Rawlings Gold Glove Award
Managers are not permitted to vote for their own players. Additionally, a sabermetric component provided by Society for American Baseball Research accounts for approximately 25 percent of the vote, eighteen Gold Gloves are awarded each year, one at each of the nine positions in each league. In 1957, the glove manufacturer Rawlings created the Gold Glove Award to commemorate the best fielding performance at each position. The award was created from a made from gold lamé-tanned leather. For the first four seasons of the award, individual awards were presented to left fielders, center fielders, from 1961 through 2010, the phrase at each position was no longer strictly accurate, since the prize was presented to three outfielders irrespective of their specific position. Any combination of outfielders, often three center fielders, could win the award in the same year, critics called for awarding a single Gold Glove for each individual outfield position, arguing that the three outfield positions are not equivalent defensively.
Starting in 2011, separate awards for each position were once again presented. In the 1985 American League voting, a tie for third-place resulted in the presentation of Gold Glove Awards to four outfielders, the Gold Gloves are selected by managers and coaches that may have seen a player as few as six times during the season. Bill Chuck of Comcast SportsNet New England wrote that Gold Glove voters frequently counted only errors to determine winners, geoff Baker of The Seattle Times said the votes for the Gold Gloves rely largely on a players past reputation. The Associated Press wrote that fans have viewed the Gold Gloves as mostly a popularity contest. Derek Jeter, winner of five Gold Gloves, believes that many defensive factors cannot be quantified, in 2013, Rawlings collaborated on the Gold Glove Award with SABR, who provided the SABR Defensive Index to add a sabermetric component to the selection process. The index accounted for 25 percent of the vote, while managers, Jay Jaffe of Sports Illustrated wrote that the Gold Gloves appear to have significantly closed the gap on their more statistically-driven counterparts.
The most Gold Gloves ever won by one player is 18 by pitcher Greg Maddux and he won 13 consecutive awards from 1990 to 2002, all in the National League. Brooks Robinson has the most wins as a third baseman, with 16 Gold Gloves, and is tied for the second-highest total overall with pitcher Jim Kaat, Iván Rodríguez has won the most Gold Gloves as a catcher, with 13 career awards in the American League. Ozzie Smith has 13 wins at shortstop, he and Rodríguez are tied for the fourth-highest total among all winners, among outfielders, Roberto Clemente and Willie Mays, who played primarily right field and center field, are tied for the lead with 12 Gold Gloves. Keith Hernandez, the leader at first base, has won 11 times, other players with 10 or more wins include shortstop Omar Vizquel, catcher Johnny Bench, third baseman Mike Schmidt, and outfielders Ken Griffey Jr. Ichiro Suzuki, Andruw Jones, and Al Kaline. The only player to win Gold Gloves as an infielder and outfielder is Darin Erstad, the only other player to win Gold Gloves at multiple positions is Plácido Polanco, who won at second base and third base.
In 2016, Rawlings announced it would begin awarding a gold glove annually to a female fastpitch softball player in the National Pro Fastpitch league, NPF coaches and managers vote for a winner
Homesickness is the distress or impairment caused by an actual or anticipated separation from home. Its cognitive hallmark is preoccupying thoughts of home and attachment objects, sufferers typically report a combination of depressive and anxious symptoms, withdrawn behavior and difficulty focusing on topics unrelated to home. In its mild form, homesickness prompts the development of coping skills and motivates healthy attachment behaviors, nearly all people miss something about home when they are away, making homesickness a nearly universal experience. However, intense homesickness can be painful and debilitating, fortunately and treatment strategies exist for both children and adults. There are protective factors which can help people to cope with homesickness, youth-serving organizations, such as the American Camp Association, have developed a homesickness prevention program. One study showed that this intervention can lower the intensity of homesickness of first-year campers by an average 50%.
