Saint Petersburg is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million. An important Russian port on the Baltic Sea, it has a status of a federal subject. Situated on the Neva River, at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea, it was founded by Tsar Peter the Great on 27 May 1703. During the periods 1713–1728 and 1732–1918, Saint Petersburg was the capital of Imperial Russia. In 1918, the central government bodies moved to Moscow, about 625 km to the south-east. Saint Petersburg is one of the most modern cities of Russia, as well as its cultural capital; the Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments constitute a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Saint Petersburg is home to the Hermitage, one of the largest art museums in the world. Many foreign consulates, international corporations and businesses have offices in Saint Petersburg. An admirer of everything German, Peter the Great named the city, Sankt-Peterburg.
On 1 September 1914, after the outbreak of World War I, the Imperial government renamed the city Petrograd, meaning "Peter's city", in order to expunge the German name Sankt and Burg. On 26 January 1924, shortly after the death of Vladimir Lenin, it was renamed to Leningrad, meaning "Lenin's City". On 6 September 1991, Sankt-Peterburg, was returned. Today, in English the city is known as "Saint Petersburg". Local residents refer to the city by its shortened nickname, Piter; the city's traditional nicknames among Russians are the Window to Europe. Swedish colonists built Nyenskans, a fortress at the mouth of the Neva River in 1611, in what was called Ingermanland, inhabited by Finnic tribe of Ingrians; the small town of Nyen grew up around it. At the end of the 17th century, Peter the Great, interested in seafaring and maritime affairs, wanted Russia to gain a seaport in order to trade with the rest of Europe, he needed a better seaport than the country's main one at the time, on the White Sea in the far north and closed to shipping during the winter.
On 12 May 1703, during the Great Northern War, Peter the Great captured Nyenskans and soon replaced the fortress. On 27 May 1703, closer to the estuary 5 km inland from the gulf), on Zayachy Island, he laid down the Peter and Paul Fortress, which became the first brick and stone building of the new city; the city was built by conscripted peasants from all over Russia. Tens of thousands of serfs died building the city; the city became the centre of the Saint Petersburg Governorate. Peter moved the capital from Moscow to Saint Petersburg in 1712, 9 years before the Treaty of Nystad of 1721 ended the war. During its first few years, the city developed around Trinity Square on the right bank of the Neva, near the Peter and Paul Fortress. However, Saint Petersburg soon started to be built out according to a plan. By 1716 the Swiss Italian Domenico Trezzini had elaborated a project whereby the city centre would be located on Vasilyevsky Island and shaped by a rectangular grid of canals; the project is evident in the layout of the streets.
In 1716, Peter the Great appointed Frenchman Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Le Blond as the chief architect of Saint Petersburg. The style of Petrine Baroque, developed by Trezzini and other architects and exemplified by such buildings as the Menshikov Palace, Kunstkamera and Paul Cathedral, Twelve Collegia, became prominent in the city architecture of the early 18th century. In 1724 the Academy of Sciences and Academic Gymnasium were established in Saint Petersburg by Peter the Great. In 1725, Peter died at the age of fifty-two, his endeavours to modernize Russia had met with opposition from the Russian nobility—resulting in several attempts on his life and a treason case involving his son. In 1728, Peter II of Russia moved his seat back to Moscow, but four years in 1732, under Empress Anna of Russia, Saint Petersburg was again designated as the capital of the Russian Empire. It remained the seat of the Romanov dynasty and the Imperial Court of the Russian Tsars, as well as the seat of the Russian government, for another 186 years until the communist revolution of 1917.
In 1736–1737 the city suffered from catastrophic fires. To rebuild the damaged boroughs, a committee under Burkhard Christoph von Münnich commissioned a new plan in 1737; the city was divided into five boroughs, the city centre was moved to the Admiralty borough, situated on the east bank between the Neva and Fontanka. It developed along three radial streets, which meet at the Admiralty building and are now one street known as Nevsky Prospekt, Gorokhovaya Street and Voznesensky Prospekt. Baroque architecture became dominant in the city during the first sixty years, culminating in the Elizabethan Baroque, represented most notably by Italian Bartolomeo Rastrelli with such buildings as the Winter Palace. In the 1760s, Baroque architecture was succeeded by neoclassical architecture. Established in 1762, the Commission of Stone Buildings of Moscow and Saint Petersburg ruled that no structure in the
Russian Academy of Sciences
The Russian Academy of Sciences consists of the national academy of Russia. Headquartered in Moscow, the Academy is considered a civil, self-governed, non-commercial organization chartered by the Government of Russia, it combines scientists employed by institutions. Near the central academy building there is a monument to Yuri Gagarin in the square bearing his name; as of November 2017, the Academy included other units. There are three types of membership in the RAS: full members, corresponding members, foreign members. Academicians and corresponding members must be citizens of the Russian Federation. However, some academicians and corresponding members were elected before the collapse of the USSR and are now citizens of other countries. Members of RAS are elected based on their scientific contributions – election to membership is considered prestigious. In the years 2005–2012, the academy had 500 full and 700 corresponding members, but in 2013, after the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences and the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences became incorporated into the RAS, a number of the RAS members accordingly increased.
