Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed and sold by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. Active Windows families include Windows Embedded. Defunct Windows families include Windows Mobile and Windows Phone. Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985, as a graphical operating system shell for MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces. Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, introduced in 1984. Apple came to see Windows as an unfair encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa and Macintosh. On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system. However, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android, because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones.
In 2014, the number of Windows devices sold was less than 25 %. This comparison however may not be relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. Still, numbers for server use of Windows show one third market share, similar to that for end user use; as of October 2018, the most recent version of Windows for PCs, tablets and embedded devices is Windows 10. The most recent versions for server computers is Windows Server 2019. A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox One video game console. Microsoft, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks, each of which denote a family of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of the computing industry; as of 2014, the following Windows families are being developed: Windows NT: Started as a family of operating systems with Windows NT 3.1, an operating system for server computers and workstations. It now consists of three operating system subfamilies that are released at the same time and share the same kernel: Windows: The operating system for mainstream personal computers and smartphones.
The latest version is Windows 10. The main competitor of this family is macOS by Apple for personal computers and Android for mobile devices. Windows Server: The operating system for server computers; the latest version is Windows Server 2019. Unlike its client sibling, it has adopted a strong naming scheme; the main competitor of this family is Linux. Windows PE: A lightweight version of its Windows sibling, meant to operate as a live operating system, used for installing Windows on bare-metal computers, recovery or troubleshooting purposes; the latest version is Windows PE 10. Windows IoT: Initially, Microsoft developed Windows CE as a general-purpose operating system for every device, too resource-limited to be called a full-fledged computer. However, Windows CE was renamed Windows Embedded Compact and was folded under Windows Compact trademark which consists of Windows Embedded Industry, Windows Embedded Professional, Windows Embedded Standard, Windows Embedded Handheld and Windows Embedded Automotive.
The following Windows families are no longer being developed: Windows 9x: An operating system that targeted consumers market. Discontinued because of suboptimal performance. Microsoft now caters to the consumer market with Windows NT. Windows Mobile: The predecessor to Windows Phone, it was a mobile phone operating system; the first version was called Pocket PC 2000. The last version is Windows Mobile 6.5. Windows Phone: An operating system sold only to manufacturers of smartphones; the first version was Windows Phone 7, followed by Windows Phone 8, the last version Windows Phone 8.1. It was succeeded by Windows 10 Mobile; the term Windows collectively describes any or all of several generations of Microsoft operating system products. These products are categorized as follows: The history of Windows dates back to 1981, when Microsoft started work on a program called "Interface Manager", it was announced in November 1983 under the name "Windows", but Windows 1.0 was not released until November 1985.
Windows 1.0 was to achieved little popularity. Windows 1.0 is not a complete operating system. The shell of Windows 1.0 is a program known as the MS-DOS Executive. Components included Calculator, Cardfile, Clipboard viewer, Control Panel, Paint, Reversi and Write. Windows 1.0 does not allow overlapping windows. Instead all windows are tiled. Only modal dialog boxes may appear over other windows. Microsoft sold as included Windows Development libraries with the C development environment, which included numerous windows samples. Windows 2.0 was released in December 1987, was more popular than its predecessor. It features several improvements to the user memory management. Windows 2.03 changed the OS from tiled windows to overlapping windows. The result of this change led to Apple Computer filing a suit against Microsoft alleging infringement on Apple's copyrights. Windows 2.0
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems based on the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991 by Linus Torvalds. Linux is packaged in a Linux distribution. Distributions include the Linux kernel and supporting system software and libraries, many of which are provided by the GNU Project. Many Linux distributions use the word "Linux" in their name, but the Free Software Foundation uses the name GNU/Linux to emphasize the importance of GNU software, causing some controversy. Popular Linux distributions include Debian and Ubuntu. Commercial distributions include SUSE Linux Enterprise Server. Desktop Linux distributions include a windowing system such as X11 or Wayland, a desktop environment such as GNOME or KDE Plasma. Distributions intended for servers may omit graphics altogether, include a solution stack such as LAMP; because Linux is redistributable, anyone may create a distribution for any purpose. Linux was developed for personal computers based on the Intel x86 architecture, but has since been ported to more platforms than any other operating system.
