International Surrey Company
International Surrey Company Ltd. called "The Surrey Company", is a quadracycle manufacturer based in La Marque, United States. The company began production in the mid-1980s and specializes in providing products for the quadracycle rental market; the company was formed as a quadracycle rental operator in 1970 under the name The Surrey Company with locations in Kissimmee and Galveston, Texas. The company operated an affiliate under the name Beach Bike Rentals, they rented out the Italian bolt-together framed Selene Surrey. The renting of quadracycles was found to be hard on the imported models and the quadracycles suffered equipment failures as a result; the Surrey Company made improved replacement parts, such as awnings and frames for these models and suggested improvements to the European manufacturers. By the mid-1980s the company found that it was economical to build their own complete quadracycles and decided to become a manufacturing operation. In 1996 the company started shipping products outside the United States for the first time and changed their name to International Surrey Company to reflect this new market focus.
Quadracycles started out as leisure vehicles, but in the 21st century many are now used as a sustainable transportation alternative for short trips to neighborhood stores and schools. The company now offers Surreys with a newly developed 7 speed transmission. OS Series Surrey DX Series Surrey California Cruzer OS Series Surrey Limousine DX Series Surrey Limousine Surrey Stretch Limousine Bike Bullet Trike Surrey Tram Roadrunner Surrey Special edition Surrey Taxi Company Website
Cannondale Bicycle Corporation
The Cannondale Bicycle Corporation is an American division of Canadian conglomerate Dorel Industries that supplies bicycles. It is headquartered in Connecticut with manufacturing and assembly facilities in China; the company was founded in 1971 by Joe Montgomery and Murdock MacGregor to manufacture precast concrete housing. Ron Davis came to Cannondale from CBS Laboratories where he was VP in charge of the development of microfilm reproduction. Ron, a polymath and a gifted mechanical designer/inventor, had ideas for an internal combustion engine that would use ammonia as fuel; such a concept, if proved, could have far-reaching effects in warfare logistics and middle-eastern politics. Davis, with MacGregor as assistant, had some surprising success, they managed to duplicate and exceed results obtained by Allison Engine a division of General Motors. Faced with a commitment to invest a large amount of capital to take the project to a workable model installed in an automobile, Joe decided that the company should raise capital by developing and marketing other products that they had conceived.
By now MacGregor and Davis had recruited two more CBS Laboratory alumni: John Wistrand, an award-winning Industrial Designer, Jim Catrambone, a rising management star. A advanced air conditioner with no moving parts was a first effort. Joe Montgomery, after a camping bike trip with his son, conceived the Bugger bicycle trailer. Ron Davis devised a torsion spring made of Lexan. Wistrand designed the cloth cargo carrier on the two models of trailers. Joe, in an effort repeated in numerous products, sourced the cloth components, ensured perfection in their manufacture. A trip to the Bicycle Show in New York was an eye opener; the team was besieged by bike dealers wanting to buy the bags. They bought trailers too, but wanted the bags. In less than six months Cannondale became the world's largest manufacturer of lightweight bicycle bags. Using a marketing plan devised by Montgomery, Cannondale swept across the US, securing orders from more than 2500 dealers in less than 20 months, they used the infrastructure developed to produce the bags to enter the camping goods market with backpacks and tents.
When Todd Patterson, another exceptional designer/inventor, came aboard and developed the process for jigging and welding aluminum bike frames Cannondale became a serious manufacturer of bicycles. One of the most successful products was the Bugger, a child trailer, although Cannondale's marketing department claimed to be unaware of the connotations of the name in British English. Today, Cannondale produces many different types of high-end bicycles, which are no longer hand-made in the US, they specialize in a technology in which they were pioneers. The name of the company was taken from the Cannondale Metro North train station in Wilton, Connecticut. In the late 1990s Cannondale attempted to move into the motorsports business, producing a line of off-road motorcycles and all-terrain vehicles. According to an interview with Cannondale Communications Director, Tom Armstrong, the company was unable to reduce the cost of their vehicles fast enough. Sales increased; this gap drove the company into bankruptcy in 2003, they sold off the motorsport division.
