Pietro Perugino, born Pietro Vannucci, was an Italian Renaissance painter of the Umbrian school, who developed some of the qualities that found classic expression in the High Renaissance. Raphael was his most famous pupil, he was born Pietro Vannucci in Città della Pieve, the son of Cristoforo Maria Vannucci. His nickname characterizes him as from the chief city of Umbria. Scholars continue to dispute the socioeconomic status of the Vannucci family. While certain academics maintain that Vannucci worked his way out of poverty, others argue that his family was among the wealthiest in the town, his exact date of birth is not known, but based on his age at death, mentioned by Vasari and Giovanni Santi, it is believed that he was born between 1446 and 1452. Pietro most began studying painting in local workshops in Perugia such as those of Bartolomeo Caporali or Fiorenzo di Lorenzo; the date of the first Florentine sojourn is unknown. According to Vasari, he was apprenticed to the workshop of Andrea del Verrocchio alongside Leonardo da Vinci, Domenico Ghirlandaio, Lorenzo di Credi, Filippino Lippi and others.
Piero della Francesca is thought to have taught him perspective form. In 1472, he must have completed his apprenticeship since he was enrolled as a master in the Confraternity of St Luke. Pietro, although talented, was not enthusiastic about his work. Perugino was one of the earliest Italian practitioners of oil painting; some of his early works were extensive frescoes for the convent of the Ingessati fathers, destroyed during the Siege of Florence. A good specimen of his early style in tempera is the tondo in the Musée du Louvre of the Virgin and Child Enthroned between Saints. Perugino returned from Florence to Perugia, where his Florentine training showed in the Adoration of the Magi for the church of Santa Maria dei Servi of Perugia. In about 1480, he was called to Rome by Sixtus IV to paint fresco panels for the Sistine Chapel walls; the frescoes he executed there included Moses and Zipporah, the Baptism of Christ, Delivery of the Keys. Pinturicchio accompanied Perugino to Rome, was made his partner, receiving a third of the profits.
He may have done some of the Zipporah subject. The Sistine frescoes were the major high Renaissance commission in Rome; the altar wall was painted with the Assumption, the Nativity, Moses in the Bulrushes. These works were destroyed to make a space for Michelangelo's Last Judgement. Between 1486 and 1499, Perugino worked in Florence, making one journey to Rome and several to Perugia, where he may have maintained a second studio, he had an established studio in Florence, received a great number of commissions. His Pietà in the Uffizi is an uncharacteristically stark work that avoids Perugino's sometimes too easy sentimental piety. In 1499 the guild of the cambio of Perugia asked him to decorate their audience-hall, the Sala delle Udienze del Collegio del Cambio; the humanist Francesco Maturanzio acted as his consultant. This extensive scheme, which may have been finished by 1500, comprised the painting of the vault, showing the seven planets and the signs of the zodiac, the representation on the walls of two sacred subjects: the Nativity and Transfiguration.
On the mid-pilaster of the hall Perugino placed his own portrait in bust-form. It is probable that Raphael, who in boyhood, towards 1496, had been placed by his uncles under the tuition of Perugino, bore a hand in the work of the vaulting. Perugino was made one of the priors of Perugia in 1501. On one occasion Michelangelo told Perugino to his face that he was a bungler in art: Vannucci brought an action for defamation of character, unsuccessfully. Put on his mettle by this mortifying transaction, he produced the masterpiece of the Madonna and Saints for the Certosa of Pavia, now disassembled and scattered among museums: the only portion in the Certosa is God the Father with cherubim. An Annunciation has disappeared; this was succeeded in 1504–1507 by the Annunziata Altarpiece for the high altar of the Basilica dell'Annunziata in Florence, in which he replaced Filippino Lippi. The work was a failure. Perugino lost his students. Pope Julius II had summoned Perugino to paint the Stanza of the Incendio del Borgo in the Vatican City.