The last elections to the renewed Russian Academy of Sciences were organized in October 2016. In the beginning of April 2019, the Academy had 460 foreign members. Since 2015, the Academy awards, on a competitive basis, the honorary scientific rank of a RAS Professor to the top-level researchers with Russian citizenship. Now there are 605 scientists with this rank. RAS professorship is not a membership type but its holders are considered as possible candidates for membership; the RAS consists of 13 specialized scientific divisions, three territorial branches and 15 regional scientific centers. The Academy has numerous councils and commissions, all organized for different purposes. Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences The Siberian Branch was established in 1957, with Mikhail Lavrentyev as founding chairman. Research centers are in Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk, Yakutsk, Ulan-Ude, Kemerovo and Omsk; as of end-2017, the Branch employed over 12,500 scientific researchers, 211 of whom were members of the Academy.
Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences The Ural Branch was established in 1932, with Aleksandr Fersman as its founding chairman. Research centers are in Yekaterinburg, Cheliabinsk, Orenburg and Syktyvkar; as of 2016, 112 Ural scientists were members of the Academy. Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences The Far East Branch includes the Primorsky Scientific Center in Vladivostok, the Amur Scientific Center in Blagoveschensk, the Khabarovsk Scientific Center, the Sakhalin Scientific Center in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, the Kamchatka Scientific Center in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, the North-Eastern Scientific Center in Magadan, the Far East Regional Agriculture Center in Ussuriysk and several Medical institutions; as of 2017, there were 64 Academy members in the Branch. Kazan Scientific Center Pushchino Scientific Center Samara Scientific Center Saratov Scientific Center Vladikavkaz Scientific Center of the RAS and the Government of the Republic Alania- Northern Ossetia Dagestan Scientific Center Kabardino-Balkarian Scientific Center Karelian Research Centre of RAS Kola Scientific Center Nizhny Novgorod Center Science Scientific of the RAS in Chernogolovka St. Petersburg Scientific Center Ufa Scientific Center Southern Scientific Center Troitsk Scientific Center The Russian Academy of Sciences comprises a large number of research institutions, including: Member institutions are linked via a dedicated Russian Space Science Internet.
Started with just three members, The RSSI now has 3,100 members, including 57 from the largest research institutions. Russian universities and technical institutes are not under the supervision of the RAS, but a number of leading universities, such as Moscow State University, St. Petersburg State University, Novosibirsk State University, the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, make use of the staff and facilities of many institutes of the RAS. From 1933 to 1992, the main scientific journal of the Soviet Academy of Sciences was the Proceedings of the USSR Academy of Sciences; the Academy is increasing its presence in the educational area. In 1990 the Higher Chemical College of the Russian Academy of Sciences was founded, a specialized university intended to provide extensive opportunities for students to choose an academic path; the Academy gives out a number of different prizes and awards among which: The Emperor Peter the Great and advised by Gottfried Leibniz, founded the Academy in Saint Petersburg.
Called The Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences (Russian
Geology is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, the processes by which they change over time. Geology can include the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet or natural satellite such as Mars or the Moon. Modern geology overlaps all other earth sciences, including hydrology and the atmospheric sciences, so is treated as one major aspect of integrated earth system science and planetary science. Geology describes the structure of the Earth on and beneath its surface, the processes that have shaped that structure, it provides tools to determine the relative and absolute ages of rocks found in a given location, to describe the histories of those rocks. By combining these tools, geologists are able to chronicle the geological history of the Earth as a whole, to demonstrate the age of the Earth. Geology provides the primary evidence for plate tectonics, the evolutionary history of life, the Earth's past climates. Geologists use a wide variety of methods to understand the Earth's structure and evolution, including field work, rock description, geophysical techniques, chemical analysis, physical experiments, numerical modelling.
