Michel Le Quien
Michel Le Quien was a French historian and theologian. He studied at Plessis College, at twenty entered the Dominican convent in Faubourg Saint-Germain, where he made his profession in 1682. Excepting occasional short absences he never left Paris. At the time of his death he was librarian of the convent in Rue Saint-Honoré, a position which he had filled all his life, lending assistance to those who sought information on theology and ecclesiastical antiquity. Under the supervision of Père Marsollier he mastered the classical languages and Hebrew, to the detriment, it seems, of his mother-tongue, his chief works, in chronological order, are: Défense du texte hébreu et de la version vulgate, reprinted in Migne, Scripturae Sacrae Cursus, III, 1525-84. It is an answer to L'antiquité des temps rétablie by the Cistercian Paul Pezron, who took the text of the Septuagint as sole basis for his chronology. Pezron replied, was again answered by Le Quien. Johannis Damasceni opera omnia Greek text with Latin translation, republished in Migne Patrologia Graeca, XCIV-VI.
To this fundamental edition he added excellent dissertations. Panoplia contra schisma Graecorum, under the pseudonym of Stephanus de Altimura Ponticencis, a refutation of the Peri arches tou Papa of Patriarch Nectarius of Jerusalem, Le Quien maintained, with historical proofs derived chiefly from the Orient, the primacy of the pope. La nullité des ordinations anglicanes, La nullité des ordinationes anglicanes démontrée de nouveau, against Pierre François le Courayer's apology for Anglican Orders. Various articles on archaeology and ecclesiastical history, published by Desmolets. Oriens christianus in quatuor patriarchatus digestus, in quo exhibentur Ecclesiae patriarchae caeterique praesules totius Orientis, published posthumously. Le Quien contemplated issuing this work as early as 1722, had made a contract with the printer Simart. In editing it, he used the notes of the Benedictine Abel-Louis de Sainte-Marthe, who had projected an "Orbis Christianus", had obligingly handed him over his notes on the Orient and Africa.
The "Oriens Christianus", as projected by Le Quien, was to comprise not only the hierarchy of the four Greek and Latin patriarchates of Constantinople, Alexandria and Jerusalem, that of the Jacobite, Nestorian and Armenian patriarchates, but the Greek and Latin texts of the various Notitiae episcopatuum, a catalogue of the Eastern and African monasteries, the hierarchy of the African Church. The last three parts of this gigantic project were set aside by Le Quien's literary heirs, his notes on Christian Africa and its monasteries have never been used at least in their entirety. "Abrégé de l'histoire de Boulogne-sur-Mer et ses comtes" in Desmolets, "Mémoires de littérature", X, 36-112. Quetif and Echard, Script. Ord. Praed. II, SOS. Universelle, XXIV, 241 Hurter, Hugo von, Nomenclator, II, 1064-6 Streber in Kirchenlexikon Zockler in Realencykl. Fur prot. Theol. S. v. S. Vailhé This article incorporates text from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia article "Michel Le Quien" by S. Vailhé, a publication now in the public domain.
Le Quien, Catholic Encyclopedia
A valley is a low area between hills or mountains with a river running through it. In geology, a valley or dale is a depression, longer than it is wide; the terms U-shaped and V-shaped are descriptive terms of geography to characterize the form of valleys. Most valleys belong to one of these two main types or a mixture of them, at least with respect to the cross section of the slopes or hillsides. A valley in its broadest geographic sense is known as a dale. Other terms used for valleys are: Vale: A valley. Dell: A small and wooded valley. Glen: A long valley bounded by sloped concave sides. Strath: A wide, flat valley through which a river runs. Mountain cove: A small valley, closed at one or both ends, in the central or southern Appalachian Mountains which sometimes results from the erosion of a geologic window. Hollow: A term used sometimes for a small valley surrounded by mountains or ridges. Cwm: A deep, narrow valley. A steephead valley is a deep, flat bottomed valley with an abrupt ending. Erosional valley: A valley formed by erosion.
