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A municipality is a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished from the county, which may encompass rural territory or numerous small communities such as towns and hamlets; the term municipality may mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district; the term is derived from French Latin municipalis. The English word municipality derives from the Latin social contract municipium, referring to the Latin communities that supplied Rome with troops in exchange for their own incorporation into the Roman state while permitting the communities to retain their own local governments. A municipality can be any political jurisdiction from a sovereign state, such as the Principality of Monaco, to a small village, such as West Hampton Dunes, New York.
The territory over which a municipality has jurisdiction may encompass only one populated place such as a city, town, or village several of such places only parts of such places, sometimes boroughs of a city such as the 34 municipalities of Santiago, Chile. Powers of municipalities range from virtual autonomy to complete subordination to the state. Municipalities may have the right to tax individuals and corporations with income tax, property tax, corporate income tax, but may receive substantial funding from the state. In various countries, municipalities are referred to as "communes", notably in Romance languages such as French commune, Italian comune, Romanian comună, Spanish comuna, in Germanic languages such as German Kommune, Swedish kommun, Faroese kommuna, Norwegian, Danish kommune. However, in Moldova and Romania exist both municipalities and communes, a commune may be part of a municipality. Similar terms include Spanish ayuntamiento called municipalidad, Polish gmina, Dutch/Flemish Gemeente and Luxembourgish Gemeng.
In Australia, the term local government area is used in place of the generic municipality. Here, the "LGA Structure covers only incorporated areas of Australia. Incorporated areas are designated parts of states and territories over which incorporated local governing bodies have responsibility." In Canada, municipalities are local governments established through provincial and territorial legislation within general municipal statutes. Types of municipalities within Canada include cities, district municipalities, municipal districts, parishes, rural municipalities, townships and villes among others; the Province of Ontario has different tiers of municipalities, including lower and single tiers. Types of upper tier municipalities in Ontario include regional municipalities. Nova Scotia has regional municipalities, which include cities, districts, or towns as municipal units. In India, a Municipality or Nagar Palika is an urban local body that administers a city of population 100,000 or more. However, there are exceptions to that, as Municipality were constituted in urban centers with population over 20,000, so all the urban bodies which were classified as Municipality were reclassified as Municipality if their population was under 100,000.
Under the Panchayati Raj system, it interacts directly with the state government, though it is administratively part of the district it is located in. Smaller district cities and bigger towns have a Municipality. Municipality are a form of local self-government entrusted with some duties and responsibilities, as enshrined in the Constitutional Act,1992. In the United Kingdom, the term was used until the 1972 Local Government Act came into effect in 1974 in England and Wales, until 1975 in Scotland and 1976 in Northern Ireland, "both for a city or town, organized for self-government under a municipal corporation, for the governing body itself; such a corporation in Great Britain consists of a head as a mayor or provost, of superior members, as aldermen and councillors". Since local government reorganisation, the unit in England, Northern Ireland and Wales is known as a district, in Scotland as a council area. A district can retain its district title. In Jersey, a municipality refers to the honorary officials elected to run each of the 12 parishes into which it is subdivided.
This is the highest level of regional government in this jurisdiction. In Trinidad and Tobago, "municipality" is understood as a city, town, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. A town may be awarded borough status and on may be upgraded to city status. Chaguanas, San Fernando, Port of Spain and Point Fortin are the 5 current municipalities in Trinidad and Tobago. In the United States, "municipality" is understood as a city, village, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. In a state law contex
Barañáin or Barañain is a town and municipality located in the province and autonomous community of Navarre, northern Spain. Ayuntamiento de Barañáin BARAÑAIN in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Burguete is a town and municipality located in the province and autonomous community of Navarre, northern Spain. Ernest Hemingway lodged in Burguete in 1924 and 1925 for a fishing trip to the Irati River, describes it in his novel The Sun Also Rises. AURITZ / BURGUETE in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Navarre. The capital city is Pamplona; the first documented use of a name resembling Navarra, Nafarroa, or Naparroa is a reference to navarros, in Eginhard's early-9th-century chronicle of the feats of the Holy Roman Emperor Charlemagne. Other Royal Frankish Annals feature nabarros. There are two proposed etymologies for the name. Basque nabar: "brownish", "multicolour". Basque naba: "valley", "plain" + Basque herri; the linguist Joan Coromines considers naba to be linguistically part of a wider Vasconic or Aquitanian language substrate, rather than Basque per se. During the Roman Empire, the Vascones, a pre-Roman tribe, populated the southern slopes of the Pyrenees, including the area which would become Navarre. In the mountainous north, the Vascones escaped large-scale Roman settlement, except for some coastal areas—for example Oiasso —and the flatter areas to the south, which were amenable to large-scale Roman farming—vineyards and wheat crops. There is no evidence of battles fought or general hostility between Romans and Basques, as they had the same enemies.