The Greek physician Hippocrates believed that homesickness—also called heimveh or a nostalgic reaction—was caused by a surfeit of black bile in the blood. In recent history homesickness is first mentioned specifically with Swiss people being abroad in Europe for a period of time in a document dating back to 1691. A normal phenomenon amongst the many common Swiss mercenaries serving in different countries and it was not uncommon for them staying many years away from home and, if lucky enough, return home if still alive. Cross-cultural research, with populations as diverse as refugees and boarding students, suggests considerable agreement on the definition of homesickness. Additional historical perspectives on homesickness and place attachment can be found in books by van Tilburg & Vingerhoets, Matt, as noted above, researchers use the following definition, Homesickness is the distress or impairment caused by an actual or anticipated separation from home. Its cognitive hallmark is preoccupying thoughts of home and attachment objects, the prevalence of homesickness varies greatly, depending on the population studied and the way homesickness is measured.
One way to conceptualize homesickness prevalence is as a function of severity, nearly all people miss something about home when they are away, so the absolute prevalence of homesickness is close to 100%, mostly in a mild form. Roughly 20% of university students and children at summer camp rate themselves at or above the midpoint on numerical rating scales of homesickness severity, and only 5–7% of students and campers report intense homesickness associated with severe symptoms of anxiety and depression. However, in adverse or painful environments, such as the hospital or the battlefield, in one study, 50% of children scored themselves at or above the midpoint on a numerical homesickness intensity scale. Soldiers report even more intense homesickness, sometimes to the point of suicidal misery, aversive environmental elements, such as the trauma associated with war, exacerbate homesickness and other mental health problems. In sum, homesickness is a pathology that can take on clinical relevance in its moderate.
Risk factors and protective factors vary by population, for example, a seafarers on board, the environmental stressors associated with a hospital, a military boot camp or a foreign country may exacerbate homesickness and complicate treatment
Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of nine players each, who take turns batting and fielding. A run is scored when a player advances around the bases, Players on the batting team take turns hitting against the pitcher of the fielding team, which tries to prevent runs by getting hitters out in any of several ways. A player on the team who reaches a base safely can attempt to advance to subsequent bases during teammates turns batting. The teams switch between batting and fielding whenever the team records three outs. One turn batting for both teams, beginning with the team, constitutes an inning. A game is composed of nine innings, and the team with the number of runs at the end of the game wins. Baseball has no clock, although almost all games end in the ninth inning. Baseball evolved from older bat-and-ball games already being played in England by the mid-18th century and this game was brought by immigrants to North America, where the modern version developed. By the late 19th century, baseball was widely recognized as the sport of the United States.
Baseball is now popular in North America and parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, in the United States and Canada, professional Major League Baseball teams are divided into the National League and American League, each with three divisions, East and Central. The major league champion is determined by playoffs that culminate in the World Series, the top level of play is similarly split in Japan between the Central and Pacific Leagues and in Cuba between the West League and East League. The evolution of baseball from older bat-and-ball games is difficult to trace with precision, a French manuscript from 1344 contains an illustration of clerics playing a game, possibly la soule, with similarities to baseball. Other old French games such as thèque, la balle au bâton, consensus once held that todays baseball is a North American development from the older game rounders, popular in Great Britain and Ireland. Baseball Before We Knew It, A Search for the Roots of the Game, by David Block, suggests that the game originated in England, recently uncovered historical evidence supports this position.