Linux is the leading operating system on servers and other big iron systems such as mainframe computers, the only OS used on TOP500 supercomputers. It is used by around 2.3 percent of desktop computers. The Chromebook, which runs the Linux kernel-based Chrome OS, dominates the US K–12 education market and represents nearly 20 percent of sub-$300 notebook sales in the US. Linux runs on embedded systems, i.e. devices whose operating system is built into the firmware and is tailored to the system. This includes routers, automation controls, digital video recorders, video game consoles, smartwatches. Many smartphones and tablet computers run other Linux derivatives; because of the dominance of Android on smartphones, Linux has the largest installed base of all general-purpose operating systems. Linux is one of the most prominent examples of open-source software collaboration; the source code may be used and distributed—commercially or non-commercially—by anyone under the terms of its respective licenses, such as the GNU General Public License.
The Unix operating system was conceived and implemented in 1969, at AT&T's Bell Laboratories in the United States by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, Douglas McIlroy, Joe Ossanna. First released in 1971, Unix was written in assembly language, as was common practice at the time. In a key pioneering approach in 1973, it was rewritten in the C programming language by Dennis Ritchie; the availability of a high-level language implementation of Unix made its porting to different computer platforms easier. Due to an earlier antitrust case forbidding it from entering the computer business, AT&T was required to license the operating system's source code to anyone who asked; as a result, Unix grew and became adopted by academic institutions and businesses. In 1984, AT&T divested itself of Bell Labs; the GNU Project, started in 1983 by Richard Stallman, had the goal of creating a "complete Unix-compatible software system" composed of free software. Work began in 1984. In 1985, Stallman started the Free Software Foundation and wrote the GNU General Public License in 1989.
By the early 1990s, many of the programs required in an operating system were completed, although low-level elements such as device drivers and the kernel, called GNU/Hurd, were stalled and incomplete. Linus Torvalds has stated that if the GNU kernel had been available at the time, he would not have decided to write his own. Although not released until 1992, due to legal complications, development of 386BSD, from which NetBSD, OpenBSD and FreeBSD descended, predated that of Linux. Torvalds has stated that if 386BSD had been available at the time, he would not have created Linux. MINIX was created by Andrew S. Tanenbaum, a computer science professor, released in 1987 as a minimal Unix-like operating system targeted at students and others who wanted to learn the operating system principles. Although the complete source code of MINIX was available, the licensing terms prevented it from being free software until the licensing changed in April 2000. In 1991, while attending the University of Helsinki, Torvalds became curious about operating systems.
Frustrated by the licensing of MINIX, which at the time limited it to educational use only, he began to work on his own operating system kernel, which became the Linux kernel. Torvalds began the development of the Linux kernel on MINIX and applications written for MINIX were used on Linux. Linux matured and further Linux kernel development took place on Linux systems. GNU applications replaced all MINIX components, because it was advantageous to use the available code from the GNU Project with the fledgling operating system. Torvalds initiated a switch from his original license, which prohibited commercial redistribution, to the GNU GPL. Developers worked to integrate GNU components with the Linux kernel, making a functional and free operating system. Linus Torvalds had wanted to call his invention "Freax", a portmant
Berkeley Software Distribution
The Berkeley Software Distribution was an operating system based on Research Unix and distributed by the Computer Systems Research Group at the University of California, Berkeley. Today, "BSD" refers to its descendants, such as FreeBSD, OpenBSD, NetBSD, or DragonFly BSD. BSD was called Berkeley Unix because it was based on the source code of the original Unix developed at Bell Labs. In the 1980s, BSD was adopted by workstation vendors in the form of proprietary Unix variants such as DEC Ultrix and Sun Microsystems SunOS due to its permissive licensing and familiarity to many technology company founders and engineers. Although these proprietary BSD derivatives were superseded in the 1990s by UNIX SVR4 and OSF/1 releases provided the basis for several open-source operating systems including FreeBSD, OpenBSD, NetBSD, DragonFly BSD, TrueOS. These, in turn, have been used by proprietary operating systems, including Apple's macOS and iOS, which derived from them, Microsoft Windows, which used a part of its TCP/IP code.