Structural valley: A valley formed by geologic events such as drop faults or the rise of highlands. Dry valley: A valley not created by sustained surface water flow. Longitudinal valley: An elongated valley found between two parallel mountain chains. Similar geological structures, such as canyons, gorges, gullies and kloofs, are not referred to as valleys. A valley formed by flowing water, called fluvial valley or river valley, is V-shaped; the exact shape will depend on the characteristics of the stream flowing through it. Rivers with steep gradients, as in mountain ranges, produce a bottom. Shallower slopes may produce gentler valleys. However, in the lowest stretch of a river, where it approaches its base level, it begins to deposit sediment and the valley bottom becomes a floodplain; some broad V examples are: North America: Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park, others in Grand Canyon NP Europe: Austria: narrow passages of upper Inn valley, affluents of Enns Switzerland: Napf region, Zurich Oberland, Engadin Germany: affluents to the middle reaches of Rhine and MoselSome of the first human complex societies originated in river valleys, such as that of the Nile, Tigris-Euphrates, Ganges, Yellow River and arguably Amazon.
In prehistory, the rivers were used as a source of fresh water and food, as well as a place to wash and a sewer. The proximity of water moderated temperature extremes and provided a source for irrigation, stimulating the development of agriculture. Most of the first civilizations developed from these river valley communities. In geography, a vale is a wide river valley with a wide flood plain or flat valley bottom. In Southern England, vales occur between the escarpment slopes of pairs of chalk formations, where the chalk dome has been eroded, exposing less resistant underlying rock claystone. Rift valleys, such as the Albertine Rift and Gregory Rift are formed by the expansion of the Earth's crust due to tectonic activity beneath the Earth's surface. There are various forms of valley associated with glaciation that may be referred to as glacial valleys. A valley carved by glaciers is U-shaped and resembles a trough; this trough valley becomes visible upon the recession of the glacier. When the ice recedes or thaws, the valley remains littered with small boulders that were transported within the ice.
Floor gradient does not affect the valley's shape, it is the glacier's size. Continuously flowing glaciers – in the ice age – and large-sized glaciers carve wide, deep incised valleys, sometimes with valley steps that reflect differing erosion rates. Examples of U-shaped valleys are found in every mountainous region that has experienced glaciation during the Pleistocene ice ages. Most present U-shaped valleys started as V-shaped before glaciation; the glaciers carved it out wider and deeper changing the shape. This proceeds through the glacial erosion processes of glaciation and abrasion, which results in large rocky material being carried in the glacier. A material called; as the ice melts and retreats, the valley is left with steep sides and a wide, flat floor. A river or stream may remain in the valley; this replaces the original stream or river and is known as a misfit stream because it is smaller than one would expect given the size of its valley. Other interesting glacially carved valleys include: Yosemite Valley Side valleys of the Austrian river Salzach for their parallel directions and hanging mouths.
Some Scottish glens full with flowers. That of the St. Mary River in Glacier National Park in Montana, USA. A tunnel valley is a large, long, U-shaped valley cut under the glacial ice near the margin of continental ice sheets such as that now covering Antarctica and covering portions of all continents during past glacial ages. A tunnel valley can be up to 100 km, 4 km wide, 400 m deep. Tunnel valleys were formed by subglacial erosion by water, they served as subglacial drainage pathways carrying large volumes of melt water. Their cross-sections exhibit steep-sided flanks similar to fjord walls, their flat bottoms are typical of subglacial glacial erosion. In northern Central Europe, the Scandinavian ice sheet during the various ice ages advanced uphill against the lie of the land; as a result, its meltwaters flowed parallel to the ice margin to reach the North Sea basin, formin
Egeria, Etheria or Aetheria was a woman regarded to be the author of a detailed account of a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. The long letter, dubbed Peregrinatio or Itinerarium Egeriae, is addressed to a circle of women at home. Historical details it contains set the journey in the early 380s, making it the earliest of its kind, it survives in fragmentary form in a copy—lacking a title and attribution. The middle part of Egeria's writing survived and was copied in the Codex Aretinus, written at Monte Cassino in the 11th century, while the beginning and end are lost; this Codex Aretinus was discovered in 1884 by the Italian scholar Gian Francesco Gamurrini, in a monastic library in Arezzo. In 2005 Jesús Alturo identified two new fragments from one manuscript circa 900 in Caroline script. Gamurrini theorised the author was Saint Sylvia of Aquitaine. In 1903 Marius Férotin claimed the author is one Aetheria or Egeria, known from a letter written by the 7th century Galician monk Valerio of Bierzo, he dated her pilgrimage to about 381–384, during the reign of Theodosius I.