In practical terms, geology is important for mineral and hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation, evaluating water resources, understanding of natural hazards, the remediation of environmental problems, providing insights into past climate change. Geology is a major academic discipline, it plays an important role in geotechnical engineering; the majority of geological data comes from research on solid Earth materials. These fall into one of two categories: rock and unlithified material; the majority of research in geology is associated with the study of rock, as rock provides the primary record of the majority of the geologic history of the Earth. There are three major types of rock: igneous and metamorphic; the rock cycle illustrates the relationships among them. When a rock solidifies or crystallizes from melt, it is an igneous rock; this rock can be weathered and eroded redeposited and lithified into a sedimentary rock. It can be turned into a metamorphic rock by heat and pressure that change its mineral content, resulting in a characteristic fabric.
All three types may melt again, when this happens, new magma is formed, from which an igneous rock may once more solidify. To study all three types of rock, geologists evaluate the minerals; each mineral has distinct physical properties, there are many tests to determine each of them. The specimens can be tested for: Luster: Measurement of the amount of light reflected from the surface. Luster is broken into nonmetallic. Color: Minerals are grouped by their color. Diagnostic but impurities can change a mineral’s color. Streak: Performed by scratching the sample on a porcelain plate; the color of the streak can help name the mineral. Hardness: The resistance of a mineral to scratch. Breakage pattern: A mineral can either show fracture or cleavage, the former being breakage of uneven surfaces and the latter a breakage along spaced parallel planes. Specific gravity: the weight of a specific volume of a mineral. Effervescence: Involves dripping hydrochloric acid on the mineral to test for fizzing. Magnetism: Involves using a magnet to test for magnetism.
Taste: Minerals can have a distinctive taste, like halite. Smell: Minerals can have a distinctive odor. For example, sulfur smells like rotten eggs. Geologists study unlithified materials, which come from more recent deposits; these materials are superficial deposits. This study is known as Quaternary geology, after the Quaternary period of geologic history. However, unlithified material does not only include sediments. Magmas and lavas are the original unlithified source of all igneous rocks; the active flow of molten rock is studied in volcanology, igneous petrology aims to determine the history of igneous rocks from their final crystallization to their original molten source. In the 1960s, it was discovered that the Earth's lithosphere, which includes the crust and rigid uppermost portion of the upper mantle, is separated into tectonic plates that move across the plastically deforming, upper mantle, called the asthenosphere; this theory is supported by several types of observations, including seafloor spreading and the global distribution of mountain terrain and seismicity.
There is an intimate coupling between the movement of the plates on the surface and the convection of the mantle. Thus, oceanic plates and the adjoining mantle convection currents always move in the same direction – because the oceanic lithosphere is the rigid upper thermal boundary layer of the convecting mantle; this coupling between rigid plates moving on the surface of the Earth and the convecting mantle is called plate tectonics. The development of plate tectonics has provided a physical basis for many observations of the solid Earth. Long linear regions of geologic features are explained as plate boundaries. For example: Mid-ocean ridges, high regions on the seafloor where hydrothermal vents and volcanoes exist, are seen as divergent boundaries, where two plates move apart. Arcs of volcanoes and earthquakes are theorized as convergent boundaries, where one plate subducts, or moves, under another. Transform boundaries, such as the San Andreas Fault system, resulted in widespread powerful earthquakes.
Plate tectonics has provided a mechan
Peter Simon Pallas
Peter Simon Pallas FRS FRSE was a Prussian zoologist and botanist who worked in Russia. Pallas was born in the son of Professor of Surgery Simon Pallas, he studied with private tutors and took an interest in natural history attending the University of Halle and the University of Göttingen. In 1760, he moved to the University of Leiden and passed his doctor's degree at the age of 19. Pallas travelled throughout the Netherlands and to London, improving his medical and surgical knowledge, he settled at The Hague, his new system of animal classification was praised by Georges Cuvier. Pallas wrote Miscellanea Zoologica, which included descriptions of several vertebrates new to science which he had discovered in the Dutch museum collections. A planned voyage to southern Africa and the East Indies fell through when his father recalled him to Berlin. There, he began work on his Spicilegia Zoologica. In 1767, Pallas was invited by Catherine II of Russia to become a professor at the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences and, between 1768 and 1774, he led an expedition to central Russian provinces, Urals, West Siberia and Transbaikal, collecting natural history specimens for the academy.