The earliest distributions of Unix from Bell Labs in the 1970s included the source code to the operating system, allowing researchers at universities to modify and extend Unix. The operating system arrived at Berkeley in 1974, at the request of computer science professor Bob Fabry, on the program committee for the Symposium on Operating Systems Principles where Unix was first presented. A PDP-11/45 was bought to run the system, but for budgetary reasons, this machine was shared with the mathematics and statistics groups at Berkeley, who used RSTS, so that Unix only ran on the machine eight hours per day. A larger PDP-11/70 was installed at Berkeley the following year, using money from the Ingres database project. In 1975, Ken Thompson came to Berkeley as a visiting professor, he started working on a Pascal implementation for the system. Graduate students Chuck Haley and Bill Joy improved Thompson's Pascal and implemented an improved text editor, ex. Other universities became interested in the software at Berkeley, so in 1977 Joy started compiling the first Berkeley Software Distribution, released on March 9, 1978.
1BSD was an add-on to Version 6 Unix rather than a complete operating system in its own right. Some thirty copies were sent out; the second Berkeley Software Distribution, released in May 1979, included updated versions of the 1BSD software as well as two new programs by Joy that persist on Unix systems to this day: the vi text editor and the C shell. Some 75 copies of 2BSD were sent out by Bill Joy. A VAX computer was installed at Berkeley in 1978, but the port of Unix to the VAX architecture, UNIX/32V, did not take advantage of the VAX's virtual memory capabilities; the kernel of 32V was rewritten by Berkeley students to include a virtual memory implementation, a complete operating system including the new kernel, ports of the 2BSD utilities to the VAX, the utilities from 32V was released as 3BSD at the end of 1979. 3BSD was alternatively called Virtual VAX/UNIX or VMUNIX, BSD kernel images were called /vmunix until 4.4BSD. After 4.3BSD was released in June 1986, it was determined that BSD would move away from the aging VAX platform.
The Power 6/32 platform developed by Computer Consoles Inc. seemed promising at the time, but was abandoned by its developers shortly thereafter. Nonetheless, the 4.3BSD-Tahoe port proved valuable, as it led to a separation of machine-dependent and machine-independent code in BSD which would improve the system's future portability. In addition to portability, the CSRG worked on an implementation of the OSI network protocol stack, improvements to the kernel virtual memory system and new TCP/IP algorithms to accommodate the growth of the Internet; until all versions of BSD used proprietary AT&T Unix code, were therefore subject to an AT&T software license. Source code licenses had become expensive and several outside parties had expressed interest in a separate release of the networking code, developed outside AT&T and would not be subject to the licensing requirement; this led to Networking Release 1, made available to non-licensees of AT&T code and was redistributable under the terms of the BSD license.
It was released in June 1989. After Net/1, BSD developer Keith Bostic proposed that more non-AT&T sections of the BSD system be released under the same license as Net/1. To this end, he started a project to reimplement most of the standard Unix utilities without using the AT&T code. Within eighteen months, all of the AT&T utilities had been replaced, it was determined that only a few AT&T files remained in the kernel; these files were removed, the result was the June 1991 release of Networking Release 2, a nearly complete operating system, distributable. Net/2 was the basis for two separate ports of BSD to the Intel 80386 architecture: the free 386BSD by William Jolitz and the proprietary BSD/386 by Berkeley Software Design. 386BSD itself was short-lived, but became the initial code base of the NetBSD and FreeBSD projects that were started shortly thereafter. BSDi soon found itself in legal trouble with AT&T's Unix System Laboratories subsidiary the owners of the System V copyright and the Unix trademark.
The USL v. BSDi lawsuit was filed in 1992 and led to an injunction on the distribution of Net/2 until the validity of USL's copyright claims on the source could be determined; the lawsuit slowed development of the free-
A rootkit is a collection of computer software malicious, designed to enable access to a computer or an area of its software, not otherwise allowed and masks its existence or the existence of other software. The term rootkit is a concatenation of "root" and the word "kit"; the term "rootkit" has negative connotations through its association with malware. Rootkit installation can be automated, or an attacker can install it after having obtained root or Administrator access. Obtaining this access is a result of direct attack on a system, i.e. exploiting a known vulnerability or a password. Once installed, it becomes possible to hide the intrusion as well as to maintain privileged access; the key is the administrator access. Full control over a system means that existing software can be modified, including software that might otherwise be used to detect or circumvent it. Rootkit detection is difficult because a rootkit may be able to subvert the software, intended to find it. Detection methods include using an alternative and trusted operating system, behavioral-based methods, signature scanning, difference scanning, memory dump analysis.
