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Zog I of Albania

Zog I, King of the Albanians, born Ahmet Muhtar Zogolli, taking the surname Zogu in 1922, was the leader of Albania from 1922 to 1939. He first served as Prime Minister of Albania as President, as the first and only King. Zog was born as Ahmet Muhtar Zogolli in Burgajet Castle, near Burrel in the northern part of the Albanian section of the Ottoman Empire, third son to Xhemal Pasha Zogolli, first son by his second wife Sadijé Toptani in 1895, his family was a beylik family of landowners, with feudal authority over the region of Mati. His mother's Toptani family claimed to be descended from the sister of Albania's greatest national hero, the 15th-century general Skanderbeg, he was educated at Galatasaray High School in Beyoglu, the capital of the decaying Ottoman Empire, which controlled Albania. Upon his father's death in 1911, Zogolli became governor of Mat, being appointed ahead of his elder half-brother, Xhelal Bey Zogolli. In 1912, he participated at the Albanian Declaration of Independence as the representative of the Mat District.

As a young man during the First World War, Zogolli volunteered on the side of Austria-Hungary. He was detained at Vienna in 1917 and 1918 and in Rome in 1918 and 1919 before returning to Albania in 1919. During his time in Vienna, he grew to enjoy a Western European lifestyle. Upon his return, Zogolli became involved in the political life of the fledgling Albanian government, created in the wake of the First World War, his political supporters included many southern feudal landowners called beys, Turkish for "province chieftain" with title variations including Beyg, Bygjymi. The Bey title refers to the social group to which he belonged, used by noble families in the north, along with merchants and intellectuals. During the early 1920s, Zogolli served as Governor of Shkodër, Minister of the Interior, chief of the Albanian military, his primary rivals were Fan S. Noli. In 1922, Zogolli formally changed his surname from Zogolli to Zogu. In 1923, he was wounded in Parliament. A crisis arose in 1924 after the assassination of one of Zogu's industrialist opponents, Avni Rustemi.

He returned to Albania with the backing of Yugoslav forces and Yugoslavia-based General Pyotr Wrangel′s White Russian troops led by Russian Gen Sergei Ulagay and became Prime Minister. Zogu was elected as the first President of Albania by the Constituent Assembly on 21 January 1925, taking office on 1 February for a seven-year term. Zogu's government followed the European model, though large parts of Albania still maintained a social structure unchanged from the days of Ottoman rule, most villages were serf plantations run by the Beys. On 28 June 1925, Zogu ceded Sveti Naum to Yugoslavia in exchange for Peshkëpi village and other concessions. Zogu enacted several major reforms, his principal ally during this period was the Kingdom of Italy, which lent his government funds in exchange for a greater role in Albania's fiscal policy. During Zogu's presidency, serfdom was eliminated. For the first time since the death of Skanderbeg, Albania began to emerge as a nation, rather than a feudal patchwork of local Beyliks.

His administration was marred by disputes with Kosovar leaders Hasan Prishtina and Bajram Curri. Under the constitution, Zogu was vested with sweeping executive and legislative powers, including the right to appoint one-third of the upper house. Within the context of the system, he was a virtual dictator; the media were subjected to close censorship, political opponents were killed. For all intents and purposes, he held all governing power in the nation. On 1 September 1928, Albania was transformed into a kingdom, President Zogu became Zog I, King of the Albanians, he took as his regnal name his surname rather than his forename, since the Islamic name Ahmet might have had the effect of isolating him on the European stage. He initially took the parallel name "Skanderbeg III" (Zogu claimed to be a successor of Skanderbeg through descent through Skanderbeg's sister. On the same day as he was declared king, he was declared Field Marshal of the Royal Albanian Army, he proclaimed a constitutional monarchy similar to the contemporary regime in Italy, created a strong police force, instituted the Zogist salute.

Zog hoarded precious stones, which were used to back Albania's first paper currency. Zog's mother, was declared Queen Mother of Albania, Zog gave his brother and sisters Royal status as Prince and Princesses Zogu. One of his sisters, Princess Zogu, married Prince Shehzade Mehmed Abid Efendi of Turkey, a son of Sultan Abdul Hamid II. Zog's constitution forbade any Prince of the Royal House from serving as Prime Minister or a member of the Cabinet, contained provisions for the potential extinction of the Royal Family. In light of events, the constitution forbade the union of the Albanian throne with that of any other country. Under the Zogist constitution, the King of the Albanians, like the King of the Belgians, ascended the throne and exercised Royal powers only after taking an oath before Parliament.