Block argues that rounders and early baseball were actually regional variants of other. It has long believed that cricket descended from such games. The earliest known reference to baseball is in a 1744 British publication, A Little Pretty Pocket-Book, David Block discovered that the first recorded game of Bass-Ball took place in 1749 in Surrey, and featured the Prince of Wales as a player. William Bray, an English lawyer, recorded a game of baseball on Easter Monday 1755 in Guildford and this early form of the game was apparently brought to Canada by English immigrants
1972 in baseball
The following are the baseball events of the year 1972 throughout the world. 1972 was tainted by a strike over pension and salary arbitration. The strike erased the first week and a half of the season, as a result, an uneven number of games were cancelled for each team, some as few as six, some as many as nine. The lack of makeups of those games, even when they affected playoffs,1972 marked the first year for the Texas Rangers, who had moved to Arlington from Washington, D. C. after the 1971 season. There would be no baseball in D. C. until 2005, the team was one of the worst ever fielded by the franchise, losing 100 games for the first time since 1964. Manager Ted Williams hated living in the Dallas-Fort Worth area,1972 would mark the Kansas City Royals final year at Kansas City Municipal Stadium, as the next year they would move to Royals Stadium at the Truman Sports Complex in suburban Kansas City. January 19 – The Baseball Writers Association of America elects Sandy Koufax, Yogi Berra, Koufax makes it in his first try and, at age of 36, is the youngest honoree in history.
January 20 – The Chicago Cubs trade Johnny Callison to the New York Yankees for Jack Aker, february 8 – Commissioner Bowie Kuhn announces that the Special Committee on the Negro Leagues has selected Josh Gibson and Buck Leonard for the Hall of Fame. March 16 – Reigning Cy Young and MVP award winner Vida Blue announces his retirement and it will be a short one as he will join the Oakland Athletics in May. April 1 –13 – The first players strike in baseball history wipes 6–8 games off the schedule of each MLB team and it is agreed that those games will be canceled. The strike results in the team owners adding salary arbitration to the collective bargaining agreement, april 2 – With the sudden death of Gil Hodges, Yogi Berra is named manager of the New York Mets. April 16 – At Wrigley Field, Burt Hooton of the Chicago Cubs no-hits the Philadelphia Phillies 4–0, april 21 – At Arlington Stadium, Frank Howard hits the first home run in Texas Rangers history, a solo shot against Clyde Wright of the California Angels.
May 11 – The San Francisco Giants trade Willie Mays to the New York Mets for minor league pitcher Charlie Williams and he scores in the 1st inning on Rusty Staubs grand slam and his solo homer in the 5th inning snaps a 4–4 tie. The final score, Mets 5, Giants 4, may 28 – The Milwaukee Brewers fire manager Dave Bristol, replacing him with Del Crandall. Coach Roy McMillan takes over until Crandall arrives and guides the team to a 4–1 loss to the Boston Red Sox, june 18 – The U. S. Supreme Court rules 5–3 in favor of Major League Baseball in the lawsuit brought by Curt Flood. She resigns between games after being abused by some spectators and by some involved in the game. July 2 – San Franciscos Willie McCovey hits his 14th career grand slam home run to pace the Giants 9–3 win over the Los Angeles Dodgers. Pitcher Randy Moffitt wins his first major game and receives a congratulatory telegram from his sister Billie Jean King
Major League Baseball All-Star Game
The game usually occurs on either the second or third Tuesday in July, and is meant to mark a symbolic halfway-point in the MLB season. Both of the major leagues share a common All-Star break, with no games scheduled on the day before or two days after the All-Star Game itself. Some additional events and festivities associated with the game take place each year close to, no official MLB All-Star Game was held in 1945 including the official selection of players due to World War II travel restrictions. The first All-Star Game was held on July 6,1933 as part of the 1933 Worlds Fair in Chicago, at Comiskey Park and was initiated by Arch Ward, initially intended to be a one-time event, its great success resulted in making the game an annual one. The venue for the All-Star Game is chosen by Major League Baseball, the criteria for the venue are subjective, cities with new ballparks and those who have not hosted the game in a long time—or ever—tend to get selected. New York City has hosted more than any city, having done so nine times in five different stadiums.