Cannondale's bicycle division was purchased in 2003 by Pegasus Capital Advisors, which supported the company's renewed focus on bicycle production. In February 2008, Cannondale was purchased from Pegasus Capital Advisors by Dorel Industries. In April 2009 it was announced. A held company, Cannondale became publicly held after a $22 million IPO in 1995; the business continued as a publicly traded company until filing for bankruptcy protection on January 29, 2003. Cannondale's full assets were purchased at auction by Pegasus Partners II, L. P; the motor-sports IP, manufacturing equipment and inventory were sold off as the company returned its focus to bicycle manufacture. In February 2008, Dorel Industries, a Canada-based diversified consumer products company, announced the purchase of Cannondale from Pegasus for $200 million. Dorel owns Pacific Cycle, a distributor of bicycles made in Taiwan and the People's Republic of China for sale under many historic U. S. cycle brands, including Schwinn, Roadmaster, GT.
Cannondale began manufacturing aluminum racing and touring frames in 1983, with mountain bike frames added later. The earlier models sported oversized aluminum tubes for increased stiffness, resulting in frames that were super-stiff and super-efficient. Carbon fiber composite frames were developed. Cannondale's bicycle frame components were made in its factory in Bedford, but are now made in multiple factories in Asia. In 2009, Dorel Industries announced its intention to move all of Cannondale's bicycle manufacturing to factories in Asia by the end of 2010. On January 23, 2014, Dorel Industries announced a restructuring of operations in its recreational/leisure segment; this resulted in the closure of its assembly and testing facility in Pennsylvania. The Bedford plant, which at one point produced Cannondale’s midrange to high-end aluminum and aluminum/carbon fiber bikes, still handled some assembly, quality control, customer and technical services. Around 100 people were laid off; the Bedford facility was shuttered in 2015.
The first road frame from Cannondale was produced in 1983. It included the frame and fork; the fork was steel with helical reinforcement ribs inside the steel steering tube. The frame was recognizable by
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, carbon fiber reinforced plastic, or carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic, is an strong and light fiber-reinforced plastic which contains carbon fibers. The alternative spelling'fibre' is common in British Commonwealth countries. CFRPs can be expensive to produce but are used wherever high strength-to-weight ratio and stiffness are required, such as aerospace, superstructure of ships, civil engineering, sports equipment, an increasing number of consumer and technical applications; the binding polymer is a thermoset resin such as epoxy, but other thermoset or thermoplastic polymers, such as polyester, vinyl ester, or nylon, are sometimes used. The composite material may contain aramid, ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene, aluminium, or glass fibers in addition to carbon fibers; the properties of the final CFRP product can be affected by the type of additives introduced to the binding matrix. The most common additive is silica, but other additives such as rubber and carbon nanotubes can be used.
The material is referred to as graphite-reinforced polymer or graphite fiber-reinforced polymer. CFRPs are composite materials. In this case the composite consists of two parts: a reinforcement. In CFRP the reinforcement is carbon fiber; the matrix is a polymer resin, such as epoxy, to bind the reinforcements together. Because CFRP consists of two distinct elements, the material properties depend on these two elements. Reinforcement gives CFRP its rigidity. Unlike isotropic materials like steel and aluminum, CFRP has directional strength properties; the properties of CFRP depend on the layouts of the carbon fiber and the proportion of the carbon fibers relative to the polymer. The two different equations governing the net elastic modulus of composite materials using the properties of the carbon fibers and the polymer matrix can be applied to carbon fiber reinforced plastics; the following equation, E c = V m E m + V f E f is valid for composite materials with the fibers oriented in the direction of the applied load.
E c is the total composite modulus, V m and V f are the volume fractions of the matrix and fiber in the composite, E m and E f are the elastic moduli of the matrix and fibers respectively. The other extreme case of the elastic modulus of the composite with the fibers oriented transverse to the applied load can be found using the following equation: E c = − 1 The fracture toughness of carbon fiber reinforced plastics is governed by the following mechanisms: 1) debonding between the carbon fiber and polymer matrix, 2) fiber pull-out, 3) delamination between the CFRP sheets. Typical epoxy-based CFRPs exhibit no plasticity, with less than 0.5% strain to failure. Although CFRPs with epoxy have high strength and elastic modulus, the brittle fracture mechanics present unique challenges to engineers in failure detection since failure occurs catastrophically; as such, recent efforts to toughen CFRPs include modifying the existing epoxy material and finding alternative polymer matrix. One such material with high promise is PEEK, which exhibits an order of magnitude greater toughness with similar elastic modulus and tensile strength.