Department of Health (1921–87)

The Department of Health was an Australian government department that existed between March 1921 and July 1987. In 1987, the Department of Health was merged with the Department of Community Services to form the Department of Community Services and Health. Information about the department's functions and/or government funding allocation could be found in the Administrative Arrangements Orders, the annual Portfolio Budget Statements and in the Department's annual reports. According to the 1921 Order of Council, reproduced by the National Archives of Australia, the Department was responsible for: The Administration of the Quarantine Act; the investigation of the causes of disease and death. The control of the Commonwealth Serum Laboratories and the commercial distribution of the products manufactured in these Laboratories; the methods of prevention of disease. The collection of sanitary data and the investigation of all factors affecting health in industries; the education of the public in matters of public health.

The administration of any subsidy made by the Commonwealth with the object of assisting any effort made by any State Government or public authority directed towards the eradication, prevention or control of any disease. The conducting of campaigns of prevention of disease in which more than one State is interested; the administrative control of the Australian Institute of Tropical Medicine. The administrative control of infectious disease amongst discharged members of the Australian Imperial Force. To inspire and co-ordinate public health measures. Any other functions which may be assigned to it The Department was an Australian Public Service department, staffed by officials who were responsible to the Minister for Health

Average Joes Entertainment

Average Joes Entertainment Group is an American record label specializing in alternative country, country rap and country music. The label was founded in 2008 by country rap artist Jason "Colt Ford" Brown and producer Shannon Houchins. Ford has released six studio albums for the label, five of which have reached the top 10 of the country albums charts including 2012's chart topping #1 "Declaration Of Independence" which charted at #2 on the rap albums chart. 2014's "Thanks For Listening" charted #1 on the rap albums chart and # 2 on the country albums chart. Average Joes is responsible for launching the careers of other artists such as Brantley Gilbert, LoCash Cowboys, Tyler Farr, The Lacs and many more; the label's audiences attract a sizable and working-class audience by describing features of modern rural life in proud detail, staging concerts at mud bogs and buying a stake in the mud racing Mega Truck Series. Average Joe's roster includes Montgomery Gentry, Lenny Cooper, Bubba Sparxxx, Lenny Cooper, Cypress Spring and more.

Other previous notable artists include Rehab, Corey Smith, Sunny Ledfurd, Josh Gracin, Moonshine Bandits, Kevin Fowler and Demun Jones. Average Joes Entertainment was formed in 2006 by CEO Shannon Houchins, country-music artist Colt Ford and restaurateur Zach McLeroy. AJE released its first album, Colt Ford's "Ride Through The Country" on July 4, 2008 which brought notoriety to the new label. Soon after Average Joes artist roster added such acts as Brantley Gilbert, Corey Smith, Montgomery Gentry and Locash. In 2010, Backroad Records was formed as a subsidiary of Average Joe's, its roster features The Lacs, Lenny Cooper, Bubba Sparxxx, Danny Boone from Rehab, Demun Jones from Rehab, Moonshine Bandits, Charlie Farley, Redneck Social Club and Twang & Round. Backroad releases an annual compilation series titled "Mud Digger". Volume 1 was released on August 3, 2010 and features songs from Average Joe's Entertainment and Backroads Records artists such as Colt Ford, Brantley Gilbert, The Lacs, Corey Smith and Sunny Ledfurd.

Backroad as since released ten volumes of the popular title. In addition to country music, Average Joe's founded a southern urban genre-oriented subsidiary imprint called AVJ Records, specializing in southern rock, pop, R&B and hip hop artists, including Nappy Roots, Anamul House and Rehab. In 2014, AVJ was converted into a country-rap brand. Rehab was the only previous artist that remained on AVJ. A minor re-alignment took place at this time moving Demun Jones and new artist Sarah Ross to the Average Joes brand and Danny Boone and Twang & Round to AVJ. In the early days of Average Joes, the company used unique practices what they referred to as "hi-tech/low-tech" marketing, where they leaned on both digital "direct to fan" social marketing along with face-to-face integrations tied in with artist's tours. Many of their early tours were in non-traditional small market venues that included mud bogs and parks. Through this practice the company built massive direct to fan data bases. Average Joes Entertainment formed a management arm that started in 2009 under the name Fullscope and was steered by Ken Madson.