At the same time, the New York Mets failed to host for 48 seasons, in the first two decades of the game there were two pairs of teams that shared ballparks, located in Philadelphia and St. Louis. This led to some shorter-than-usual gaps between the use of venues, The Cardinals hosted the game in 1940, and the Browns in 1948. The Athletics hosted the game in 1943, and the Phillies in 1952, the venues traditionally alternate between the American League and National League every year. This tradition has been several times, The first time was in 1951. Detroit Tigers were chosen to host the game as part of the citys 250th birthday. The second was when the format during the 1959–1962 seasons resulted in the A. L. being one game ahead in turn. This was corrected in 2007, when the N. L, San Francisco Giants were the host for the 2007 All-Star Game, which set up the 2008 game to be held at the A. L. s Yankee Stadium in its final season. This decision was made following the announcement of Miami as host for the 2017 All Star Game, the coaching staff for each team is selected by its manager.
This honor is given to the manager, not the team and this happened in 2003, when Dusty Baker managed the National League team despite having moved from the National League champion San Francisco Giants to the Chicago Cubs. This has included situations where the person is no longer actively managing a team, mcGraw came out of retirement for that purpose. Dick Williams resigned after managing the Oakland Athletics to the 1973 World Series, in 1974, he became manager of the California Angels, whose uniform he wore for the game. Tony La Russa, who managed the World Series champion St. Louis Cardinals in 2011, in 1979, Bob Lemon managed the American League team after having been fired by New York Yankees owner George Steinbrenner
Cubans or Cuban people are the inhabitants or citizens of Cuba. Cuba is a nation, home to people of different ethnic. As a result, some Cubans do not treat their nationality as an ethnicity but as a citizenship with various ethnicities, the majority of Cubans descend from Spaniards. The populations in the Spanish colonial era of Cuba, U. S occupation were, the largest urban populations of Cubans in Cuba are to be found in Havana, Santiago de Cuba, Camagüey, Holguín, Guantánamo, and Santa Clara. According to Cubas Oficina Nacional de Estadisticas ONE2012 Census, the population was 11,167,325 including,5,570,825 men and 5,596,500 women, in the 2012 Census 64. 1% or 7,160,399 self-identified as white. The majority of the ancestry of European ancestry comes from Spain, during the 18th, 19th and early part of the 20th century especially, large waves of Canary Islanders, Galicians and Catalans emigrated from Spain to Cuba. Other European nationalities which immigrated include, Scots, Poles, Romanians, Greeks, French and Irish.
Central and Eastern European influence was mostly during the Cold War years and immigration from the British Isles was mostly in Pinar del Rio Province, there is a small remnant of a Jewish community. There is significant ethnic influx from diverse Levantine peoples, especially Lebanese, Palestinians, in the 2012 Census 64. 1% or 7,160,399 self-identified as white. Afro-Cubans composed 9. 3% of the population in 2012, just over 1 million Cubans described themselves as Black, while 2.9 million considered themselves to be mulatto or mestizo. Thus a significant proportion of living on the island affirm some sub-Saharan African ancestry. Recently, many African immigrants have been coming to Cuba, especially from Angola, Cubans of East Asian origins made up 1. 02% of the population. They are mostly of Chinese, Japanese or Korean origins, the Chinese population in Cuba is descended mostly from indentured laborers who arrived in the 19th century to build railroads and work in mines. After the Industrial Revolution, many of these stayed in Cuba because they could not afford return passage to China.
Of the Taínos the number of people claiming descent have not been formally recorded, however, live on the eastern part of the island. As a result, descendants of the Calusa, Timucua, the total population in the official 1953 Census was 5,829,029 people. Intermarriage between diverse groups is so general as to be the rule, Cubas birth rate is one of the lowest in the Western Hemisphere. Immigration and emigration have had effects on the demographic profile of Cuba during the 20th century
Metropolitan Stadium was a sports stadium that once stood in Bloomington, just outside Minneapolis. The Minneapolis Millers minor league team played at Met Stadium from 1956 to 1960. The Minnesota Twins and the Minnesota Vikings played at the Met from 1961 to 1981, the North American Soccer League soccer team Minnesota Kicks played there from 1976 to 1981. The area where the stadium once stood is now the site of the Mall of America, after the rejection of numerous sites, a stadium committee appointed by Moore approved a 160-acre plot of farmland in Bloomington. The stadium would replace Nicollet Park as the home of the American Associations Minneapolis Millers, as the site in Bloomington was approximately equidistant from the downtowns of Minneapolis and St. Paul, it was thought this would be the best location for a prospective Major League team. After a plan by architects Thorshov & Cerny won approval, groundbreaking was scheduled to begin on June 20,1955. The construction was almost delayed, when the owners of the property on which the stadium would be built on began a protest, one of these owners created a barricade of farm equipment along his property line that ran directly through where the stadiums infield would be.