He explored the Caspian Sea, the Ural and Altai Mountains and the upper Amur River, reaching as far eastward as Lake Baikal. The regular reports which Pallas sent to St Petersburg were collected and published as Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Russischen Reichs, they covered a wide range of topics, including geology and mineralogy, reports on the native peoples and their religions, descriptions of new plants and animals. In 1776, Pallas was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Pallas settled in St Petersburg, becoming a favourite of Catherine II and teaching natural history to the Grand Dukes Alexander and Constantine, he was provided with the plants collected by other naturalists to compile the Flora Rossica, a Russian flora, started work on his Zoographica Rosso-Asiatica, a zoography of Russia and Asia. He published an account of Johann Anton Güldenstädt's travels in the Caucasus; the Empress bought Pallas's large natural history collection for 2,000 rubles, 500 more than his asking price, allowed him to keep them for life.
During this period, Pallas helped plan the Mulovsky expedition, cancelled in October 1787. Between 1793 and 1794, Pallas led a second expedition to southern Russia, visiting the Crimea and the Black Sea, he was accompanied by his daughter and his new wife, an artist, a military escort. In February 1793, they travelled to Saratov and downriver to Tsaritsyn, they explored the country to the east, in August travelled along the banks of the Caspian Sea and into the Caucasus Mountains. In September, they travelled to the Crimea. Pallas spent early 1794 exploring to the southeast, in July travelled up the valley of the Dnieper, arriving back in St Petersburg in September. Pallas gave his account of the journey in his P. S. Pallas Bemerkungen auf einer Reise in die Südlichen Statthalterschaften des Russischen Reichs. Catherine II gave him a large estate at Simferopol, where Pallas lived until the death of his second wife in 1810, he was granted permission to leave Russia by Emperor Alexander, returned to Berlin, where he died in the following year.
His grave is preserved in the Protestant Friedhof I der Jerusalems- und Neuen Kirchengemeinde in Berlin-Kreuzberg, south of Hallesches Tor. In 1809 he became associate member of the Royal Institute of the Netherlands. In 1772, Pallas was shown a 680-kg lump of metal, found near Krasnoyarsk. Pallas arranged. Subsequent analysis of the metal showed it to be a new type of stony-iron meteorite; this new type of meteorite was called pallasite after him. Several animals were described by Pallas, his surname is included in their common names, including: Pallas' glass lizard, Pallas' viper, Pallas's cat, Pallas's long-tongued bat, Pallas's tube-nosed bat, Pallas's squirrel, Pallas's leaf warbler, Pallas's cormorant, Pallas's fish-eagle, Pallas's gull, Pallas's sandgrouse, Pallas's rosefinch, Pallas's grasshopper warbler, he is honoured in the scientific names of animals described by others, including: the Dagestani tortoise, Pallas's pika, Pallas's reed bunting, the Pacific herring. Streets in Berlin and Castrop-Rauxel are named Pallasstraße.
Pallasovka, a city in Volgograd Oblast, is named after him, his monument stands there. An asteroid is named after him: 21087 Petsimpallas. A Belgian astronomer, Eric Elst chose the name "Sarapul 26851" for an asteroid because in Pallas' writings, he mentioned his liking of the city of Sarapul, Russia. Dissertatio inauguralis. Elenchus zoophytorum, sistens generum adumbrationes generaliores et specierum cognitarum succinctas descriptiones, cum selectis auctorum synonymis. Miscellanea zoologica, quibus novæ imprimis atque obscuræ animalum species describuntur et observationibus iconibusque illustrantur. Spicilegia zoologica. Lyst der Plant-Dieren, bevattende de algemeene schetzen der geslachten en korte beschryvingen der bekende zoorten (Utrecht: van Paddenburg & van S
Pinnipeds known as seals, are a distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals. They comprise the extant families Odobenidae and Phocidae. There are 33 extant species of pinnipeds, more than 50 extinct species have been described from fossils. While seals were thought to have descended from two ancestral lines, molecular evidence supports them as a monophyletic lineage. Pinnipeds belong to the order Carnivora and their closest living relatives are believed to be bears and the superfamily of musteloids, having diverged about 50 million years ago. Seals range in size from the 1 m and 45 kg Baikal seal to the 5 m and 3,200 kg southern elephant seal, the largest member of the order Carnivora. Several species exhibit sexual dimorphism, they have four limbs that are modified into flippers. Though not as fast in the water as dolphins, seals are more agile. Otariids use their front limbs to propel themselves through the water, while phocids and walruses use their hind limbs.
