In 2011, YSA ward and stakes were reorganized and realigned to remove the distinction of a "student" ward from a traditional YSA ward. YSA wards were organized as either college/university wards o
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States. With over six million residents, it is the 18th-most populous state of the Union; the largest urban areas are St. Louis, Kansas City and Columbia; the state is the 21st-most extensive in area. In the South are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber and recreation; the Missouri River, after which the state is named, flows through the center of the state into the Mississippi River, which makes up Missouri's eastern border. Humans have inhabited the land now known as Missouri for at least 12,000 years; the Mississippian culture built mounds, before declining in the 14th century. When European explorers arrived in the 17th century they encountered the Osage and Missouria nations; the French established Louisiana, a part of New France, founded Ste. Genevieve in 1735 and St. Louis in 1764. After a brief period of Spanish rule, the United States acquired the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Americans from the Upland South, including enslaved African Americans, rushed into the new Missouri Territory.
Missouri was admitted as a slave state as part of the Missouri Compromise. Many from Virginia and Tennessee settled in the Boonslick area of Mid-Missouri. Soon after, heavy German immigration formed the Missouri Rhineland. Missouri played a central role in the westward expansion of the United States, as memorialized by the Gateway Arch; the Pony Express, Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, California Trail all began in Missouri. As a border state, Missouri's role in the American Civil War was complex and there were many conflicts within. After the war, both Greater St. Louis and the Kansas City metropolitan area became centers of industrialization and business. Today, the state is divided into the independent city of St. Louis. Missouri's culture blends elements from Southern United States; the musical styles of ragtime, Kansas City jazz, St. Louis Blues developed in Missouri; the well-known Kansas City-style barbecue, lesser-known St. Louis-style barbecue, can be found across the state and beyond. Missouri is a major center of beer brewing.
Missouri wine is produced in Ozarks. Missouri's alcohol laws are among the most permissive in the United States. Outside of the state's major cities, popular tourist destinations include the Lake of the Ozarks, Table Rock Lake, Branson. Well-known Missourians include U. S. President Harry S. Truman, Mark Twain, Walt Disney, Chuck Berry, Nelly; some of the largest companies based in the state include Cerner, Express Scripts, Emerson Electric, Edward Jones, H&R Block, Wells Fargo Advisors, O'Reilly Auto Parts. Missouri has been called the "Mother of the West" and the "Cave State"; the state is named for the Missouri River, named after the indigenous Missouri Indians, a Siouan-language tribe. It is said that they were called the ouemessourita, meaning "those who have dugout canoes", by the Miami-Illinois language speakers; this appears to be folk etymology—the Illinois spoke an Algonquian language and the closest approximation that can be made in that of their close neighbors, the Ojibwe, is "You Ought to Go Downriver & Visit Those People."
This would be an odd occurrence, as the French who first explored and attempted to settle the Mississippi River got their translations during that time accurate giving things French names that were exact translations of the native tongue. Assuming Missouri were deriving from the Siouan language, it would translate as "It connects to the side of it," in reference to the river itself; this is not likely either, as this would be coming out as "Maya Sunni" Most though, the name Missouri comes from Chiwere, a Siouan language spoken by people who resided in the modern day states of Wisconsin, South Dakota, Missouri & Nebraska. The name "Missouri" has several different pronunciations among its present-day natives, the two most common being and. Further pronunciations exist in Missouri or elsewhere in the United States, involving the realization of the first syllable as either or. Any combination of these phonetic realizations may be observed coming from speakers of American English; the linguistic history was treated definitively by Donald M. Lance, who acknowledged that the question is sociologically complex, but that no pronunciation could be declared "correct", nor could any be defined as native or outsider, rural or urban, southern or northern, educated or otherwise.