Neither the Visigoths nor the Franks completely subjugated the area. The Vascones assimilated neighbouring tribes as of the 7th century AD. In the year 778, the Basques defeated a Frankish army at the Battle of Roncevaux Pass. Following the Battle of Roncevaux Pass, the Basque chieftain Iñigo Arista was elected King of Pamplona supported by the muwallad Banu Qasi of Tudela, establishing a Basque kingdom, called Navarre; that kingdom reached its zenith during the reign of Sancho III, comprising most of the Christian realms to the south of the Pyrenees, a short overlordship of Gascony. When Sancho III died in 1035, the kingdom was divided between his sons, it never recovered its political power, while its commercial importance increased as traders and pilgrims poured into the kingdom via the Way of Saint James. In 1200, Navarre lost the key western Basque districts to Alphonse VIII of Castile, leaving the kingdom landlocked. Navarre contributed with a small but symbolic force of 200 knights to the decisive Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212 against the Almohads.
The native line of kings came to an end in 1234. However, the Navarrese kept most of their strong institutions; the death of Queen Blanche I inaugurated a civil war period between the Beaumont and Agramont confederacies with the intervention of the Castilian-Aragonese House of Trastámara in Navarre's internal affairs. In 1512, Navarre was invaded by Ferdinand the Catholic's troops, with Queen Catherine and King John III withdrawing to the north of the Pyrenees, establishing a Kingdom of Navarre-Béarn, led by Queen Joan III as of 1555. To the south of the Pyrenees, Navarre was annexed to the Crown of Castile, but kept a separate ambiguous status, a shaky balance up to 1610—King Henry III ready to march over Spanish Navarre. A Chartered Government was established, the kingdom managed to keep home rule. Tensions with the Spanish government came to a head as of 1794, when Spanish premier Manuel Godoy attempted to suppress Navarrese and Basque self-government altogether, with the end of the First Carlist War bringing the kingdom and its home rule to an end.
After the 1839 Convention of Bergara, a reduced version of home rule was passed in 1839. However, the 1841 Act for the Modification of Fueros made the kingdom into a province after a compromise was reached by the Spanish government with officials of the Provincial Council of Navarre; the relocation of customs from the Ebro river to the Pyrenees in 1841 prompted the collapse of Navarre’s customary cross-Pyrenean trade and the rise of smuggling. Amid instability in Spain, Carlists took over in the rest of the Basque provinces. An actual Basque state was established during the Third Carlist War with Estella as its capital, but King Alfonso XII's restoration in the throne of Spain and a counter-attack prompted the Carlist defeat; the end of the Third Carlist War saw a renewed wave of Spanish centralisation directly affecting Navarre. In 1893–1894 the Gamazada popular uprising took place centred in Pamplona against Madrid's governmental decisions breaching the 1841 chartered provisions. Except for a small faction, all parties in Navarre agreed on the need for a new political framework based on home rule within the Laurak Bat, the Basque districts in Spain.
Among these, the Carlists stood out, who politically dominated the province, resented an increased string of rulings and laws passed by Madrid, as well as left leaning influences. Unlike Biscay or Gipuzkoa, Navarre did not develop manufacturing during this period, remaining a rural economy. In 1932, a Basque Country's separate statute failed to take off over disagreements on the centrality of Catholicism, a scene of political radicalisation ensued dividing the leftist and rightist forces during the 2nd
Bakaiku is a town and municipality located in the province and autonomous community of Navarre, northern Spain. It is an average 515 m above mean sea level. BAKAIKU in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Bakaiku, pueblos of Spain
Baztan is a municipality from the Chartered Community of Navarre, northern Spain. It is located 58 km from the capital of Navarre, it is the largest municipality in Navarre, with just over 8,000 inhabitants. The capital of the valley is Elizondo, includes 15 other villages, as follows: Amaiur-Maya Aniz Arraioz Almandoz Arizkun Azpilkueta Berroeta Elbete Erratzu Gartzain Irurita Lekaroz Erratzu Oronoz-Mugairi Ziga The territory of the Baztan valley extends over an area of 377 square km of which much is common land jointly owned by the residents of the Baztan valley and used as grazing ground for flocks of sheep and herds of semi-wild horses; the Baztan Valley borders with the French Basque regions of Lapurdi and Lower Navarre, accessed by the Izpegi Pass to the east of the valley and Dantxarinea to the north. This vicinity to France and its ties with its Basque neighbours has characterised the history of the Baztan people over the past centuries. In 2013, there were 7,974 people living in the Baztan Valley with 3489 people living in the capital of Elizondo.