Férotin believed she was from Gallaecia, but in 1909 Karl Meister disputed Férotin's theory about the date of Egeria's pilgrimage and her identity. Meister argues that her language shows no evidence of Spanish dialect, but rather, suggests that she may have been from one of the well known religious houses of 6th century Gaul. John Bernard has noted that certain details of Egeria's account that would support a date—two churches mentioned in the Breviarium and Peregrinatio Theodosii —are absent from Egeria's otherwise detailed description of Jerusalem and thus confirm the 4th century dating. Most scholars favor the 4th century date, it is through Valerio's letter that we first see the name Aetheria or Egeria, have much of the biographical information. He praises Egeria and identifies her as a nun because she addresses her account to her "sorores" at home. However, others have pointed out that during Egeria's time it was common to address fellow lay Christians as "sisters" and "brothers." It is possible.
Valerio may have believed her to be a nun because she went on such a pilgrimage, although lay women of the time are known to have engaged in such religious tourism. Egeria's ability to make a long and expensive journey by herself, her numerous acquaintances and attentive guides in the places she visited, her education indicate her middle or upper class wealthy background. In his letter to Egeria, Valerio mentioned the shores of the "Western sea" or "Ocean" from which Egeria was sprung, which suggests he was writing about a person travelling from the Roman Gallaecia, but Meister believes that her reference to the river Rhone supports his theory of Gaulish origin. Egeria set down her observations in a letter now called Itinerarium Egeriae, it is sometimes called Peregrinatio Aetheriae or Peregrinatio ad Loca Sancta or some other combination. It is the earliest extant graphic account of a Christian pilgrimage; the text has numerous lacunae. Philologists have studied Egeria's letter, which contains a wealth of information about the evolution of Latin in late antiquity into the "Proto-Romance" language, from which the medieval and modern family of Romance languages emerged.
The text is a narrative written at the end of Egeria's journey from notes she took en route, addressed to her'dear ladies': the women of her spiritual community back home. In the first extant part of the text, she describes the journey from her approach to Mount Sinai until her stop in Constantinople. Staying for three years in Jerusalem, she made excursions to Mount Nebo and to the tomb of Job in ancient Carneas or Karnaia. Additionally, she visited the burial places of Haran, the brother of Abraham, as well as the site where Eliezer met with Rebecca. On her way back to Europe she stopped at Hagia Thekla—i. E. the shrine of Saint Thecla's near Seleucia Isauriae venerated by women. Upon her return to Constantinople, she planned to make a further trip to St. John's at Ephesus; the second portion of the text is a detailed account of the liturgical services and observances of the church calendar in Jerusalem, The liturgical year was in its incipient stages at the time of her visit. This is invaluable because the development of liturgical worship reached universal practice in the 4th century.
Egeria provides a first-hand account of practices and implementation of liturgical seasons as they existed at the time of her visit. This snapshot is before universal acceptance of a December 25 celebration of the nativity of Jesus; the Itinerarium Egeriae has provided scholars with valuable information about developments in the grammar and vocabulary of Vulgar Latin. For example, expressions such as "deductores sancti illi" help to reveal the origins of the definite article now used in all Romance languages —such as Spanish or Italian; the use of ipsam in a phrase such as "per mediam vallem ipsam" anticipates the type of definite article, found in Sardinian ("sa lim
The Roman provinces were the lands and people outside of Rome itself that were controlled by the Republic and the Empire. Each province was ruled by a Roman, appointed as governor. Although different in many ways, they were similar to the states in Australia or the United States, the regions in the United kingdom or New Zealand, or the prefectures in Japan. Canada refers to some of its territory as provinces. A province was the basic and, until the tetrarchy, the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy; the word province in Modern English has its origins in the Latin term used by the Romans. Provinces were governed by politicians of senatorial rank former consuls or former praetors. A exception was the province of Egypt, incorporated by Augustus after the death of Cleopatra; this exception was unique, but not contrary to Roman law, as Egypt was considered Augustus' personal property, following the tradition of the kings of the earlier Hellenistic period.