However, PEEK is more expensive. Despite its high initial strength-to-weight ratio, a design limitation of CFRP is its lack of a definable fatigue limit; this means, that stress cycle failure cannot be ruled out. While steel and many other structural metals and alloys do have estimable fatigue or endurance limits, the complex failure modes of composites mean that the fatigue failure properties of CFRP are difficult to predict and design for; as a result, when using CFRP for critical cyclic-loading applications, engineers may need to design in considerable strength safety margins to provide suitable component reliability over its service life. Environmental effects such as temperature and humidity can have profound effects on the polymer-based composites, including most CFRPs. While CFRPs demonstrate excellent corrosion resistance, the effect of moisture at wide ranges of temperatures can lead to degradation of the mechanical properties of CFRPs at the matrix-fiber interface. While the carbon fibers themselves are not affected by the moisture diffusing into the material, the moisture plasticizes the polymer matrix.
The epoxy matrix used for engine fan blades is designed to be impervious against jet fuel and rain water, external paint on the composites parts is applied to minimize damage from ultraviolet light. The carbon fibers can cause galvanic corrosion; the primary element of CFRP is a carbon filament.
A triathlon is a multisport race with three continuous and sequential endurance races. The word is from τρεῖς or treis and ἆθλος or athlos. While variations of the sport exist, the most common form includes swimming and running over various distances. Triathletes compete for fastest overall course completion, including timed transitions between the three races. A transition area is set up; this is where the switches from cycling to running occur. These areas are used to store bicycles, performance apparel, any other accessories needed for the next stage of the race; the transition from swim to bike is referred to as T1 and that between the bike and run is referred to as T2. The athlete's overall time for the race includes time spent in T1 and T2. Transition areas vary in size depending on the number of participants expected. In addition, these areas provide a social headquarters before the race; the nature of the sport focuses on persistent and periodized training in each of the three disciplines, as well as combination workouts and general strength conditioning.
The evolution of triathlon as a distinct event is difficult to trace with precision. Many, including triathlon historian and author Scott Tinley, consider events in early twentieth century France to be the beginnings of triathlon, with many three element multisport events of differing composition appearing all called by different names; the earliest record for an event was from 1901 in Joinville-le-Pont, Val-de-Marne it called itself "Les trois sports" it was advertised as an event for "The sportsmen of the time" and consisted of a run bicycle and canoe segment. By 19 June 1921 the event in Joinville-le-Pont had become more like a standard triathlon with the canoe element being replaced with a swim, newspaper L’Auto stating the race consisted of a 3km run, a 12km bike ride and the crossing of the river Marne, all staged consecutively and without a break. Throughout the 1920s other bike and swim events had appeared in different cities such as the "Course des Trois Sports” in Marseilles, and "La Course des Débrouillards" in Poissy.
These multisport events would continue to spread and grow in popularity such by 1934 "Les Trois Sports" was being hosted in the city of La Rochelle though it consisted three distinct events, swimming a channel crossing,a bike competition around the harbour of La Rochelle and the parc Laleu, a run in the stadium André-Barbeau. Throughout this growth with new events appearing no unified rules existed and as a whole would remain a minority event on the world stage; the first modern swim/bike/run event was held at Mission Bay, San Diego, California on September 25, 1974. The race was conceived and directed by two members of the San Diego Track Club, Jack Johnstone and Don Shanahan. Johnstone recalls that he was a part of the 70s jogging craze in America and that after entering a few races he was not regaining his "mediocre fitness" despite having being a member of the 1957 Collegiate and AAU All-American swim teams. In 1973, Johnstone learned of the Dave Pain Birthday Biathlon, a 4.5 mile run followed by what was billed as a quarter-mile swim.
The following year after competing in the event for the second time and placing in the top ten Johnstone desired more of this style of race and with equal emphasis on the swim, so he petitioned the chairman of the San Diego Track Club who told him he would add a race to the club calendar but the rest of the race was up to Johnstone to organise and at the same time to contact Don Shanahan so there wouldn't be too many "weird" races on the club schedule. Shanahan told Johnstone that he wanted to include a biking leg to the race, whilst hesitant Johnstone agreed to the addition; when naming the event the pair used the unofficially agreed naming system for multisport event, of using the prefix Greek number for the number of events trias and suffix of athlos the Greek for a competition, hence named the event the Mission Bay Triathlon. It is worthy of note that neither founder had heard of the French events, both believing their race a unique idea. On Wednesday, September 25, 1974 the race started, it began with a run of a three-mile loop biking twice around Fiesta Island for a total of five miles entrants would get off the bikes, take their shoes off and run into the water swimming to the mainland ran in bare feet before swimming again along the bay did one last swim up to the entrance of Fiesta Island before crawling up a steep dirt bank to finish.