Otariids and walruses have hind limbs that can be used as legs on land. By comparison, terrestrial locomotion by phocids is more cumbersome. Otariids have visible external ears, while walruses lack these. Pinnipeds have well-developed senses—their eyesight and hearing are adapted for both air and water, they have an advanced tactile system in their whiskers or vibrissae; some species are well adapted for diving to great depths. They have a layer of fat, or blubber, under the skin to keep warm in the cold water, other than the walrus, all species are covered in fur. Although pinnipeds are widespread, most species prefer the colder waters of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, they spend most of their lives in the water, but come ashore to mate, give birth, molt or escape from predators, such as sharks and killer whales. They feed on fish and marine invertebrates. Walruses are specialized for feeding on bottom-dwelling mollusks. Male pinnipeds mate with more than one female, although the degree of polygyny varies with the species.
The males of land-breeding species tend to mate with a greater number of females than those of ice breeding species. Male pinniped strategies for reproductive success vary between defending females, defending territories that attract females and performing ritual displays or lek mating. Pups are born in the spring and summer months and females bear all the responsibility for raising them. Mothers of some species fast and nurse their young for a short period of time while others take foraging trips at sea between nursing bouts. Walruses are known to nurse their young while at sea. Seals produce a number of vocalizations, notably the barks of California sea lions, the gong-like calls of walruses and the complex songs of Weddell seals; the meat and fur coats of pinnipeds have traditionally been used by indigenous peoples of the Arctic. Seals have been depicted in various cultures worldwide, they are kept in captivity and are sometimes trained to perform tricks and tasks. Once relentlessly hunted by commercial industries for their products and walruses are now protected by international law.
The Japanese sea lion and the Caribbean monk seal have become extinct in the past century, while the Mediterranean monk seal and Hawaiian monk seal are ranked endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Besides hunting, pinnipeds face threats from accidental trapping, marine pollution, conflicts with local people; the German naturalist Johann Karl Wilhelm Illiger was the first to recognize the pinnipeds as a distinct taxonomic unit. American zoologist Joel Asaph Allen reviewed the world's pinnipeds in an 1880 monograph, History of North American pinnipeds, a monograph of the walruses, sea-lions, sea-bears and seals of North America. In this publication, he traced the history of names, gave keys to families and genera, described North American species and provided synopses of species in other parts of the world. In 1989, Annalisa Berta and colleagues proposed the unranked clade Pinnipedimorpha to contain the fossil genus Enaliarctos and modern seals as a sister group. Pinnipeds belong to the suborder Caniformia.
Pinnipedia was considered its own suborder under Carnivora. Of the three extant families, the Otariidae and Odobenidae are grouped in the superfamily Otarioidea, while the Phocidae belong to the superfamily Phocoidea. Otariids are known as eared seals due to the presence of pinnae; these animals rely on their well-developed fore-flippers to propel themselves through the water. They can turn their hind-flippers forward and "walk" on land; the anterior end of an otariid's frontal bones extends between the nasal bones, the supraorbital foramen is large and flat horizontally. The supraspinatous fossas are divided by a "secondary spine" and the bronchi are divided anteriorly. Otariids consist of two types: fur seals. Sea lions are distinguished by their rounder snouts and shorter, rougher pelage, while fur seals have more pointed snouts, longer fore-flippers and thicker fur coats that include an undercoat and guard hairs; the former tend to be larger than the latter. Five genera and seven species of
Universitetskaya Embankment is a 1.2 km long embankment on the right bank of the Bolshaya Neva, on Vasilievsky Island in Saint Petersburg, Russia. Starting at the Spit of Vasilievsky Island, it spans between Palace Bridge and Blagoveshchensky Bridge; the bank was lined with granite in 1831-1834 and the 1850s. It features an ensemble of Petrine Baroque buildings of the early 18th century, including the Kunstkamera, Twelve Collegia, Menshikov Palace, as well as the neoclassical building of the Academy of Arts; the embankment was connected to the left bank through Isaakiyevsky Pontone Bridge, constructed in 1819-1841 in front of Senate Square. One of the campuses of Saint Petersburg State University, Saint Petersburg branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography and Zoological Museum are all situated along the embankment; the embankment was named after the university in 1887. A quay in front of the Imperial Academy of Arts building, adorned with two authentic sphinxes of Pharaoh Amenhotep III brought in 1832 from Thebes, was designed by Konstantin Thon and built in 1832–1834
The woolly mammoth is an extinct species of mammoth that lived during the Pleistocene until its extinction in the early Holocene epoch. It was one of the last in a line of mammoth species, beginning with Mammuthus subplanifrons in the early Pliocene; the woolly mammoth diverged from the steppe mammoth about 400,000 years ago in East Asia. Its closest extant relative is the Asian elephant; the appearance and behaviour of this species are among the best studied of any prehistoric animal because of the discovery of frozen carcasses in Siberia and Alaska, as well as skeletons, stomach contents and depiction from life in prehistoric cave paintings. Mammoth remains had long been known in Asia before they became known to Europeans in the 17th century; the origin of these remains was long a matter of debate, explained as being remains of legendary creatures. The mammoth was identified as an extinct species of elephant by Georges Cuvier in 1796; the woolly mammoth was the same size as modern African elephants.