Among his latest works, many of which decline into repetitious studio routine, one of the best is the extensive altarpiece of the church of San Agostino in Perugia now dispersed. Perugino's last frescoes were painted for the church of the Madonna delle Lacrime in Trevi, the monastery of Sant'Agnese in Perugia, in 1522 for th
The targumim were spoken translations of the Jewish scriptures that a meturgeman would give in the common language of the listeners when, not Hebrew. This had become necessary near the end of the 1st century BCE, as the common language was Aramaic and Hebrew was used for little more than schooling and worship; the meturgeman expanded his translation with paraphrases and examples so that it became a kind of sermon. Writing down the targum was prohibited, they were not recognized as authoritative by the religious leaders. Some subsequent Jewish traditions accepted the written targumim as authoritative translation of the Hebrew scriptures into Aramaic. Today, the common meaning of targum is a written Aramaic translation of the Bible. Only Yemenite Jews continue to use the targumim liturgically; as translations, the targumim reflect midrashic interpretation of the Tanakh from the time they were written and are notable for eschewing anthropomorphisms in favor of allegorical readings. That is true both for those targumim that are literal as well as for those that contain many midrashic expansions.
In 1541, Elia Levita wrote and published Sefer Meturgeman, explaining all the Aramaic words found in the Targum. Targumim are used today as sources in text-critical editions of the Bible; the noun "Targum" is derived from the early semitic quadriliteral root trgm, the Akkadian term targummanu refers to "translator, interpreter". It occurs in the Hebrew Bible in Ezra 4:7 "... and the writing of the letter was written in the Syrian tongue and interpreted in the Syrian tongue." Besides denoting the translations of the Bible, the term Targum denote the oral rendering of Bible lections in synagogue, while the translator of the Bible was called hammeturgem. Other than the meaning "translate" the verb Tirgem means "to explain"; the word Targum refers to "translation" and argumentation or "explanation". The two most important targumim for liturgical purposes are: Targum Onkelos on the Torah Targum Jonathan on the Nevi'im These two targumim are mentioned in the Babylonian Talmud as targum dilan, giving them official status.
In the synagogues of talmudic times, Targum Onkelos was read alternately with the Torah, verse by verse, Targum Jonathan was read alternately with the selection from Nevi'im. This custom continues today in Yemenite Jewish synagogues; the Yemenite Jews are the only Jewish community to continue the use of Targum as liturgical text, as well as to preserve a living tradition of pronunciation for the Aramaic of the targumim. Besides its public function in the synagogue, the Babylonian Talmud mentions targum in the context of a personal study requirement: "A person should always review his portions of scripture along with the community, reading the scripture twice and the targum once"; this too refers to Targum Onkelos on the public Torah reading and to Targum Jonathan on the haftarot from Nevi'im. Medieval biblical manuscripts of the Tiberian mesorah sometimes contain the Hebrew text interpolated, verse-by-verse, with the targumim; this scribal practice has its roots both in the public reading of the Targum and in the private study requirement.
The two "official" targumim are considered eastern. Scholars believe they too originated in the Land of Israel because of a strong linguistic substratum of Western Aramaic. Though these targumim were "orientalised", the substratum belying their origins still remains; when most Jewish communities had ceased speaking Aramaic, in the 10th century CE, the public reading of Targum along with the Torah and Haftarah was abandoned in most communities, Yemen being a well-known exception. The private study requirement to review the Targum was never relaxed when Jewish communities had ceased speaking Aramaic, the Targum never ceased to be a major source for Jewish exegesis. For instance, it serves as a major source in the Torah commentary of Shlomo Yitzhaki, "Rashi", has always been the standard fare for Ashkenazi Jews onward. For these reasons, Jewish editions of the Tanakh which include commentaries still always print the Targum alongside the text, in all Jewish communities. Halakhic authorities argued that the requirement to review the targum might be met by reading a translation in the current vernacular in place of the official Targum, or else by studying an important commentary containing midrashic interpretation.
