Minecraft is a sandbox video game created by Swedish game developer Markus Persson and released by Mojang in 2011. The game allows players to build with a variety of different blocks in a 3D procedurally generated world, requiring creativity from players. Other activities in the game include exploration, resource gathering and combat. Multiple gameplay modes are available; these include survival mode in which the player must acquire resources to build the world and maintain health, creative mode where players have unlimited resources to build with and the ability to fly, adventure mode where players can play custom maps created by other players with certain restrictions, spectator mode where players can move throughout a world without being affected by gravity and collisions, or without being allowed to destroy or build anything. There is hardcore mode, similar to survival mode but the player is given only one life, the game difficulty is locked on hard. If the player dies on hardcore, the player does not respawn, the world is locked to spectator mode.
The Java Edition of the game allows players to create mods with new gameplay mechanics, items and assets. Minecraft has won numerous awards and accolades. Social media, adaptations and the MineCon convention played large roles in popularizing the game, it has been used in educational environments in the realm of computing systems, as virtual computers and hardware devices have been built in it. By late 2018, over 154 million copies had been sold across all platforms, making it the second best-selling video game of all time, behind Tetris. In September 2014, Microsoft announced a deal to buy Mojang and the Minecraft intellectual property for US$2.5 billion, with the acquisition completed two months later. A spin-off game titled Minecraft: Story Mode has been released. By mid-2018, the game had around 91 million active players monthly. Minecraft is a 3D sandbox game that has no specific goals to accomplish, allowing players a large amount of freedom in choosing how to play the game. However, there is an achievement system.
Gameplay is in the first-person perspective by default, but players have the option for third-person perspective. The game world is composed of rough 3D objects—mainly cubes and fluids, called "blocks"—representing various materials, such as dirt, ores, tree trunks and lava; the core gameplay revolves around placing these objects. These blocks are arranged in a 3D grid, while players can move around the world. Players can "mine" blocks and place them elsewhere, enabling them to build things; the game world is infinite and procedurally generated as players explore it, using a map seed, obtained from the system clock at the time of world creation. There are limits on vertical movement, but Minecraft allows an infinitely large game world to be generated on the horizontal plane. Due to technical problems when distant locations are reached, there is a barrier preventing players from traversing to locations beyond 30,000,000 blocks; the game achieves this by splitting the world data into smaller sections called "chunks" that are only created or loaded when players are nearby.
The world is divided into biomes ranging from deserts to jungles to snowfields. The in-game time system follows a day and night cycle, one full cycle lasts 20 real-time minutes. Players encounter various non-player characters known as mobs, such as animals and hostile creatures. Passive mobs can be hunted for food and crafting materials, such as cows and chickens, they spawn in the daytime, while hostile mobs spawn during nighttime or in dark places such as caves—including large spiders and zombies. Some hostile mobs such as zombies and drowned, burn under the sun if they have no headgear. Other creatures unique to Minecraft include the enderman. There are variants of mobs that spawn in different conditions, for example zombies have husk variants that spawn in deserts. Many commentators have described the game's physics system as unrealistic. Liquids continuously flow for a limited horizontal distance from source blocks, which can be removed by placing a solid block in its place or by scooping it into a bucket.