Removal can be complicated or impossible in cases where the rootkit resides in the kernel. When dealing with firmware rootkits, removal may require hardware replacement, or specialized equipment; the term rootkit or root kit referred to a maliciously modified set of administrative tools for a Unix-like operating system that granted "root" access. If an intruder could replace the standard administrative tools on a system with a rootkit, the intruder could obtain root access over the system whilst concealing these activities from the legitimate system administrator; these first-generation rootkits were trivial to detect by using tools such as Tripwire that had not been compromised to access the same information. Lane Davis and Steven Dake wrote the earliest known rootkit in 1990 for Sun Microsystems' SunOS UNIX operating system. In the lecture he gave upon receiving the Turing award in 1983, Ken Thompson of Bell Labs, one of the creators of Unix, theorized about subverting the C compiler in a Unix distribution and discussed the exploit.
The modified compiler would detect attempts to compile the Unix login command and generate altered code that would accept not only the user's correct password, but an additional "backdoor" password known to the attacker. Additionally, the compiler would detect attempts to compile a new version of the compiler, would insert the same exploits into the new compiler. A review of the source code for the login command or the updated compiler would not reveal any malicious code; this exploit. The first documented computer virus to target the personal computer, discovered in 1986, used cloaking techniques to hide itself: the Brain virus intercepted attempts to read the boot sector, redirected these to elsewhere on the disk, where a copy of the original boot sector was kept. Over time, DOS-virus cloaking methods became more sophisticated, with advanced techniques including the hooking of low-level disk INT 13H BIOS interrupt calls to hide unauthorized modifications to files; the first malicious rootkit for the Windows NT operating system appeared in 1999: a trojan called NTRootkit created by Greg Hoglund.
It was followed by HackerDefender in 2003. The first rootkit targeting Mac OS X appeared in 2009, while the Stuxnet worm was the first to target programmable logic controllers. In 2005, Sony BMG published CDs with copy protection and digital rights management software called Extended Copy Protection, created by software company First 4 Internet; the software included a music player but silently installed a rootkit which limited the user's ability to access the CD. Software engineer Mark Russinovich, who created the rootkit detection tool RootkitRevealer, discovered the rootkit on one of his computers; the ensuing scandal raised the public's awareness of rootkits. To cloak itself, the rootkit hid from the user any file starting with "$sys$". Soon after Russinovich's report, malware appeared which took advantage of that vulnerability of affected systems. One BBC analyst called it a "public relations nightmare." Sony BMG released patches to uninstall the rootkit, but it exposed users to an more serious vulnerability.
The company recalled the CDs. In the United States, a class-action lawsuit was brought against Sony BMG; the Greek wiretapping case of 2004-05 referred to as Greek Watergate, involved the illegal telephone tapping of more than 100 mobile phones on the Vodafone Greece network belonging to members of the Greek government and top-ranking civil servants. The taps began sometime near the beginning of August 2004 and were removed in March 2005 without discovering the identity of the perpetrators; the intruders installed a rootkit targeting Ericsson's AXE telephone exchange. According to IEEE Spectrum, this was "the first time a rootkit has been observed on a special-purpose system, in this case an Ericsson telephone switch." The rootkit was designed to patch the memory of the exchange while it was running, enable wiretapping while disabling audit logs, patch the commands that list active processes and active data blocks, modify the data block checksum verification command. A "backdoor" allowed an operator with sysadmin status to deactivate the exchange's transaction log and access commands r
Antivirus software, or anti-virus software known as anti-malware, is a computer program used to prevent and remove malware. Antivirus software was developed to detect and remove computer viruses, hence the name. However, with the proliferation of other kinds of malware, antivirus software started to provide protection from other computer threats. In particular, modern antivirus software can protect users from: malicious browser helper objects, browser hijackers, keyloggers, rootkits, trojan horses, malicious LSPs, fraudtools and spyware; some products include protection from other computer threats, such as infected and malicious URLs, spam and phishing attacks, online identity, online banking attacks, social engineering techniques, advanced persistent threat and botnet DDoS attacks. Although the roots of the computer virus date back as early as 1949, when the Hungarian scientist John von Neumann published the "Theory of self-reproducing automata", the first known computer virus appeared in 1971 and was dubbed the "Creeper virus".