In 2011, Fullscope was re-branded as Average Joes Management and in 2019 rebranded as Arcade Management. Arcade is headed by Jamie Reeder. Past and current management clients include Colt Ford, Brantley Gilbert, The Lacs, Tyler Farr, John Michael Montgomery, Sister Hazel, Gaelic Storm, Josh Gracin, Nappy Roots, Bubba Sparxxx and more. In 2011, Average Joes formed Hideout Pictures to focus on television. Recent projects include CMT's Still The King starring Billy Ray Cyrus, Joey Lauren Adams and Madison Iseman and Silent Bob Reboot directed by Kevin Smith, 3022 starring Kate Walsh, Omar Epps and Miranda Cosgrove and more. AJE owns motor-sports league Mega Truck Series and clothing line Slinger. Adam Wakefield Bubba Sparxxx Carter Winter Colt Ford Cypress Spring Devin Burris Lenny Cooper Montgomery Gentry Sam Grow Sarah Ross Smo Tommy Chayne Brantley Gilbert Cap Bailey Corey Smith Daniel Lee Demun Jones Ira Dean JB and the Moonshine Band JJ Lawhorn Josh Gracin Kevin Fowler Lauren Briant LoCash Cowboys Matt Stillwell Rachel Farley Rich O'Toole Sunny Ledfurd Trailer Choir Charlie Farley The Lacs Moccasin Creek Moonshine Bandits Redneck Social Club T Woods Twang & Round Anamul House Bingx Bizarre Crucifix Danny Boone DJ KO Exit 24 I4NI J Rosevelt Lindsey Hager Nappy Roots Rehab Rizzi Myers Space Capone Vonnegutt Official website

William Townsend (mayor)

William Townsend was a leading auctioneer, Mayor of Adelaide from 1864 to 1866, a South Australian politician. In 1874 he established an institution for deaf and blind children, named Townsend House. Townsend was born in the London Borough of Southwark, worked assisting his brother, a potato salesman, subsequently as a clerk, he married Emma Slade at St Pancras on 25 December 1852, soon after set sail for Adelaide. He, his wife and child arrived in South Australia aboard the Dutch ship Fop Smit on 2 August 1853. Emma died soon after arrival, he subsequently married Jane Hooper. At first he was employed as a boot salesman, subsequently opened a business as a boot-maker. On the advice of F. J. Botting, he became an auctioneer, he helped found Botting & Kay with F. J. Botting and William Kay, he became a leading auctioneer, forming his own business, "Townsend and Son". A fluent and forcible speaker, he became a popular public lecturer, a lay preacher of the Congregational Church, he was interested in the formation of responsible government in South Australia from its beginnings, helped frame the 1855 Constitution.

He unsuccessfully stood in the colony's first election, but entered the South Australian Legislative Assembly in a by-election on 23 December 1857 for the seat of Onkaparinga. He held that seat until 1870, he was Commissioner of Public Works in the 11-day Francis Dutton Ministry of July 1863, Commissioner of Crown Lands and immigration in the 16-day John Hart Ministry of September–October 1868. As Commissioner of Crown Lands in the Blyth Ministry from November 1871 to January 1872, he initiated a survey of the Northern Territory, he was acting Speaker in the assembly from 1872 until his death, in 1876 he succeeded John Carr as Chairman of Committees in the Assembly, a position he held until his death on 25 October 1882. Townsend served two terms as mayor of Adelaide in 1864-66, was mayor of Unley in 1878-81."Townsend House" was founded in 1874 by Townsend who, after two terms in office as Mayor of Adelaide, set about fulfilling his ambition to establish a "Blind Asylum in the City of Adelaide".

Founded as the South Australian Institution for the Blind and Dumb, the charity opened its doors to five blind and two deaf students, beginning a commitment that continues today under the name CanDo4Kids. Townsend was chairman of its committee from 1875 until his death in 1882. Townsend lived at "Waverley" in Lower Mitcham. Aged 61, he died of phthisis on 25 October 1882 at Mitcham, survived by his second wife, four daughters and three sons. Library catalogue references Norman, W. A. "William Townsend" in History of the City of Mitcham, p. 285-287 Obituary, Frearson's weekly illustrated, 28 October 1882, p. 599 Death of Mr. William Townsend, M. P, Adelaide observer, 28 October 1882, p. 32, col. A. A-d Townsend William 1821-1882, list of references at the State Library of South AustraliaNewspaper articles Obituary, 1 November 1882, Border Watch, pg.4