The Talmud explicitly states that no official targumim were composed besides these two on Torah and Nevi'im alone, that there is no official targum to Ketuvim. An official targum was in fact unnecessary for Ketuvim because its books played no fixed liturgical role; the Talmud states The Targum of the Pentateuch was composed by Onkelos the proselyte from the mouths of R. Eleazar and R. Joshua; the Targum of the Prophets was composed by Jonathan ben Uzziel under the guidance of Haggai and Malachi, the land of Israel quaked over an area of four hundred parasangs by four hundred parasangs, a Bath Kol came forth and exclaimed, Who is this
Midrash is biblical exegesis by ancient Judaic authorities, using a mode of interpretation prominent in the Talmud. Midrash and rabbinic readings "discern value in texts and letters, as potential revelatory spaces," writes the Reverend and Hebrew scholar Wilda C. Gafney. "They reimagine dominant narratival readings while crafting new ones to stand alongside—not replace—former readings. Midrash asks questions of the text; such works contain early interpretations and commentaries on the Written Torah and Oral Torah, as well as non-legalistic rabbinic literature and Jewish religious laws, which form a running commentary on specific passages in the Hebrew Scripture."Midrash" if capitalized, can refer to a specific compilation of these rabbinic writings composed between 400 and 1200 CE. According to Gary Porson and Jacob Neusner, "midrash" has three technical meanings: 1) Judaic biblical interpretation; the Hebrew word midrash is derived from the root of the verb darash, which means "resort to, seek with care, require", forms of which appear in the Bible.
The word midrash occurs twice in the Hebrew Bible: 2 Chronicles 13:22 "in the midrash of the prophet Iddo", 24:27 "in the midrash of the book of the kings". KJV and ESV translate the word as "story" in both instances; the meaning of the Hebrew word in these contexts is uncertain: it has been interpreted as referring to "a body of authoritative narratives, or interpretations thereof, concerning important figures" and seems to refer to a "book" even a "book of interpretation", which might make its use a foreshadowing of the technical sense that the rabbis gave to the word. Since the early Middle Ages the function of much of midrashic interpretation has been distinguished from that of peshat, straight or direct interpretation aiming at the original literal meaning of a scriptural text. A definition of "midrash" quoted by other scholars is that given by Gary G. Porton in 1981: "a type of literature, oral or written, which stands in direct relationship to a fixed, canonical text, considered to be the authoritative and revealed word of God by the midrashist and his audience, in which this canonical text is explicitly cited or alluded to".
Lieve M. Teugels, who would limit midrash to rabbinic literature, offered a definition of midrash as "rabbinic interpretation of Scripture that bears the lemmatic form", a definition that, unlike Porton's, has not been adopted by others. While some scholars agree with the limitation of the term "midrash" to rabbinic writings, others apply it to certain Qumran writings, to parts of the New Testament, of the Hebrew Bible, modern compositions are called midrashim. Midrash is now viewed more as method than genre, although the rabbinic midrashim do constitute a distinct literary genre. According to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, "Midrash was a philological method of interpreting the literal meaning of biblical texts. In time it developed into a sophisticated interpretive system that reconciled apparent biblical contradictions, established the scriptural basis of new laws, enriched biblical content with new meaning. Midrashic creativity reached its peak in the schools of Rabbi Ishmael and Akiba, where two different hermeneutic methods were applied.
The first was logically oriented, making inferences based upon similarity of content and analogy. The second rested upon textual scrutiny, assuming that words and letters that seem superfluous teach something not stated in the text."Many different exegetical methods are employed in an effort to derive deeper meaning from a text. This is not limited to the traditional thirteen textual tools attributed to the Tanna Rabbi Ishmael, which are used in the interpretation of halakha; the presence of words or letters which are seen to be superfluous, the chronology of events, parallel narratives or what are seen as other textual "anomalies" are used as a springboard for interpretation of segments of Biblical text. In many cases, a handful of lines in the Biblical narrative may become a long philosophical discussion Jacob Neusner distinguishes three midrash processes: paraphrase: recounting the content of the biblical text in different language that may change the sense. Numerous Jewish midrashim preserved in manuscript form have been published in print, including those denominated as smaller or minor midrashim.