This computer virus infected Digital Equipment Corporation's PDP-10 mainframe computers running the TENEX operating system. The Creeper virus was deleted by a program created by Ray Tomlinson and known as "The Reaper"; some people consider "The Reaper" the first antivirus software written – it may be the case, but it is important to note that the Reaper was a virus itself designed to remove the Creeper virus. The Creeper virus was followed by several other viruses; the first known that appeared "in the wild" was "Elk Cloner", in 1981, which infected Apple II computers. In 1983, the term "computer virus" was coined by Fred Cohen in one of the first published academic papers on computer viruses. Cohen used the term "computer virus" to describe a program that: "affect other computer programs by modifying them in such a way as to include a copy of itself." The first IBM PC compatible "in the wild" computer virus, one of the first real widespread infections, was "Brain" in 1986. From the number of viruses has grown exponentially.
Most of the computer viruses written in the early and mid-1980s were limited to self-reproduction and had no specific damage routine built into the code. That changed when more and more programmers became acquainted with computer virus programming and created viruses that manipulated or destroyed data on infected computers. Before internet connectivity was widespread, computer viruses were spread by infected floppy disks. Antivirus software came into use, but was updated infrequently. During this time, virus checkers had to check executable files and the boot sectors of floppy disks and hard disks. However, as internet usage became common, viruses began to spread online. There are competing claims for the innovator of the first antivirus product; the first publicly documented removal of an "in the wild" computer virus was performed by Bernd Fix in 1987. In 1987, Andreas Lüning and Kai Figge, who founded G Data Software in 1985, released their first antivirus product for the Atari ST platform. In 1987, the Ultimate Virus Killer was released.
This was the de facto industry standard virus killer for the Atari ST and Atari Falcon, the last version of, released in April 2004. In 1987, in the United States, John McAfee founded the McAfee company and, at the end of that year, he released the first version of VirusScan. In 1987, Peter Paško, Rudolf Hrubý, Miroslav Trnka created the first version of NOD antivirus. In 1987, Fred Cohen wrote that there is no algorithm that can detect all possible computer viruses. At the end of 1987, the first two heuristic antivirus utilities were released: Flushot Plus by Ross Greenberg and Anti4us by Erwin Lanting. In his O'Reilly book, Malicious Mobile Code: Virus Protection for Windows, Roger Grimes described Flushot Plus as "the first holistic program to fight malicious mobile code."However, the kind of heuristic used by early AV engines was different from those used today. The first product with a heuristic engine resembling modern ones was F-PROT in 1991. Early heuristic engines were based on dividing the binary in different sections: data section, code section.
Indeed, the initial viruses re-organized the layout of the sections, or overrode the initial portion of section in order to jump to the end of the file where malicious code was located—only going back to resume execution of the original code. This was a specific pattern, not used at the time by any legitimate software, which represented an elegant heuristic to catch suspicious code. Other kinds of more advanced heuristics were added, such as suspicious section names, incorrect header size, regular expressions, partial pattern in-memory matching. In 1988, the growth of antivirus companies continued. In Germany, Tjark Auerbach released the first version of AntiVir. In Bulgaria, Dr. Vesselin Bontchev released his first freeware antivirus program. Frans Veldman released the first version of ThunderByte Antivirus known as TBAV. In Czechoslovakia, Pavel Baudiš and Eduard Kučera started avast! (at th
Check Point Software Technologies Ltd. is an Israeli multinational provider of software and combined hardware and software products for IT security, including network security, endpoint security, cloud security, mobile security, data security and security management. As of 2016 the company has 4,000 employees worldwide. Headquartered in Tel Aviv, the company has development centers in Israel, California and Belarus; the company has main offices in North America, two in the United States and Ottawa, Canada. Check Point was established in Ramat-Gan, Israel in 1993, by Gil Shwed, Marius Nacht and Shlomo Kramer. Shwed had the initial idea for the company's core technology known as stateful inspection, which became the foundation for the company's first product, FireWall-1. Shwed developed the idea while serving in the Unit 8200 of the Israel Defense Forces, where he worked on securing classified networks. Initial funding of US$400,000 was provided by venture capital fund BRM Group. In 1994 Check Point signed an OEM agreement with Sun Microsystems, followed by a distribution agreement with HP in 1995.