Anastasios Christodoulou

Anastasios Christodoulou known as Chris Christodoulou, was a British-based Greek Cypriot university administrator. He was the Secretary General of the Association of Commonwealth Universities and the Foundation Secretary of the Open University. Christodoulou was born in Cyprus in 1932, the oldest of three sons of Yianni Christodoulos, a cobbler, his wife, Maria, née Haji, he came to London when he was three to join his father, working as a kitchen porter in Soho. He hardly knew his mother; these twin brothers went to live in Barbados with foster parents. Christodoulou had been born on Easter Day and was named'Anastasios' by his parents, meaning'Resurrection', he early on displayed a precocious intelligence. He went to a local primary school aged five, not knowing a word of English, but by half-term was interpreting for much of the local Greek Cypriot community. Aged 11 he won a place at St Marylebone Grammar School. After graduating in 1955 from Queen's College, Oxford in Philosophy and Economics, he joined the overseas Colonial Service and served as District Officer and District Commissioner and Magistrate in Tanganyika.

In 1963 he moved to the University of Leeds, where he was Assistant Registrar and Deputy Secretary. In 1968, he became Foundation Secretary of the Open University, having been appointed by Walter Perry, the University's Vice-Chancellor, they began work on 1 January 1969. While in recent years the OU has been described as one of the great educational initiatives of the twentieth century, its early days were difficult. Labour politicians Harold Wilson and Jennie Lee had been determined that it should be a'proper' university, there were many who believed that the University would fail, would award worthless degrees. Christodoulou had to overcome various disputes between course teams, the BBC, regional organisers; when Edward Heath's Conservative Party came to power in 1970 Margaret Thatcher was appointed Secretary of State for Education and Science. She proved to be sceptical about the academic standards of the OU, believing that students could get degrees just by ticking boxes, because some courses included multiple-choice questions.

Christodoulou and Walter Perry travelled back to London with Thatcher after she had visited the Open University, managed to persuade her that it was genuine and useful. In 1971 Christodoulou was responsible for managing 43,000 initial applications, from which 24,000 students began degree courses, he was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 1978 Queen's Birthday Honours. In May 1981, he was awarded an honorary degree from the Open University as Doctor of the University. Christodoulou was the Secretary General of the Association of Commonwealth Universities from 1980 to 1996, he increased the membership of the association, raised £2 million in a 75th anniversary appeal with the Canadian academic Thomas Symons. A great supporter of the Commonwealth, Christodoulou was acting Chairman of the Governors of the Commonwealth Institute, Secretary of the Commonwealth Scholarship and Fellowship Plan, a Governor of the Commonwealth of Learning in Vancouver. In 1996 he received an honorary doctorate from Brunel University.

He was a Trustee of Richmond, The American International University in London, in 1997 received an honorary doctorate in International relations from that university. He received honorary doctorates from the University of Ottawa and the University of Auckland. In 1995 he received the National University of Lesotho's fiftieth anniversary award for distinguished service to African education. Christodoulou retained his links with Cyprus. With Loucas Haji-Ioannou, the father of Stelios Haji-Ioannou, the founder of EasyJet, he attempted to set up a new Cyprus university, but, to his disappointment, Haji-Ioannou pulled out. Shortly before his death Christodoulou returned to the village where he had been born but was unhappy to discover that it had been occupied by Turkish troops. During his last years he was treated for cancer. On 10 December 1955, he married Joan Patricia Edmunds, a librarian and the daughter of John Samuel Edmunds, an engineer, they had two daughters. Anastasios Christodoulou died from cancer at the General Hospital, Milton Keynes, on 20 May 2002.'The Commonwealth of Universities: The Story of the Association of Commonwealth Universities, 1963–1988' by Hugh W. Springer, Alastair Niven, Anastasios Christodoulou, Association of Commonwealth Universities Staff Published by Association of Commonwealth Universities, ISBN 0-85143-109-7

George Butts

Gunner's Mate George Butts was an American soldier who fought in the American Civil War. Butts received the country's highest award for bravery during combat, the Medal of Honor, for his action aboard the USS Signal during the Red River Campaign on 6 May 1864, he was honored with the award on 31 December 1864. Butts was born in Rome, New York in 1838, he enlisted into the United States Navy. He died on 17 February 1902 and his remains are interred at the Ridgelawn Cemetery in Ohio. Proceeding up the Red River, the U. S. S. Signal engaged a large force of enemy field batteries and sharpshooters, returning their fire until the ship was disabled, at which time the white flag was raised. Although entered on the sick list, Butts courageously carried out his duties during the entire engagement. List of American Civil War Medal of Honor recipients: A–F