Bernard H. Mehlman and Seth M. Limmer deprecate this usage on the grounds that the term "minor" seems judgmental and "small" is inappropriate for midrashim
Zipporah or Tzipora is mentioned in the Book of Exodus as the wife of Moses, the daughter of Reuel/Jethro, the priest or prince of Midian. In the Book of Chronicles, two of her descendants are mentioned: Shebuel, son of Gershom, Rehabiah, son of Eliezer. In the Hebrew Bible Zipporah was one of the seven daughters of Jethro, a Kenite shepherd, a priest of Midian. In Exodus 2:18 Jethro is referred to as Reuel and referred to as Hobab in the Book of Judges. Hobab was the name of Jethro's son as recorded in Numbers 10:29. While the Israelites/Hebrews were captives in Egypt, Moses killed an Egyptian, striking a Hebrew, for which offense Pharaoh sought to kill Moses. Moses therefore arrived in Midian. One day while he sat by a well, Reuel's daughters came to water their father's flocks. Other shepherds drove the girls away so they could water their own flocks first. Moses watered their flock. Upon their return home their father asked them, "How is it that you have come home so early today?" The girls answered, "An Egyptian rescued us from the shepherds.
"Where is he then?" Reuel asked them. "Why did you leave the man? Invite him for supper to break bread." Reuel gave Moses Zipporah as his wife. After God commanded Moses to return to Egypt to free the Israelites, Moses took his wife and sons and started his journey. On the road, they stayed in an inn. Zipporah circumcised her son with a sharp stone and touched Moses' feet with the foreskin, saying "Surely You are a husband of blood to me!" God left Moses alone. The details of the passage are subject to debate. After Moses succeeded in taking the Israelites out of Egypt, won a battle against Amalek, Reuel came to the Hebrew camp in the wilderness of Sinai, bringing with him Zipporah and their two sons and Eliezer; the Bible does not say when Zipporah and her sons rejoined Reuel/Jethro, only that after he heard of what God did for the Israelites, he brought Moses' family to him. The most common translation is that Moses sent her away, but another grammatically permissible translation is that she sent things or persons the announcement of the victory over Amalek.
The word that makes this difficult is the sendings of her. Moses' wife is referred to as a Cushite in Numbers 12. There are different interpretations on whether this Cushite wife was one and the same as Zipporah, or another woman. In the story Aaron and Miriam harshly criticize Moses' marriage to a Cushite or Kushite woman after he returned to Egypt to set the children of Israel free. Cushites Arabians; the sons of Ham, mentioned within the Book of Genesis have been identified with nations in Africa, the Levant, Arabia. The Midianites themselves were on depicted at times in non-Biblical sources as dark-skinned and called Kushim, a Hebrew word used for dark-skinned Africans. In the Druze religion, Jethro is revered as the spiritual founder, chief prophet, ancestor of all Druze. Moses was allowed to wed Zipporah, the daughter of Jethro, after helping save his daughters and their flock from competing herdsmen, it has been expressed by such prominent Druze such as Amal Nasser el-Din and Salman Tarif, a prominent Druze shaykh, that this makes the Druze related to the Jews through marriage.
This view has been used to represent an element of the special relationship between Israeli Jews and Druze. Zipporah appears as a character in films such as The Ten Commandments, The Prince of Egypt and Exodus: Gods and Kings, she is the main character in Wife of Moses. Sephora, cosmetics store named after Zipporah Tharbis - according to Josephus, a Cushite princess who married Moses prior to his marriage to Zipporah as told in the Book of Exodus Tzipora Obziler, Israeli tennis player Pardes, Ilana. "Zipporah and the Struggle for Deliverance" in Countertraditions in the Bible: A Feminist Approach. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674175426 Piper, John. "Did Moses Marry a Black Woman?". 9Marks
The tetragrammaton, יהוה in Hebrew and YHWH in Latin script, is the four-letter biblical name of the God of Israel. The books of the Torah and the rest of the Hebrew Bible contain this Hebrew name. Religiously observant Jews and those who follow Talmudic Jewish traditions do not pronounce יהוה, nor do they read aloud transliterated forms such as Yahweh. Common substitutions for Hebrew forms are hakadosh baruch hu, HaShem; the letters, properly read from right to left, are: The letters. In unpointed Biblical Hebrew, most vowels are not written and the rest are written only ambiguously, as certain consonants can double as vowel markers; these are referred to as matres lectionis. Therefore, in general, it is difficult to deduce how a word is pronounced only from its spelling, the tetragrammaton is a particular example: two of its letters can serve as vowels, two are vocalic place-holders, which are not pronounced; the original consonantal text of the Hebrew Bible was, several centuries provided with vowel marks by the Masoretes to assist reading.