The Latin term provincia had a more general meaning of "jurisdiction". The Latin word provincia meant any task or set of responsibilities assigned by the Roman Senate to an individual who held imperium, a military command within a specified theater of operations. Under the Roman Republic, the magistrates were elected to office for a period of one year, those serving outside the city of Rome, such as consuls acting as generals on a military campaign, were assigned a particular provincia, the scope of authority within which they exercised their command; the territory of a people who were defeated in war might be brought under various forms of treaty, in some cases entailing complete subjection. The formal annexation of a territory created a province, in the modern sense of an administrative unit, geographically defined. Republican-period provinces were administered in one-year terms by the consuls and praetors who had held office the previous year and who were invested with imperium. Rome started expanding beyond Italy during the First Punic War.
The first permanent provinces to be annexed were Sicilia in 241 BC and Corsica et Sardinia in 237 BC. Militarized expansionism kept increasing the number of these administrative provinces, until there were no longer enough qualified individuals to fill the posts, good people; the terms of provincial governors had to be extended for multiple years, on occasion the senate awarded imperium to private citizens, most notably Pompey the Great. Prorogation undermined the republican constitutional principle of annual elected magistracies, the amassing of disproportionate wealth and military power by a few men through their provincial commands was a major factor in the transition from a republic to imperial autocracy. 241 BC – Sicilia taken over from the Carthaginians and annexed at the end of the First Punic War 237 BC – Corsica et Sardinia. It was annexed after a rebellion by the Achaean League. 146 BC – Africa home territory of Carthage. It was annexed following attacks on the allied Greek city of Massalia.
67 BC – Creta et Cyrenae. However, it was not organised as a province, it was incorporated into the province of Creta et Cyrenae when Crete was annexed in 67 BC. 63 BC – Pontus et Bithynia. It was organised as a Roman province at the end of the Third Mithridatic War by Pompey, who incorporated the eastern part of the defeated Kingdom of Pontus into it in 63 BC. 63 BC – Syria. The Romans controlled only a small area. In 74 BC Lycia and Pamphylia were added to the small Roman possessions in Cilicia. Cilicia came under Roman control towards the end of the Third Mithridatic War – 73–63 BC; the province was reorganised by Pompey in 63 BC. Cyprus was annexed and added to this province in 58 BC. 46 BC – Africa Nova, Julius Caesar annexed eastern Numidia and the new province called Africa Nova to distinguish it from the older province of Africa, which become known as Africa Vetus. Gallia Cisalpina was a province in the sense of an area of military command, but was never a province in the sense of an administrative unit.
During Rome's expansion in the Italian peninsula, the Romans assigned some areas as provinces in the sense of areas of militar
Titus Flavius Josephus, born Yosef ben Matityahu, was a first-century Romano-Jewish historian, born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry. He fought against the Romans during the First Jewish–Roman War as head of Jewish forces in Galilee, until surrendering in 67 CE to Roman forces led by Vespasian after the six-week siege of Jotapata. Josephus claimed the Jewish Messianic prophecies that initiated the First Roman-Jewish War made reference to Vespasian becoming Emperor of Rome. In response Vespasian decided to keep Josephus as a slave and interpreter. After Vespasian became Emperor in 69 CE, he granted Josephus his freedom, at which time Josephus assumed the emperor's family name of Flavius. Flavius Josephus defected to the Roman side and was granted Roman citizenship, he became an advisor and friend of Vespasian's son Titus, serving as his translator when Titus led the Siege of Jerusalem. Since the siege proved ineffective at stopping the Jewish revolt, the city's destruction and the looting and destruction of Herod's Temple soon followed.