Complex systems can be built using primitive mechanical devices, electrical circuits, logic gates built with an in-game material known as redstone. Minecraft has two alternative dimensions besides the overworld: the End; the Nether is a hell-like dimension accessed via player-built portals. The player can build an optional boss mob called the Wither out of materials found in the Nether; the End is a barren land consisting of many islands. A boss dragon called the Ender Dragon dwells on the main island. Killing the dragon cues the game's ending a poem written by Irish novelist Julian Gough. Players are allowed to teleport back to their original spawn point in the overworld and continue the game indefinitely; the game consists of five game modes: survival, adventure and spectator. It has a changeable difficulty system of four levels. For example, the peaceful difficulty prevents hostile creatures from spawning, when playing on the hard difficulty players can starve to death if their h
Free Radical Design
Crytek UK Limited was a British video game developer based in Nottingham, England. Founded by David Doak, Stephen John "Steve" Ellis, Karl Ivar Hilton and Graeme Norgate in Stoke-on-Trent on 29 October 1998, they were best known for their TimeSplitters series of games. After going into financial administration, it was announced on 4 February 2009 that the studio had been acquired by German video game developer Crytek and would be renamed Crytek UK. Crytek had a good relationship with the city of Nottingham due in part to its sponsorship of the Gamecity festival and its recruitment drives with Nottingham Trent University. In 2014, the studio was shut down and the majority of the staff transferred to the newly formed Dambuster Studios. Most of Free Radical Design's employees worked for the game developer Rare. While at Rare, they worked on the Nintendo 64 first-person shooters GoldenEye 007 and Perfect Dark. From late 1998 to early 1999, this team left Rare to form Free Radical Design, established in April 1999, their first release being TimeSplitters for the PlayStation 2 in 2000.
It was known for its fast-paced gameplay and its particular emphasis on multiplayer rather than story. TimeSplitters attracted attention at the time because of the former Rare employees' work on the critically acclaimed GoldenEye 007, its sequel, TimeSplitters 2, became the highest-ranked first-person shooter for PlayStation 2 on GameRankings. Free Radical Design was working on Star Wars: Battlefront III from 2006 to 2008, but it became cancelled when it was "99 percent" complete; the cancellation of this title, the poorly received release of Haze, contributed to Free Radical Design going into bankruptcy. On 18 December 2008, it was reported that the studio had shut down, though it was confirmed that the company had gone bankrupt, leaving only 40 of the original 185 staff still employed. On 3 February 2009, Haze scriptwriter Rob Yescombe announced that Free Radical Design had been purchased by German game developer Crytek. In 2010, the company moved from Sandiacre to brand new offices in the new central Nottingham Southreef development.
The £50 million investment will allow Crytek UK to "grow over the next few months". In June 2014, reports surfaced that Crytek had missed wage payments and withheld bonuses for the company's employees, that as a result, a number of employees had filed grievances and refused to report to work, at least 30 employees had left the company since 2011 alone due to a decreasing morale at the studio. After denying that there were issues, Crytek admitted on 25 July 2014 that the company was in a "transitional phase" as it secured capital for future projects, with a particular emphasis on online gaming. On 30 July 2014, Crytek announced that, due to an internal restructuring, it would sell the intellectual property of Homefront to Koch Media, parent company of video game publisher Deep Silver, lay off much of the company's staff. Crytek left it unclear whether the company had been shut down however all staff were transferred to the new Dambuster Studios being established in Nottingham in accordance with British law, where they afterwards continued to work on Homefront: The Revolution.
Star Wars: Battlefront III TimeSplitters 4 Official website of Free Radical Design Official website of Crytek UK
The Nintendo DS, or DS, is a dual-screen handheld game console developed and released by Nintendo. The device released globally across 2004 and 2005; the DS, short for "Developers' System" or "Dual Screen", introduced distinctive new features to handheld gaming: two LCD screens working in tandem, a built-in microphone, support for wireless connectivity. Both screens are encompassed within a clamshell design similar to the Game Boy Advance SP; the Nintendo DS features the ability for multiple DS consoles to directly interact with each other over Wi-Fi within a short range without the need to connect to an existing wireless network. Alternatively, they could interact online using the now-defunct Nintendo Wi-Fi Connection service, its main competitor was Sony's PlayStation Portable during the seventh generation of video game consoles. It was likened to the Nintendo 64 from the 1990s, which led to several N64 ports such as Super Mario 64 DS and Diddy Kong Racing DS, among others. Prior to its release, the Nintendo DS was marketed as an experimental, "third pillar" in Nintendo's console lineup, meant to complement the Game Boy Advance and GameCube.