The remaining population are spread out between the other 14 mountain villages. The Baztan Valley is sparsely populated with small-scale pastoral farming making use of the verdant pastures along the banks of the Baztan river. Orchards of apple, cherry and peach trees are common and more kiwis have been planted in the area; the mountain slopes are densely covered with oak, walnut and ash. The odd palm tree can sometimes be found in the grounds of the larger manor houses in the area and belies family links to the Americas where many Baztan people have emigrated since the 16th century. Around 1025 the duke of Gascony, Sancho VI William, gave part of the duchy to King Sancho III of Navarre. Sancho created a lordship for Ximen I Ochoaniz consisting of the Baztan Valley, his son Garcia Xemeniz became a viscount between 1055 and 1065, his grandson Ximen I Garciez donated land to the monastery of Leire in exchange for a pardon for assassinating his nephew. When his siblings assassinated King Sancho IV of Navarre in 1076, they colluded with the bishops of Bayonne.
The kings of Navarre were Ramiro I of Aragon and Navarre and his successor Sancho Ramirez, known as Sancho V of Navarre and Aragon. These Navarrese-Aragonese kings ruled the thinly-populated Aragon with less military strength than Alfonso VI of Castile, a nephew of Ramiro I of Aragon. Viscount Ximen II's daughter, married Fortun Enneconis de Los Cameros in 1085, they had Pedro I Fortunez, the following viscount. A son of Viscount Pedro II Pedriz of Baztan married around 1110 and had three sons: Sancho Pedriz de Baztan, Pedro Pedriz de Baztan and Ximen Pedriz de Baztan. At this time, the king of Navarre and Aragon was Sancho V Ramirez, his successor was his son by a second marriage to a French Nordic aristocrat, Félicia de Roucy: Alfonso I of Aragon and Navarre. Alfonso besieged Bayonne for nearly a year in 1131 before conquering it, his successor was Garcia IV Ramirez. During the 1150s the fishing towns of the Gulf of Biscay between Bordeaux and Vigo, between the Duchy of Normandy and the new Iberian kingdom of Portugal, became trading hubs for iron, gold, glass and leather.
Garcia IV's grandson, Sancho VII of Navarre, was succeeded by the count of Champagne, Theobald I of Navarre. Theobald I of Navarre was succeeded by Theobald II of Navarre; the Navarrese crown passed to his youngest brother, Henry I of Navarre, who ruled for about three years. Joanna II of Navarre married Philip III of Navarre, killed in 1343, she died in 1349. France and Navarre were de facto independent kingdoms, their eldest son was Charles II of Navarre. His heir was King Charles III of Navarre, who ruled for about 38 years, his daughter was Queen Blanche I of Navarre, who ruled from 1425 to 1441. The Escors family, from Aquitaine, settled in the kingdom of Navarre in 1234 after the counts of Champagne inherited the throne; the family represented the kings of Navarre in governmental and military affairs from the 13th to the 15th centuries. Nicolás Ambrosio de Garro y Arizcun, became Marqués de las Hormazas in 1767. Juan de Goyeneche y Gastón, became the treasurer and financial adviser to the queen consorts of Spain around 1680, provided war materiel to the Spanish Army for over 30 years.
His palace in Madrid is now the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando. Juan Francisco de Goyeneche Irigoyen was the Marqués de Ugena. Francisco Miguel de Goyeneche y Balzá, Conde de Saceda, received his title from King Felipe V on 17 December 1743. Miguel Gastón de Iriarte y Elizacoechea built the family palace in Baztan. Agustín de Jáuregui y Aldecoa, was Royal Governor of Chile from 1772 to 1780 and Viceroy of Peru from 1780 to 1784. Martín de Ursúa Arizmendi y Aguirre, Conde de Lizárraga, was governor of the Philippines from 25 August 1709 until his death; the large detached farmhouses which characterise the Baztan valley are built in typical Basque style with solid wooden frames and eaves and wooden balconies decorated with geranium