Politicians employ multiple pronunciations during a single speech, to appeal to a greater number of listeners. Informal respellings of the state's name, such as "Missour-ee" or "Missour-uh", are used informally to phonetically distinguish pronunciations. There is no official state nickname. However, Missouri's unofficial nickname is the "Show Me State"; this phrase has several origins. One is popularly ascribed to a speech by Congressman Willard Vandiver in 1899, who declared that "I come from a state that raises corn and cotton and Democrats, frothy eloquence neither convinces nor satisfies me. I'm from Missouri, you have got to show me." This is in keeping with the saying "I'm from Missouri" which means "I'm skeptical of the matter and not convinced." However, according to researchers, the phrase "show me" was in use
Community of Christ
Community of Christ, known from 1872 to 2001 as the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, is an American-based international church with roots in the Latter Day Saint movement. The church reports 197,000 in 60 nations; the church traces its origins to Joseph Smith's establishment of the Church of Christ on April 6, 1830. A group of members including his elder son formally reorganized on April 6, 1860 in the aftermath of the 1844 death of Joseph Smith, forming The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints; the Community of Christ is rooted in Restorationist traditions. Although in some respects it is congruent with mainline Protestant Christian attitudes, it is in many ways theologically distinct, continuing such features as prophetic revelation, it is the second-largest denomination within the Latter Day Saint movement. Community of Christ worship follows a non-liturgical tradition based loosely on the Revised Common Lectionary. From its headquarters in Independence, the church offers a special focus on evangelism and justice ministries and wholeness, youth ministries and outreach ministries.
Church teachings emphasize that "all are called" as "persons of worth" to "share the peace of Christ". Known as the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, the Community of Christ regards itself as the true embodiment of the original church organized in 1830 by Joseph Smith, it regards Joseph Smith III, the eldest surviving son of Smith, to have been his legitimate successor; the church was "legally organized on April 6, 1830, in Fayette, New York". The formal reorganization occurred on April 6, 1860, in Amboy, Illinois, as the "Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints", adding the word Reorganized to the church name in 1872; the Community of Christ today considers the period from 1830 to 1844 to be a part of its early history and from 1844, the year of the death of the founder, to 1860, to be a period of disorganization. Since 1844, the doctrines and practices of the Community of Christ have evolved separately from the other denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement.
Since the 1960s, the church's proselytizing outside North America forced a re-assessment and a gradual evolution of its practices and beliefs. Some changes included the ordination of women to the priesthood, open communion, changing the church's name from the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints to the current name in April 2001; these changes were controversial among the membership, they led to the formation of breakaway churches such as the Remnant Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Between the mid-1960s and the late 1990s, there was a one-third decline in new baptisms in the United States along with a 50 percent drop in contributions in the decade before 1998; the church owns two temples: the Kirtland Temple, dedicated in 1836 in Kirtland and the new Independence Temple, which serves as the church's headquarters in Independence, Missouri. These structures are open to the public and are used for education and gatherings; the church owns and operates some Latter Day Saint historic sites in Lamoni and Plano and Nauvoo, Illinois.
The Auditorium in Independence houses the Children's Peace Pavilion and is the site of the major legislative assembly of the Community of Christ, which convenes during the World Conference. The church sponsors Graceland University, with a campus in Lamoni and another in Independence, where the School of Nursing and the Community of Christ Seminary are based; the current vision and mission statements of the Community of Christ were adopted in 1996 by the leading quorums of the church's leadership and reflect the peace and justice centered ministries of the denomination. In its mission statement, the church declares that "e proclaim Jesus Christ and promote communities of joy, hope and peace." The vision statement states that "We will become a worldwide church dedicated to the pursuit of peace and healing of the spirit." The Community of Christ states that it recognizes that "perception of truth is always qualified by human nature and experience" and it therefore has not adopted an official religious creed.
The Community of Christ offers a number of the held beliefs of its members and leaders as the "generally accepted beliefs of the church." As Stephen M. Veazey, current president of the church states, "Community of Christ is a church that provides light for the way as well as space for the personal faith journey."The Community of Christ accepts the doctrine of the Trinity and other held Christian beliefs. The concept of Zion as both a present reality of Christian living and as a hoped for community of the future is a rather held belief in the Community of Christ and it ties to the peace and justice emphasis of the denomination; the movement differs from most other Christian faiths in its belief in prophetic leadership, in the Book of Mormon, in an open canon of scripture recorded in its version of the Doctrine and Covenants, appended. The Community of Christ teaches that the "one eternal living God is triune", it acknowledges God, a community of three persons, as the Creator and the Source of love and truth.
It states that "his God alone is worthy of worship". Jesus Christ is described as both Savior and as a living expression of God and is acknowledged as having lived and been resurrected; as the name of the denomination implies, Jesus Christ is central to its members' worship. The Comm