In places that the consonants of the text to be read differed from the consonants of the written text, they wrote the qere in the margin as a note showing what was to be read. In such a case the vowels of the qere were written on the ketiv. For a few frequent words, the marginal note was omitted: these are called qere perpetuum. One of the frequent cases was the tetragrammaton, which according to Jewish practices should not be pronounced but read as "Adonai", or, if the previous or next word was Adonai, as "Elohim"; the combination produces יְהֹוָה and יֱהֹוה non-words that would spell "Yehovah" and "Yehovih" respectively. The oldest complete or nearly complete manuscripts of the Masoretic Text with Tiberian vocalisation, such as the Aleppo Codex and the Leningrad Codex, both of the 10th or 11th century write יְהוָה, with no pointing on the first h, it could be because the o diacritic point plays no useful role in distinguishing between Adonai and Elohim and so is redundant, or it could point to the qere being Shema, Aramaic for "the Name".
The Hebrew scholar Wilhelm Gesenius suggested that the Hebrew punctuation יַהְוֶה, transliterated into English as Yahweh, might more represent the pronunciation of the tetragrammaton than the Masoretic punctuation "יְהֹוָה", from which the English name Jehovah has been derived. His proposal to read YHWH as "יַהְוֶה" was based in large part on various Greek transcriptions, such as ιαβε, dating from the first centuries CE but on the forms of theophoric names. In his Hebrew Dictionary, Gesenius supports Yahweh because of the Samaritan pronunciation Ιαβε reported by Theodoret, because the theophoric name prefixes YHW and YW, the theophoric name suffixes YHW and YH, the abbreviated form YH can be derived from the form Yahweh. Gesenius's proposal to read YHWH as יַהְוֶה is accepted as the best scholarly reconstructed vocalised Hebrew spelling of the tetragrammaton. An image on the piece of pottery found at Kuntillet Ajrud is adjacent to a Hebrew inscription "Berakhti etkhem l’YHVH Shomron ul’Asherato" dated around 800 BCE, on the walls of the second tomb on the southern slope of the Khirbet el-Qom hill, on the seal from the collections of the Harvard Semitic Museum, on ostracons from the collections of Shlomo Moussaieff, on silver rolls from Ketef Hinnom, on inscriptions in the tombs of Khirbet Beit Lei, on ostracons from Tel Arad, on the Lachish letters and on a stone from Mount Gerizim.
The Elephantine papyri, on which the jhw form appears, with the form of jhh are found on Elephantine. One time jh appears, but it was a form of jhw in which the final letter in disappeared. In eight cases, the tetragram occurs in the formula of the oath: "God's jhh". God's name appears in the Greek magical texts, the formation of, established between the second century BCE to CE, it takes the following forms: Ieoa, Iaoai, Ioa, Iaeo, Ieou, Iabas, Iabe, Iaon. God's name in the form of Ἰαῶ appears in: Diodorus Siculus, Marcus Terentius Varro according to the message of John the Lydian, Pedanius Dioscorides, Aelius Herodian, Hesychius of Alexandria. A form of the name appears on the following Egyptian inscriptions: on the list of Amenhotep III discovered in the Temple of Amon in Soleb and in its copy from the time of Ramesses II in West Amara, on the list of places in the temple of Ramesses III in Medinet Habu. Mesha Stele The oldest known inscription of the tetragrammaton dates to 840 BCE, on the Mesha Stele.