The dispute was settled in time for the groundbreaking to move forward as planned, many spectators and dignitaries attended the groundbreaking, including Minneapolis mayor Eric G. Hoyer and several members of the Minneapolis Millers. On February 7,1956, an accident occurred on the site when a portable heater used to cure concrete exploded in the stadiums basement. The Millers were the top team of Stonehams New York Giants. Under major league rules of the time, the Giants owned the major league rights to the Minneapolis area, negotiations were held with the Cincinnati Reds, Cleveland Indians, Philadelphia Athletics and Washington Senators. However, the Giants chose to follow the Brooklyn Dodgers to the west coast at the urging of Dodgers owner Walter OMalley, who owned the Millers crosstown rivals, the St. Paul Saints. San Francisco had long been home to the Pacific Coast Leagues San Francisco Seals, as part of the deal, the Millers parent team became the Red Sox, who had no plans to move anywhere.
The latter game brought 15,990 fans to the stadium, including Calvin Griffith, in October 1960, Calvin Griffith announced that his Washington Senators would move to Metropolitan Stadium and became the Minnesota Twins. The Twins played their first home game on April 21,1961 with a loss to the new Washington Senators, the Millers and their perennial crosstown rival St. Paul Saints were promptly folded by Major League Baseball. To ready the stadium for the Twins, a $9 million renovation increased the capacity from about 22,000 to over 30,000 by the completion of the Twins inaugural season. During the Twins first 10 seasons at the Met, they outdrew the average American League team each year, the National Football League was interested in placing a team at the Met. Conversations were had with Violet Bidwill Wolfner, owner of the Chicago Cardinals, the Cardinals moved two of their regular season home games against the Philadelphia Eagles and New York Giants to Bloomington for the 1959 NFL season
New York Yankees
The Essendon Football Club is a professional Australian rules football club which plays in the Australian Football League, the sports premier competition. Formed in 1871 as a club and playing as a senior club since 1878. It is historically associated with Essendon, a suburb in the north-west of Melbourne, dyson Heppell is the current team captain. A founding member club of both the Victorian Football Association, in 1877, and the Victorian Football League, in 1896, the club claims to have over at least one million supporters Australia wide. Essendon has won 16 VFL/AFL premierships which, along with Carlton, is the most of any club in the competition, the club was founded by members of the Royal Agricultural Society, the Melbourne Hunt Club and the Victorian Woolbrokers. The Essendon Football Club is thought to have formed in 1872 at a meeting it the home of a well-known brewery family, the McCrackens, whose Ascot Vale property hosted a team of local junior players. Robert McCracken, the owner of several city hotels, was the founder and first president of the Essendon club and his son, Alex would become president of the newly formed VFL.
Alexs cousin, who had played with Melbourne, was the teams first captain. The club played its first recorded match against the Carlton second twenty on 7 June 1873, Essendon played 13 matches in its first season, winning seven, with four draws and losing two. The club was one of the junior members of the Victorian Football Association in 1877. During its early years in the Association, Essendon played its matches at Flemington Hill. In 1878, Essendon played in the first match on what would be considered by modern standards to be a field at Flemington Hill. In 1879 Essendon played Melbourne in one of the earliest night matches recorded when the ball was painted white, in 1883 the team played four matches in Adelaide. In 1891 Essendon won their first VFA premiership, which they repeated in 1892,1893 and 1894, one of the clubs greatest players, Albert Thurgood played for the club during this period. Essendon was undefeated in the 1893 season, at the end of the 1896 season Essendon along with seven other clubs formed the Victorian Football League.