The same year, the U. S. head office was established in California. By February 1996 the company was named worldwide firewall market leader by IDC, with a market share of 40 percent. In June 1996 Check Point raised $67 million from its initial public offering on NASDAQ. In 1998 Check Point established a partnership with Nokia, which bundled Check Point's Software with Nokia's computer Network Security Appliances. In 2003, a class action lawsuit was filed against Check Point over violation of the Securities Exchange Act by failing to disclose major financial information. During the first decade of the 21st century Check Point started acquiring other IT security companies, including Nokia's network security business unit in 2009. In 2019, researchers at Check Point found a security breach in Xiaomi phone apps; the security flaw was reported preinstalled. Check Point is presently focused on what it calls "fifth generation cyber security," or “Gen V.” It identifies the fifth generation as focused on large-scale and fast moving attacks across mobile, cloud and on-premise networks that bypass the conventional, static detection-based defenses being used by most organizations today.
Over the years many employees who worked at Check Point have left to start their own software companies. These include Shlomo Kremer. Check Point offers the following primary products: Network Security Software Defined Protection Public and Private Cloud Security Data Security ThreatCloud ThreatCloud IntelliStore Virtual Systems Endpoint Security Mobile Security Security Management Document Security Zero-day Protection Mobile Security Zone Labs, makers of the ZoneAlarm personal firewall software, in 2003, for $205 million in cash and shares. Protect Data, the holding company for PointSec Mobile Technologies, in a cash deal valued at $586m in late 2006. Prior to their acquisition by Check Point, Protect Data acquired Reflex Software. NFR security, an intrusion prevention system developer, for $20 million in late 2006, following its failed plan to acquire the larger IPS vendor Sourcefire. Nokia Security Appliances division was acquired in April 2009. Liquid Machines, a data security startup company based in Boston, was acquired in June 2010.
Dynasec, a provider of enterprise governance, risk management, compliance products, was acquired in November 2011. Dynasec offers a Web-based enterprise application, branded as Easy2comply, for Sarbanes-Oxley compliance, Basel II compliance, operational risk management, information security management, HIPAA compliance, internal audit management. Hyperwise, an early-stage startup, focused on CPU Level Threat Prevention was acquired Feb 2015. Lacoon Mobile Security was acquired in April 2015. Dome9 was acquired in October 2018. ForceNock was acquired in January 2019. In 2005, Check Point tried to acquire intrusion prevention system developers Sourcefire for $225 million, but withdrew its offer after it became clear US authorities would try to block the acquisition. SofaWare Technologies was founded in 1999, as a cooperation between Check Point and SofaWare's founders, Adi Ruppin and Etay Bogner, with the purpose of extending Check Point from the enterprise market to the small business and branch office market.
SofaWare's co-founder Adi Ruppin said that his company wanted to make the technology simple to use and affordable, to lift the burden of security management from end users while adding some features. In 2001 SofaWare began selling firewall appliances under the SofaWare S-Box brand. By the fourth quarter of 2002 sales of SofaWare's Safe@Office firewall/VPN appliances had increased and SofaWare held the #1 revenue position in the worldwide firewall/VPN sub-$490 appliance market, with a 38% revenue market share. Relations between Check Point and the SofaWare founders went sour after the company acquisition in 2002. In 2004 Etay Bogner, co-founder of SofaWare, sought court approval to file a shareholder derivative suit, claiming Check Point was not transferring funds to SofaWare as required for its use of SofaWare's
Scareware is a form of malware which uses social engineering to cause shock, anxiety, or the perception of a threat in order to manipulate users into buying unwanted software. Scareware is part of a class of malicious software that includes rogue security software and other scam software that tricks users into believing their computer is infected with a virus suggests that they download and pay for fake antivirus software to remove it; the virus is fictional and the software is non-functional or malware itself. According to the Anti-Phishing Working Group, the number of scareware packages in circulation rose from 2,850 to 9,287 in the second half of 2008. In the first half of 2009, the APWG identified a 585% increase in scareware programs; the "scareware" label can apply to any application or virus which pranks users with intent to cause anxiety or panic. Internet security writers use the term "scareware" to describe software products that produce frivolous and alarming warnings or threat notices, most for fictitious or useless commercial firewall and registry cleaner software.