It bears the earliest certain extra-biblical reference to the Israelite God Yahweh. The most recent discovery of a tetragrammaton inscription, dating to the 6th century BCE, was found written in Hebrew on two silver scrolls recovered from Jerusalem. Magical papyri The spellings of the te
God in Judaism
In Judaism, God has been conceived in a variety of ways. Traditionally, Judaism holds that YHWH, the God of Abraham and Jacob and the national god of the Israelites, delivered the Israelites from slavery in Egypt, gave them the Law of Moses at biblical Mount Sinai as described in the Torah. According to the rationalist stream of Judaism articulated by Maimonides, which came to dominate much of official traditional Jewish thought, God is understood as the absolute one and incomparable being, the ultimate cause of all existence. Traditional interpretations of Judaism emphasize that God is personal yet transcendent, while some modern interpretations of Judaism emphasize that God is a force or ideal; the names of God used most in the Hebrew Bible are the Tetragrammaton and Elohim. Other names of God in traditional Judaism include El Shekhinah; the name of God used most in the Hebrew Bible is the Tetragrammaton. Jews traditionally do not pronounce it, instead refer to God as HaShem "the Name". In prayer the Tetragrammaton is substituted with the pronunciation Adonai, meaning "My Master".
The national god of the Iron Age kingdoms of Israel and Judah was Yahweh. The precise origins of this god are disputed, although they reach back to the early Iron Age and the Late Bronze; the name may have begun as an epithet of El, head of the Bronze Age Canaanite pantheon, but earlier mentions are in Egyptian texts that place God among the nomads of the southern Transjordan. After evolving from its monolatristic roots, Judaism became monotheistic. No consensus has been reached by academics on the origins of monotheism in ancient Israel, but Yahweh "clearly came out of the world of the gods of the Ancient Near East."The worship of multiple gods and the concept of God having multiple persons are unimaginable in Judaism. The idea of God as a duality or trinity is heretical in Judaism – it is considered akin to polytheism. God, the Cause of all, is one; this does not mean one as in one of series, nor one like a species, nor one as in an object, made up of many elements, nor as a single simple object, infinitely divisible.
Rather, God is a unity unlike any other possible unity. Since, according to the mystical conception, all of existence emanates from God, whose ultimate existence is not dependent on anything else, some Jewish sages perceived God as interpenetrating the universe, which itself has been thought to be a manifestation of God's existence. According to this line of theological speculation, Judaism can be regarded as being compatible with panentheism, while always affirming genuine monotheism. Kabbalistic tradition holds; this has been described as a strand of Judaism which may seem at odds with Jewish commitments to strict monotheism, but Kabbalists have emphasized that their traditions are monotheistic. Any belief that an intermediary between humanity and God could be used, whether necessary or optional, has traditionally been considered heretical. Maimonides writes that God is the only one we may serve and praise.... We may not act in this way toward anything beneath God, whether it be an angel, a star, or one of the elements.....
There are no intermediaries between God. All our prayers should be directed towards God; some rabbinic authorities disagreed with this view. Notably, Nachmanides was of the opinion that it is permitted to ask the angels to beseech God on our behalf; this argument manifests notably in the Selichot prayer called "Machnisay Rachamim", a request to the angels to intercede with God. Godhead refers to the substratum of God that lies behind God's actions or properties. In the philosophy of Maimonides and other Jewish-rationalistic philosophers, there is little which can be known about the Godhead, other than its existence, this can only be asserted equivocally. How can a relation be represented between God and what is other than God when there is no notion comprising in any respect both of the two, inasmuch as existence is, in our opinion, affirmed of God, may God be exalted, of what is other than God by way of absolute equivocation. There is, in truth, no relation in any of God's creatures. In Kabbalistic thought, the term "Godhead" refers to the concept of Ein Sof, the aspect of God that lies beyond the emanations.