Most participants were not skilled swimmers, so Johnstone recruited his 13-year-old son to float on his surfboard and act as lifeguard. Some participants took longer than expected, it began to get dark as they finished their swims. Shanahan recalls they turned on the headlights so the athletes could see; the large number of entrants 46 surprised Johnstone and Shanahan with entrants from local running clubs, two notable entrants Judy and John Collins, would four years found the event which brought international attention to the new sport Ironman Hawaii. With the sport's popularity growing in the US its spread outside the country seemed inevitable, by 1980 triathlon had made its way across the Atlantic to northern Europe with the first European triathlon held on 30th August, 1980 in Pilsen, Czechoslovakia; the Netherlands and West Germany follow after, all hosting an event in 1981, but the media coverage of these events is non-existent. In 1982, the event organiser IMG, worked in partnership with the American channel
Stem (bicycle part)
The stem is the component on a bicycle that connects the handlebars to the steerer tube of the bicycle fork. Sometimes called a goose neck, a stem's design belongs to either a quill or threadless system, each system is compatible with respective headset and fork designs: Quill: the stem inserts into the steerer tube, threaded and does not extend above the headset. Threadless: the stem clamps around the steerer tube, not threaded and extends above the headset. Although stems are referred to as being of either the quill or threaded type, the thread in question is the one on the fork steerer tube. Quill stems require a steerer tube of the same length as the headset and head tube combined and thus must be matched to the specific bicycle model. Threadless systems use an unthreaded steerer tube, which extends into the stem and may be cut to length as desired in order to accommodate the height of the headset, head tube and any spacers used to adjust the handlebar height. Quill systems predate threadless systems.
With the advent of threadless stems, manufacturers no longer need to provide a range of threaded forks for a given model. The steerer tubes are cut to length to fit upon installation. Unthreaded forks require less labor to swap than threaded forks; the older of the two handlebar stem styles, quill types have been displaced as the industry standard on sport bikes. However, they remain standard on the majority of utility bikes, regardless of price, as well as on less expensive sport bikes and higher-end retro bikes; the quill stem requires the threaded steerer tube of the fork to extend up through the headset but not protrude beyond it. The quill stem fits down into the inside of the top of steerer tube and is held in place by either a wedge-shaped nut and bolt or a cone-shaped expander nut and bolt. In the case of a wedge-shaped nut, the bottom of the stem is cut diagonally to match the wedge and the bolt pulls the wedge against the stem to expand against the inside of the steerer tube and hold the stem in place.
In the case of an expander nut, the bottom of the stem is cut perpendicular to its length and has two slits cut parallel to its length. The cone-shaped expander nut is pulled upwards by the bolt causing the sides of the stem to spread and press against the inside of the steerer tube to hold it in place. Threadless stems, the newer of the two styles, are popular and have displaced quill stems as the industry standard on sport bikes. Threadless stems feature a modular design where the stem clamps around the outside of the top of the fork steerer tube that protrudes above the headset. Threadless stems are available in lengths up to about 130 millimeters. With threadless stems, a "star-nut" is driven down into the threadless steerer tube and held in place by two barbed flanges; the top cap bolts into, pulls against, the star-nut, thereby preloading the headset bearings. Newer model forks, with carbon fiber steerer tubes, use an expander plug instead of a star nut, which once installed serves the same purpose as the star nut, but will not damage carbon fiber forks as a starnut will.
Special adaptors may allow a threaded fork to receive a threadless stem. Threadless advantages: Threadless stems offer a simple way to swap, flip and match stems, which are available in various configurations and variations of construction, color and angle. Threadless stems allow for the lighter carbon fiber or aluminum alloy steerer tubes, hence a lighter overall bicycle. Threadless stems; the threadless stem's centering can be adjusted without disturbing the handlebar height. Threadless stems avoid the internal binding or seizing possible with a quill stem's wedge or cone bolt. Quill advantages: Quill stems offer the ability to make fine adjustments to handlebar height. Quill stems can be raised examples with long shafts. To raise or lower a threadless headset beyond predetermined increments requires another stem. Quill stems may offer a slender, smoother appearance vis-à-vis the comparatively modular, jointed appearance of the threadless stem. Quill stems can be removed without disrupting the headset.