Josephus recorded Jewish history, with special emphasis on the first century CE and the First Jewish–Roman War, including the Siege of Masada. His most important works were The Jewish Antiquities of the Jews; the Jewish War recounts the Jewish revolt against Roman occupation. Antiquities of the Jews recounts the history of the world from a Jewish perspective for an ostensibly Greek and Roman audience; these works provide valuable insight into first century Judaism and the background of Early Christianity.. Born into one of Jerusalem's elite families, Josephus introduces himself in Greek as Iōsēpos, son of Matthias, an ethnic Jewish priest, he was the second-born son of Matthias. His older full-blooded brother was called Matthias, their mother was an aristocratic woman who descended from the royal and ruling Hasmonean dynasty. Josephus's paternal grandparents were Josephus and his wife—an unnamed Hebrew noblewoman, distant relatives of each other and direct descendants of Simon Psellus. Josephus's family was wealthy.
He descended through his father from the priestly order of the Jehoiarib, the first of the 24 orders of priests in the Temple in Jerusalem. Josephus was a descendant of the high priest Jonathon, he was educated alongside his brother. In his early twenties, he traveled to negotiate with Emperor Nero for the release of 12 Jewish priests. Upon his return to Jerusalem, at the outbreak of the First Jewish–Roman War, Josephus was appointed the military governor of Galilee, but he strove with John of Gischala over the control of Galilee, who like Josephus, had amassed to himself a large band of supporters from Gischala and Gabara, including the support of the Sanhedrin in Jerusalem. Josephus fortified several towns and villages in Galilee, among which were Tiberias, Bersabe and Tarichaea, in anticipation of a Roman onslaught, resisted the Roman army in its siege of Yodfat until it fell to the Roman army in the lunar month of Tammuz, in the thirteenth year of Nero's reign. After the Jewish garrison of Yodfat fell under siege, the Romans invaded.
According to Josephus, he was trapped in a cave with 40 of his companions in July 67 CE. The Romans asked the group to surrender. Josephus suggested a method of collective suicide. Two men were left, who became prisoners. In 69 CE, Josephus was released. According to his account, he acted as a negotiator with the defenders during the Siege of Jerusalem in 70 CE, in which his parents and first wife died. While being confined at Yodfat, Josephus claimed to have experienced a divine revelation that led to his speech predicting Vespasian would become emperor. After the prediction came true, he was released by Vespasian, who considered his gift of prophecy to be divine. Josephus wrote that his revelation had taught him three things: that God, the creator of the Jewish people, had decided to "punish" them. To many Jews, such claims were self-serving. In 71 CE, he went to Rome in the entourage of Titus, becoming a Roman citizen and client of the ruling Flavian dynasty. In addition to Roman citizenship, he was granted accommodation in a pension.
While in Rome and under Flavian patronage, Josephus wrote all of his known works. Although he uses "Josephus", he appears to have taken the Roman praenomen Titus and nomen Flavius from his patrons. Vespasian arranged for Josephus to marry a captured Jewish woman, whom he divorced. About 71 CE, Josephus married an Alexandrian Jewish woman as his third wife, they had three sons. Josephus divorced his third wife. Around 75 CE, he married his fourth wife, a Greek Jewish woman from Crete, a member of a distinguished family, they had two sons, Flavius Justus and Flavius Simonides Agrippa. Josephus's life story remains ambiguous, he was described by Harris in 1985 as a law-observant Jew who believed in the com
Yemen known as the Republic of Yemen, is a country at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. Yemen is the second-largest Arab sovereign state in the peninsula, occupying 527,970 square kilometres; the coastline stretches for about 2,000 kilometres. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the Red Sea to the west, the Gulf of Aden and Guardafui Channel to the south, the Arabian Sea and Oman to the east. Yemen's territory includes more than 200 islands. Yemen's constitutionally stated capital is the city of Sana'a, but the city has been under Houthi rebel control since February 2015. Yemen was the home of the Sabaeans, a trading state that flourished for over a thousand years and included parts of modern-day Ethiopia and Eritrea. In 275 CE, the region came under the rule of the Jewish-influenced Himyarite Kingdom. Christianity arrived in the fourth century. Islam spread in the seventh century and Yemenite troops were crucial in the expansion of the early Islamic conquests.