Essendons first VFL game was in 1897 was against Geelong at Corio Oval in Geelong, Essendon won its first VFL premiership by winning the 1897 VFL finals series. Essendon again won the premiership in 1901, defeating Collingwood in the Grand Final, the club won successive premierships in 1911 and 1912 over Collingwood and South Melbourne respectively. The nickname first appeared in print in the local North Melbourne Advertiser in 1889 and it was known firstly as Essendon Town and, after 1905, as Essendon
Run batted in
A run batted in, plural runs batted in, is a statistic in baseball and softball that credits a batter for making a play that allows a run to be scored. For example, if the batter bats a base hit, another player on a base can go home. Prior to the 1920 Major League Baseball season, runs batted in were not a baseball statistic. Nevertheless, the RBI statistic was tabulated—unofficially—from 1907 through 1919 by baseball writer Ernie Lanigan, common nicknames for an RBI include ribby and ribeye. The plural of RBI is generally RBIs, although some commentators use RBI as both singular and plural, as it can stand for runs batted in. The official scorers judgment must determine whether a run batted in shall be credited for a run that scores when a fielder holds the ball or throws to a wrong base. The perceived significance of the RBI is displayed by the fact that it is one of the three categories that comprise the triple crown, in addition, career RBIs are often cited in debates over who should be elected to the Hall of Fame.
This implies that better offensive teams—and therefore, the teams in which the most players get on base—tend to produce hitters with higher RBI totals than equivalent hitters on lesser-hitting teams, totals are current through October 8,2015
The Detroit Tigers are an American professional baseball team based in Detroit, Michigan. The Tigers compete in Major League Baseball as a club of the American League Central division. One of the ALs eight charter franchises, the club was founded in Detroit in 1901 and they are the oldest continuous one-name, one-city franchise in the AL. The Tigers have won four World Series championships,11 AL pennants, the Tigers won division titles in 1972,1984 and 1987 while members of the AL East. The team currently plays its games at Comerica Park in Downtown Detroit. The Tigers constructed Bennett Park at the corner of Michigan Avenue and Trumbull Avenue in Corktown, in 1912, the team moved into Navin Field, which was built on the same location. It was expanded in 1938 and renamed Briggs Stadium and it was renamed Tiger Stadium in 1961 and the Tigers played there until moving to Comerica Park in 2000. The club is a member of the American League, one of four clubs still located in its original city. It was established as a member in 1901.
The Tigers played their first game as a league team at home against the Milwaukee Brewers on April 25,1901. After entering the ninth inning behind 13–4, the team staged a comeback to win 14–13. The team finished third in the eight-team league,11 years later, an elegant stadium was constructed on the site of Bennett Park and named Navin Field for owner Frank Navin. In 1938, it was improved and named Briggs Stadium, and was subsequently renamed Tiger Stadium in 1961, Tiger Stadium was used by the Tigers until the end of the 1999 season. Since 2000, they have played in Comerica Park, there are various legends about how the Tigers got their nickname. One involves the orange stripes they wore on their black stockings, Tigers manager George Stallings took credit for the name, the name appeared in newspapers before Stallings was manager. Another legend concerns a sportswriter equating the 1901 teams opening day victory with the ferocity of his alma mater and they had played significant roles in certain Civil War battles and in the 1898 Spanish–American War.
The baseball team was informally called both Wolverines and Tigers in the news. The earliest known use of the name Tigers in the media was in the Detroit Free Press on April 16,1895, upon entry into the majors, the ballclub sought and received formal permission from the Light Guard to use its trademark