The "knowability" of the Godhead in Kabbalistic thought is no better that what is conceived by rationalist thinkers. As Jacobs puts it, "Of God as God is in Godself—Ein Sof—nothing can be said at all, no thought can reach there". Ein Sof is a place to and oblivion pertain. Why? Because concerning all the sefirot, one can search out their reality from the depth of supernal wisdom. From there it is possible to understand one thing from another. However, concerning Ein Sof, there is no aspect anywhere to probe. In modern articulations of traditional Judaism, God has been speculated to be the eternal and omniscient creator of the universe, the source of morality. God has the power to intervene in the world. Maimonides describes God in this fashion: "The foundation of all foundations and the pillar of wisdom is to know that there is a Primary Being who brought into being all existence. All the beings of the heavens, the earth, what is betwe
Torah has a range of meanings. It can most mean the first five books of the 24 books of the Tanakh, it is printed with the rabbinic commentaries, it can mean the continued narrative from the Book of Genesis to the end of the Tanakh, it can mean the totality of Jewish teaching and practice, whether derived from biblical texts or rabbinic writings. Common to all these meanings, Torah consists of the origin of Jewish peoplehood: their call into being by God, their trials and tribulations, their covenant with their God, which involves following a way of life embodied in a set of moral and religious obligations and civil laws. In rabbinic literature the word Torah denotes both the Oral Torah; the Oral Torah consists of interpretations and amplifications which according to rabbinic tradition have been handed down from generation to generation and are now embodied in the Talmud and Midrash. According to rabbinic tradition, all of the teachings found in the Torah, both written and oral, were given by God through the prophet Moses, some at Mount Sinai and others at the Tabernacle, all the teachings were written down by Moses, which resulted in the Torah that exists today.
According to the Midrash, the Torah was created prior to the creation of the world, was used as the blueprint for Creation. The majority of Biblical scholars believe that the written books were a product of the Babylonian captivity, based on earlier written sources and oral traditions, that it was completed during the period of Achaemenid rule. Traditionally, the words of the Torah are written on a scroll by a scribe in Hebrew. A Torah portion is read publicly at least once every three days in the presence of a congregation. Reading the Torah publicly is one of the bases of Jewish communal life; the word "Torah" in Hebrew is derived from the root ירה, which in the hif'il conjugation means'to guide' or'to teach'. The meaning of the word is therefore "teaching", "doctrine", or "instruction"; the Alexandrian Jews who translated the Septuagint used the Greek word nomos, meaning norm, doctrine, "law". Greek and Latin Bibles began the custom of calling the Pentateuch The Law. Other translational contexts in the English language include custom, guidance, or system.
The term "Torah" is used in the general sense to include both Rabbinic Judaism's written law and Oral Law, serving to encompass the entire spectrum of authoritative Jewish religious teachings throughout history, including the Mishnah, the Talmud, the Midrash and more, the inaccurate rendering of "Torah" as "Law" may be an obstacle to understanding the ideal, summed up in the term talmud torah. The earliest name for the first part of the Bible seems to have been "The Torah of Moses"; this title, however, is found neither in the Torah itself, nor in the works of the pre-Exilic literary prophets. It appears in Joshua and Kings. In contrast, there is every likelihood that its use in the post-Exilic works was intended to be comprehensive. Other early titles were "The Book of Moses" and "The Book of the Torah", which seems to be a contraction of a fuller name, "The Book of the Torah of God". Christian scholars refer to the first five books of the Hebrew Bible as the'Pentateuch', a term first used in the Hellenistic Judaism of Alexandria.
The Torah starts from the beginning of God's creating the world, through the beginnings of the people of Israel, their descent into Egypt, the giving of the Torah at biblical Mount Sinai. It ends with the death of Moses, just before the people of Israel cross to the promised land of Canaan. Interspersed in the narrative are the specific teachings given explicitly or implicitly embedded in the narrative. In Hebrew, the five books of the Torah are identified by the incipits in each book, it is divisible into the Primeval history and the Ancestral history. The primeval history sets out the author's concepts of the nature of the deity and of humankind's relationship with its maker: God creates a world, good and fit for mankind, but when man corrupts it with sin God decides to destroy his creation, saving only the righteous Noah to reestablish the relationship between man and God; the Ancestral history tells of the prehistory of Israel, God's chosen people