Administration of Yemen has long been notoriously difficult. Several dynasties emerged from the ninth to 16th centuries, the Rasulid dynasty being the strongest and most prosperous; the country was divided between the British empires in the early twentieth century. The Zaydi Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen was established after World War I in North Yemen before the creation of the Yemen Arab Republic in 1962. South Yemen remained a British protectorate known as the Aden Protectorate until 1967 when it became an independent state and a Marxist-Leninist state; the two Yemeni states united to form the modern republic of Yemen in 1990. Yemen is the poorest country in the Middle East. Under the rule of President Ali Abdullah Saleh, Yemen was described by critics as a kleptocracy. According to the 2009 International Corruption Perceptions Index by Transparency International, Yemen ranked 164 out of 182 countries surveyed. In the absence of strong state institutions, elite politics in Yemen constituted a de facto form of collaborative governance, where competing tribal, regional and political interests agreed to hold themselves in check through tacit acceptance of the balance it produced.
The informal political settlement was held together by a power-sharing deal among three men: President Saleh, who controlled the state. The Saudi payments have been intended to facilitate the tribes' autonomy from the Yemeni government and to give the Saudi government a mechanism with which to weigh in on Yemen's political decision-making, it is a member of the United Nations, Arab League, Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation, G-77, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab Satellite Communications Organization, Arab Monetary Fund and the World Federation of Trade Unions. Since 2011, Yemen has been in a state of political crisis starting with street protests against poverty, unemployment and president Saleh's plan to amend Yemen's constitution and eliminate the presidential term limit, in effect making him president for life. President Saleh stepped down and the powers of the presidency were transferred to Vice President Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, formally elected president on 21 February 2012 in a one-man election.
The total absence of central government during this transitional process engendered the escalation of the several clashes on-going in the country, like the armed conflict between the Houthi rebels of Ansar Allah militia and the al-Islah forces, as well as the al-Qaeda insurgency. In September 2014, the Houthis took over Sana'a with the help of the ousted president Saleh declaring themselves in control of the country after a coup d'état; this resulted in a new civil war and a Saudi Arabian-led military intervention aimed at restoring Hadi's government. At least 56,000 civilians and combatants have been killed in armed violence in Yemen since January 2016; the conflict has resulted in a famine, affecting 17 million people. The lack of safe drinking water, caused by depleted aquifers and the destruction of the country's water infrastructure, has caused the world's worst outbreak of cholera, with the number of suspected cases exceeding 994,751. Over 2,226 people have died since the outbreak began to spread at the end of April 2017.
In 2016 the United Nations reported that Yemen is the country with the most people in need of humanitarian aid in the world with 21.2 million. The term Yamnat was mentioned in Old South Arabian inscriptions on the title of one of the kings of the second Himyarite kingdom known as Shammar Yahrʽish II; the term was referring to the southwestern coastline of the Arabian peninsula and the southern coastline between Aden and Hadramout. The historical Yemen includes much greater territory than that of the current republic of Yemen, it stretches from the northern'Asir Region in southwestern Saudi Arabia to Dhofar Governorate in southern Oman. One etymology derives Yemen from ymnt, meaning "South", plays on the notion of the land to the right. Other sources claim that Yemen is related to yamn or yumn, meaning "felicity" or "blessed", as much of the country is fertile; the Romans called it Arabia Felix, as opposed to Arabia Deserta. Latin and Greek writers used the name "India" to re
The Madaba Map known as the Madaba Mosaic Map, is part of a floor mosaic in the early Byzantine church of Saint George in Madaba, Jordan. The Madaba Map is of the Middle East, part of it contains the oldest surviving original cartographic depiction of the Holy Land and Jerusalem, it dates to the 6th century AD. The Madaba Mosaic Map depicts Jerusalem with the New Church of the Theotokos, dedicated on November 20, 542. Buildings erected in Jerusalem after 570 are absent from the depiction, thus limiting the date range of its creation to the period between 542 and 570; the mosaic was made by unknown artists for the Christian community of Madaba, the seat of a bishop at that time. In 614, Madaba was conquered by the Sasanian Empire. In the eighth century, the ruling Muslim Umayyad Caliphate had some figural motifs removed from the mosaic. In 746, Madaba was destroyed by an earthquake and subsequently abandoned; the mosaic was rediscovered in 1884, during the construction of a new Greek Orthodox church on the site of its ancient predecessor.