Males weighed up to 6 metric tons. Females weighed up to 4 metric tons. A newborn calf weighed about 90 kg; the woolly mammoth was well adapted to the cold environment during the last ice age. It was covered with an outer covering of long guard hairs and a shorter undercoat; the colour of the coat varied from dark to light. The ears and tail were short to minimise heat loss, it had long, curved tusks and four molars, which were replaced six times during the lifetime of an individual. Its behaviour was similar to that of modern elephants, it used its tusks and trunk for manipulating objects and foraging; the diet of the woolly mammoth was grasses and sedges. Individuals could reach the age of 60, its habitat was the mammoth steppe, which stretched across northern North America. The woolly mammoth coexisted with early humans, who used its bones and tusks for making art and dwellings, the species was hunted for food, it disappeared from its mainland range at the end of the Pleistocene 10,000 years ago, most through climate change and consequent shrinkage of its habitat, hunting by humans, or a combination of the two.
Isolated populations survived on St. Paul Island until 5,600 years ago and on Wrangel Island until 4,000 years ago. After its extinction, humans continued using its ivory as a raw material, a tradition that continues today. With a genome project for the mammoth completed in 2015, it has been proposed the species could be recreated through various means, but none of these is yet feasible. Remains of various extinct elephants were known by Europeans for centuries, but were interpreted, based on biblical accounts, as the remains of legendary creatures such as behemoths or giants, they were thought to be remains of modern elephants, brought to Europe during the Roman Republic, for example the war elephants of Hannibal and Pyrrhus of Epirus, or animals that had wandered north. The first woolly mammoth remains studied by European scientists were examined by Hans Sloane in 1728 and consisted of fossilised teeth and tusks from Siberia. Sloane was the first to recognise. Sloane turned to another biblical explanation for the presence of elephants in the Arctic, asserting that they had been buried during the Great Flood, that Siberia had been tropical before a drastic climate change.
Others interpreted Sloane's conclusion differently, arguing the flood had carried elephants from the tropics to the Arctic. Sloane's paper was based on travellers' descriptions and a few scattered bones collected in Siberia and Britain, he discussed the question of whether or not the remains were from elephants, but drew no conclusions. In 1738, the German zoologist Johann Philipp Breyne argued that mammoth fossils represented some kind of elephant, he could not explain why a tropical animal would be found in such a cold area as Siberia, suggested that they might have been transported there by the Great Flood. In 1796, French anatomist Georges Cuvier was the first to identify the woolly mammoth remains not as modern elephants transported to the Arctic, but as an new species, he argued this species had gone extinct and no longer existed, a concept, not accepted at the time. Following Cuvier's identification, German naturalist Johann Friedrich Blumenbach gave the woolly mammoth its scientific name, Elephas primigenius, in 1799, placing it in the same genus as the Asian elephant.
This name is Latin for "first elephant". Cuvier coined the name Elephas mammonteus a few months but the former name was subsequently used. In 1828, the British naturalist Joshua Brookes used the name Mammuthus borealis for woolly mammoth fossils in his collection that he put up for sale, thereby coining a new genus name. Where and how the word "mammoth" originated is unclear. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, it comes from an old Vogul word mēmoŋt, "earth-horn", it may be a version of mehemot, the Arabic version of the biblical word "behemoth". Another possible origin is Estonian, where maa means "earth", mutt means "mole"; the word was first used in Europe during the early 17th century, when referring to maimanto tusks discovered in Siberia. American president Thomas Jefferson, who had a keen interest in palaeontology, was responsible for transforming the word "mammoth" from a noun describing the prehistoric elephant to an adjective describing anything of large size; the first recorded use of the word as an adjective was in a description of a wheel of cheese (the "Cheshire Mam