However, backward compatibility with Game Boy Advance titles and strong sales established it as the successor to the Game Boy series. On March 2, 2006, Nintendo launched the Nintendo DS Lite, a slimmer and lighter redesign of the original Nintendo DS with brighter screens. On November 1, 2008, Nintendo released the Nintendo DSi, another redesign with several hardware improvements and new features. All Nintendo DS models combined have sold 154.02 million units, making it the best selling handheld game console to date, the second best selling video game console of all time behind Sony's PlayStation 2. The Nintendo DS line was succeeded by the Nintendo 3DS family in 2011, which maintains backward compatibility with nearly all Nintendo DS software. Development on the Nintendo DS began around mid-2002, following an original idea from former Nintendo president Hiroshi Yamauchi about a dual-screened console. On November 13, 2003, Nintendo announced that it would be releasing a new game product in 2004.
The company did not provide many details, but stated it would not succeed the Game Boy Advance or GameCube. On January 20, 2004, the console was announced under the codename "Nintendo DS". Nintendo released only a few details at that time, saying that the console would have two separate, 3-inch TFT LCD display panels, separate processors, up to 1 gigabit of semiconductor memory. Nintendo president Satoru Iwata said, "We have developed Nintendo DS based upon a different concept from existing game devices in order to provide players with a unique entertainment experience for the 21st century." He expressed optimism that the DS would help put Nintendo back at the forefront of innovation and move away from the conservative image, described about the company in years past. In March 2004, a document containing most of the console's technical specifications was leaked revealing its internal development name, "Nitro". In May 2004, the console was shown in prototype form at E3 2004, still under the name "Nintendo DS".
On July 28, 2004, Nintendo revealed a new design, described as "sleeker and more elegant" than the one shown at E3 and announced Nintendo DS as the device's official name. Following lukewarm GameCube sales, Hiroshi Yamauchi stressed the importance of its success to the company's future, making a statement which can be translated from Japanese as, "If the DS succeeds, we will rise to heaven, but if it fails we will sink to hell." President Iwata referred to Nintendo DS as "Nintendo's first hardware launch in support of the basic strategy'Gaming Population Expansion'" because the touch-based device "allows users to play intuitively". On September 20, 2004, Nintendo announced that the Nintendo DS would be released in North America on November 21, 2004 for US$149.99. It was set to release on December 2004 in Japan; the console was released in North America with a midnight launch event at Universal CityWalk EB Games in Los Angeles, California. The console was launched in Japan compared to the North America launch.
Regarding the European launch, Nintendo President Satoru Iwata said this: Europe is an important market for Nintendo, we are pleased we can offer such a short period of time between the US and European launch. We believe that the Nintendo DS will change the way people play video games and our mission remains to expand the game play experience. Nintendo DS caters for the needs of all gamers whether for more dedicated gamers who want the real challenge they expect, or the more casual gamers who want quick, pick up and play fun; the Nintendo DS was launched in North America for US$149.99 on November 21, 2004. Well over three million preorders were taken in North Japan. Nintendo planned to deliver one million units combined at the North American and Japanese launches. Nintendo slated 300,000 units for the U. S. debut. In 2005, the manufacturer suggested retail price for the Nintendo DS was dropped to US$129.99. Both launches proved to be successful, but Nintendo chose to release the DS in North America prior to Japan, a first for a hardware laun
Nintendo Co. Ltd. is a Japanese multinational consumer electronics and video game company headquartered in Kyoto. Nintendo is one of the world's largest video game companies by market capitalization, creating some of the best-known and top-selling video game franchises, such as Mario, The Legend of Zelda, Pokémon. Founded on 23 September 1889 by Fusajiro Yamauchi, it produced handmade hanafuda playing cards. By 1963, the company had tried several small niche businesses, such as cab services and love hotels. Abandoning previous ventures in favor of toys in the 1960s, Nintendo developed into a video game company in the 1970s becoming one of the most influential in the industry and one of Japan's most-valuable companies with a market value of over $37 billion in 2018. Nintendo was founded as a playing card company by Fusajiro Yamauchi on 23 September 1889. Based in Kyoto, the business marketed Hanafuda cards; the handmade cards soon became popular, Yamauchi hired assistants to mass-produce cards to satisfy demand.