Patriarch Nicodemus I of Jerusalem was informed, but no research was carried out until 1896. In the following decades, large portions of the mosaic map were damaged by fires, activities in the new church and by the effects of moisture. In December 1964, the Volkswagen Foundation gave the Deutscher Verein für die Erforschung Palästinas 90,000 DM to save the mosaic. In 1965, the archaeologists Heinz Cüppers and Herbert Donner undertook the restoration and conservation of the remaining parts of the mosaic; the floor mosaic is located in the apse of the church of Saint George at Madaba. It is not oriented northwards, like modern maps, but faces east towards the altar in such a fashion that the position of places on the map coincides with the actual compass directions, it measured 21 by 7 m and contained over two million tesserae. Its current dimensions are 16 by 5 m; the mosaic map depicts an area from Lebanon in the north to the Nile Delta in the south, from the Mediterranean Sea in the west to the Eastern Desert.
Among other features, it depicts the Dead Sea with two fishing boats, a variety of bridges linking the banks of the Jordan, fish swimming in the river and receding from the Dead Sea. The map may have served to facilitate pilgrims' orientation in the Holy Land. All landscape units are labelled with explanations in Greek. A combination of folding perspective and aerial view depicts about 150 towns and villages, all of them labelled; the largest and most detailed element of the topographic depiction is Jerusalem, at the centre of the map. The mosaic shows a number of significant structures in the Old City of Jerusalem: the Damascus Gate, the Lions' Gate, the Golden Gate, the Zion Gate, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, the New Church of the Theotokos, the Tower of David and the Cardo Maximus; the recognisable depiction of the urban topography makes the mosaic a key source on Byzantine Jerusalem. Unique are the detailed depictions of cities such as Neapolis, Gaza and Charachmoba, all of them nearly detailed enough to be described as street maps.
The mosaic map of Madaba is the oldest known geographic floor mosaic in art history. It is used for the localisation and verification of biblical sites. Study of the map played a major role in answering the question of the topographical location of Askalon. In 1967, excavations in the Jewish Quarter of Jerusalem revealed the Nea Church and the Cardo Maximus in the locations suggested by the Madaba Map. In February 2010, excavations further substantiated its accuracy with the discovery of a road depicted in the map that runs through the center of Jerusalem. According to the map, the main entrance to the city was through a large gate opening into a wide central street; until the discovery, archaeologists were not able to excavate this site due to heavy pedestrian traffic. In the wake of infrastructure work near the Jaffa Gate, large paving stones were discovered at a depth of 4 meters below ground that prove such a road existed. A copy of the map is in the collection of the Archaeological Institute at Göttingen University.
It was produced during the conservation work at Madaba in 1965 by archaeologists of the Rheinisches Landesmuseum, Trier. A copy produced by students of the Madaba Mosaic School is in the foyer of the Akademisches Kunstmuseum at Bonn; the lobby of the YMCA in Jerusalem has a replica of the map incorporated in the floor. M.-J. Lagrange. "JÉRUSALEM D'APRÈS LA MOSAÏQUE DE MADABA". Revue Biblique. Peeters Publishers. 6: 450–458. JSTOR 44101959. Leal, Beatrice. "A Reconsideration of the Madaba Map." Gesta 57, no. 2: 123-143. Madden, Andrew M. "A New Form of Evidence to Date the Madaba Map Mosaic," Liber Annuus 62, 495-513. Hepper, Nigel. Herbert Donner: The Mosaic Map of Madaba. Kok Pharos Publishing House, Kampen 1992, ISBN 90-390-0011-5 Herbert Donner. Die Mosaikkarte von Madeba: Tafelband. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-01866-1. Michael Avi-Yonah: The Madaba mosaic map. Israel Exploration Society, Jerusalem 1954 Michele Piccirillo: Chiese e mosaici di Madaba. Studium Biblicum Franciscanum, Collectio maior 34, Jerusalem 1989 Kenneth Nebenzahl: Maps of the Holy Land, images of Terra Sancta t