Stems are constructed of aluminum alloy, but are available in steel, carbon fiber, aluminum alloy wrapped in carbon fiber. Stems tighten around and hold the handlebar either by pinch bolts, which require'feeding' the handlebar through the stem after removing controls and bar covering. Stems with faceplates or pillow blocks are known. Stems have two dimensions that affect bicycle fit: an angle and a forward length or extension. Quill stems may have a height. Stems must be compatible with the dimensions of the components that they connect, namely the handlebar clamp diameter and steerer tube diameter. For road quill stems, the angle is 73° which causes the extension of the stem to be nearly parallel with the ground; some quill stems have other angles, e.g. 90°, which results in the stem pointing forwards and upwards. Newer style stems for threadless headsets come in a wide variety of angles from 0° to 40° and can be flip-flopped, or inverted so that the angle is up or down. So, for example, a 17° stem angled downward would mimic the angle of
Indianapolis shortened to Indy, is the state capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Indiana and the seat of Marion County. According to 2017 estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau, the consolidated population of Indianapolis and Marion County was 872,680; the "balance" population, which excludes semi-autonomous municipalities in Marion County, was 863,002. It is the 16th most populous city in the U. S; the Indianapolis metropolitan area is the 34th most populous metropolitan statistical area in the U. S. with 2,028,614 residents. Its combined statistical area ranks 27th, with a population of 2,411,086. Indianapolis covers 368 square miles, making it the 16th largest city by land area in the U. S. Indigenous peoples inhabited the area dating to 2000 BC. In 1818, the Delaware relinquished their tribal lands in the Treaty of St. Mary's. In 1821, Indianapolis was founded as a planned city for the new seat of Indiana's state government; the city was platted by Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham on a 1 square mile grid next to the White River.
Completion of the National and Michigan roads and arrival of rail solidified the city's position as a manufacturing and transportation hub. Two of the city's nicknames reflect its historical ties to transportation—the "Crossroads of America" and "Railroad City". Since the 1970 city-county consolidation, known as Unigov, local government administration operates under the direction of an elected 25-member city-county council headed by the mayor. Indianapolis anchors the 27th largest economic region in the U. S. based on the sectors of finance and insurance, manufacturing and business services and health care and wholesale trade. The city has notable niche markets in auto racing; the Fortune 500 companies of Anthem, Eli Lilly and Company and Simon Property Group are headquartered in Indianapolis. The city has hosted international multi-sport events, such as the 1987 Pan American Games and 2001 World Police and Fire Games, but is best known for annually hosting the world's largest single-day sporting event, the Indianapolis 500.
Indianapolis is home to two major league sports clubs, the Indiana Pacers of the National Basketball Association and the Indianapolis Colts of the National Football League. It is home to a number of educational institutions, such as the University of Indianapolis, Butler University, Marian University, Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis; the city's robust philanthropic community has supported several cultural assets, including the world's largest children's museum, one of the nation's largest funded zoos, historic buildings and sites, public art. The city is home to the largest collection of monuments dedicated to veterans and war casualties in the U. S. outside of Washington, D. C; the name Indianapolis is derived from the state's name and polis, the Greek word for city. Jeremiah Sullivan, justice of the Indiana Supreme Court, is credited with coining the name. Other names considered were Concord and Tecumseh. In 1816, the year Indiana gained statehood, the U. S. Congress donated four sections of federal land to establish a permanent seat of state government.
Two years under the Treaty of St. Mary's, the Delaware relinquished title to their tribal lands in central Indiana, agreeing to leave the area by 1821; this tract of land, called the New Purchase, included the site selected for the new state capital in 1820. The availability of new federal lands for purchase in central Indiana attracted settlers, many of them descendants of families from northwestern Europe. Although many of these first European and American settlers were Protestants, a large proportion of the early Irish and German immigrants were Catholics. Few African Americans lived in central Indiana before 1840; the first European Americans to permanently settle in the area that became Indianapolis were either the McCormick or Pogue families. The McCormicks are considered to be the first permanent settlers. Other historians have argued as early as 1822 that John Wesley McCormick, his family, employees became the area's first European American settlers, settling near the White River in February 1820.
On January 11, 1820, the Indiana General Assembly authorized a committee to select a site in central Indiana for the new state capital. The state legislature approved the site, adopting the name Indianapolis on January 6, 1821. In April, Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham were appointed to survey and design a town plan for the new settlement. Indianapolis became a seat of county government on December 31, 1821, when Marion County, was established. A combined county and town government continued until 1832. Indianapolis became an incorporated city effective March 30, 1847. Samuel Henderson, the city's first mayor, led the new city government, which included a seven-member city council. In 1853, voters approved a new city charter that provided for an elected mayor and a fourteen-member city council; the city charter continued to be revised. Effective January 1, 1825, the seat of state government moved to Indianapolis from Indiana. In addition to state government offices, a U. S. district court was established at Indianapolis in 1825.
Growth occurred with the opening of the National Road through the town in 1827, the first major federally funded highway in the United States. A small segment of the failed Indiana Central