In 1949, the company adopted the name Nintendo Karuta Co. Ltd. doing business as The Nintendo Playing Card Co. outside Japan. Nintendo continues to manufacture playing cards in Japan and organizes its own contract bridge tournament called the "Nintendo Cup"; the word Nintendo can be translated as "leave luck to heaven", or alternatively as "the temple of free hanafuda". In 1956, Hiroshi Yamauchi, grandson of Fusajiro Yamauchi, visited the U. S. to talk with the United States Playing Card Company, the dominant playing card manufacturer there. He found. Yamauchi's realization that the playing card business had limited potential was a turning point, he acquired the license to use Disney characters on playing cards to drive sales. In 1963, Yamauchi renamed Nintendo Playing Card Co. Ltd. to Nintendo Co. Ltd; the company began to experiment in other areas of business using newly injected capital during the period of time between 1963 and 1968. Nintendo set up a taxi company called Daiya; this business was successful.
However, Nintendo was forced to sell it because problems with the labour unions were making it too expensive to run the service. It set up a love hotel chain, a TV network, a food company and several other ventures. All of these ventures failed, after the 1964 Tokyo Olympics, playing card sales dropped, Nintendo's stock price plummeted to its lowest recorded level of ¥60. In 1966, Nintendo moved into the Japanese toy industry with the Ultra Hand, an extendable arm developed by its maintenance engineer Gunpei Yokoi in his free time. Yokoi was moved from maintenance to the new "Nintendo Games" department as a product developer. Nintendo continued to produce popular toys, including the Ultra Machine, Love Tester and the Kousenjuu series of light gun games. Despite some successful products, Nintendo struggled to meet the fast development and manufacturing turnaround required in the toy market, fell behind the well-established companies such as Bandai and Tomy. In 1973, its focus shifted to family entertainment venues with the Laser Clay Shooting System, using the same light gun technology used in Nintendo's Kousenjuu series of toys, set up in abandoned bowling alleys.
Following some success, Nintendo developed several more light gun machines for the emerging arcade scene. While the Laser Clay Shooting System ranges had to be shut down following excessive costs, Nintendo had found a new market. Nintendo's first venture into the video gaming industry was securing rights to distribute the Magnavox Odyssey video game console in Japan in 1974. Nintendo began to produce its own hardware in 1977, with the Color TV-Game home video game consoles. Four versions of these consoles were produced, each including variations of a single game. A student product developer named, he worked for Yokoi, one of his first tasks was to design the casing for several of the Color TV-Game consoles. Miyamoto went on to create and produce some of Nintendo's most famous video games and become one of the most recognizable figures in the video game industry. In 1975, Nintendo moved into the video arcade game industry with EVR Race, designed by their first game designer, Genyo Takeda, several more games followed.
Nintendo had some small success with this venture, but the release of Donkey Kong in 1981, designed by Miyamoto, changed Nintendo's fortunes dramatically. The success of the game and many licensing opportunities gave Nintendo a huge boost in profit and in addition, the game introduced an early iteration of Mario known in Japan as Jumpman, the eventual company mascot. In 1979, Gunpei Yokoi conceived the idea of a handheld video game, while observing a fellow bullet train commuter who passed the time by interacting idly with a portable LCD calculator, which gave birth to Game & Watch. In 1980, Nintendo launched Watch -- a handheld video game series developed by Yokoi; these systems do not contain interchangeable cartridges and thus the hardware was tied to the game. The first Game & Watch game, was distributed worldwide; the modern "cross" D-pad design was developed by Yokoi for a Donkey Kong version. Proven to be popular, the design was patented by Nintendo, it earned a Technology & Engineering Emmy Award.