This class of program tries to increase its perceived value by bombarding the user with constant warning messages that do not increase its effectiveness in any way. Software is packaged with a look and feel that mimics legitimate security software in order to deceive consumers; some websites display pop-up advertisement windows or banners with text such as: "Your computer may be infected with harmful spyware programs. Immediate removal may be required. To scan, click'Yes' below." These websites can go as far as saying that marriage would be at risk. Products using advertisements such as these are considered scareware. Serious scareware applications qualify as rogue software; some scareware is not affiliated with any other installed programs. A user can encounter a pop-up on a website indicating. In some scenarios, it is possible to become infected with scareware if the user attempts to cancel the notification; these popups are designed to look like they come from the user's operating system when they are a webpage.
A 2010 study by Google found 11,000 domains hosting fake anti-virus software, accounting for 50% of all malware delivered via internet advertising. Starting on March 29, 2011, more than 1.5 million web sites around the world have been infected by the LizaMoon SQL injection attack spread by scareware. Research by Google discovered that scareware was using some of its servers to check for internet connectivity; the data suggested. The company has placed a warning in the search results of users whose computers appear to be infected. Another example of scareware is Smart Fortress; this site scares people into thinking they have lots of viruses on their computer and asks them to buy the professional service. Some forms of spyware qualify as scareware because they change the user's desktop background, install icons in the computer's notification area, claiming that some kind of spyware has infected the user's computer and that the scareware application will help to remove the infection. In some cases, scareware trojans have replaced the desktop of the victim with large, yellow text reading "Warning!
You have spyware!" or a box containing similar text, have forced the screensaver to change to "bugs" crawling across the screen. Winwebsec is the term used to address the malware that attacks the users of Windows operating system and produces fake claims similar to that of genuine anti-malware software. SpySheriff exemplifies spyware and scareware: it purports to remove spyware, but is a piece of spyware itself accompanying SmitFraud infections. Other antispyware scareware may be promoted using a phishing scam. Another approach is to trick users into uninstalling legitimate antivirus software, such as Microsoft Security Essentials, or disabling their firewall. Since antivirus programs include protection against being tampered with or disabled by other software, scareware may use social engineering to convince the user to disable programs which would otherwise prevent the malware from working. In 2005, Microsoft and Washington state sued Secure Computer for $1 million over charges of using scareware pop-ups.
Washington's attorney general has brought lawsuits against Securelink Networks, High Falls Media, the makers of Quick Shield. In October 2008, Microsoft and the Washington attorney general filed a lawsuit against two Texas firms, Branch Software and Alpha Red, producers of the Registry Cleaner XP scareware; the lawsuit alleges that the company sent incessant pop-ups resembling system warnings to consumers' personal computers stating "CRITICAL ERROR MESSAGE! - REGISTRY DAMAGED AND CORRUPTED", before instructing users to visit a web site to download Registry Cleaner XP at a cost of $39.95. On December 2, 2008, the U. S. Federal Trade Commission filed a Complaint in federal court against Inc.. ByteHosting Internet Services, LLC, as well as individuals Sam Jain, Daniel Sundin, James Reno, Marc D’Souza, Kristy Ross; the Complaint listed Maurice D’Souza as a Relief Defendant, alleged that he held proceeds of wrongful conduct but not accusing him of violating any law. The FTC alleged that the other Defendants violated the FTC Act by deceptively marketing software, including WinFixer, WinAntivirus, DriveCleaner, ErrorSafe, XP Antivirus.
According to the complaint, the Defendants falsely represented that scans of a consumer's computer showed that it had been compromised or infected and offered to sell software to fix the alleged problems. Another type of scareware i