In 1983, Nintendo launched the Family Computer home video game console in Japan, alongside ports of its most popular arcade games. In 1985, a cosmetically reworked version of the system known
Martin Hollis (video game designer)
Martin Hollis is a British video game designer best known for directing the critically acclaimed Nintendo 64 first-person shooters GoldenEye 007 and Perfect Dark. In 2000, he founded a video game development company based in Cambridge. Martin Hollis studied computer science at the University of Cambridge. In 1993, when he was 22 years old, he applied for a job at Rare and became the company's first computer science graduate. Due to his knowledge of Unix, he was tasked to set up the networks of the expensive Silicon Graphics systems Rare had acquired at the time, he worked as a second programmer on the coin-op version of Killer Instinct with Rare's technical director Chris Stamper, who designed the hardware. Hollis programmed the machine's operating system. After his work on Killer Instinct, Hollis was interested in leading a team to produce a video game based on the 1995 James Bond film GoldenEye, an idea, proposed to Rare at the highest level; the resulting game, GoldenEye 007, was released in 1997 to commercial success.
Hollis remarked that he worked non-stop on the game, " an 80 hour week over the 2 and a half years of the project", that the team he recruited was talented and dedicated though most of it was composed of people who had never worked on video games. Hollis and his team were offered to produce a game based on the GoldenEye sequel Tomorrow Never Dies, but they turned it down without hesitation, he explained that they were all "pretty sick" of the James Bond universe by the time GoldenEye 007 was released, that their next game needed to be different enough for him to be interesting. In late 1998, after becoming head of software at Rare and having worked for 14 months on Perfect Dark, a spiritual successor to GoldenEye 007, he left the company because his ideas for the game were too ambitious. Although Perfect Dark was released 18 months his contributions to the game were significant and the game's protagonist, Joanna Dark, was his creation. After leaving Rare, Hollis spent six months in Southeast Asia.
According to him, "I couldn't see myself staying in Twycross. I wanted to see more of the world—wanderlust I suppose." Following a recommendation by Chris Stamper, Hollis worked as a consultant on the development of the GameCube at Nintendo of America in Redmond, Washington. One of his responsibilities was to ensure. In 2000, he founded a video game development company based in Cambridge; the company's philosophy was to develop them further. At Zoonami, he worked on Zendoku, a Sudoku-based game released in 2007, on Bonsai Barber, a hairdressing game released in 2009. Killer Instinct GoldenEye 007 Perfect Dark Zendoku Bonsai Barber Martin Hollis on Twitter
Computer and Video Games
Computer and Video Games was a UK-based video game magazine, published in its original form between 1981 and 2004. Its offshoot website was launched in 1999 and closed in February 2015. CVG was the longest-running video game media brand in the world. Computer and Video Games was established in 1981. Published monthly between November 1981 and October 2004 and web-based from 2004 onwards, the magazine was one of the first publications to capitalise on the growing home computing market, although it covered arcade games. At the time of launch it was the world's first dedicated video games magazine; the first issue featured articles on Space Invaders, Chess and advice on how to learn programming. The magazine had a typical ABC of 106,000. Launched in August 1999, CVG was one of the Europe's leading gaming web sites. Known for its news service, CVG features a mix of current and next-generation multi-format gaming reviews, previews and interviews, as well as a new emphasis on video and multimedia content.
CVG was owned by EMAP, before being bought by Dennis Publishing. In 2004 CVG was acquired by Future Publishing. In 2006, the site underwent a major re-design and relaunch to bring it up to scratch for the so-called next generation of Xbox 360, PlayStation 3 and Wii gaming. In 2007, CVG became the hub of a new CVG Network, hosting magazine sites for all of Future Publishing’s unofficial gaming magazines including PC Gamer, PC Zone, Xbox World 360, PlayStation World, PSM3 and NGamer as well as long standing cheats site, CheatStation; the CVG Network expanded further in May 2007 to include sites like Xbox 360 Magazine and Next Generation.biz. CVG has a popular forum with many users and topics. CVG has had a cult following with an award thread they used to run known as the yakkies. In May 2007, CVG submitted to electronic audit by the Audit Bureau of Circulation and registered 1.56 million monthly unique users and 11.4 million page impressions. Future has since incorporated the forums of many of its other games related publications to ComputerAndVideoGames.com in addition to devoting sections to those that did not have a formal website, such as PC Gamer.
In early 2014, CVG, amongst other Future-operated websites, was earmarked for closure by management, but instead received staff cuts in July. Future announced the closure of the website in December 2014; the website closed on 26 February 2015, with all pages redirecting to Gamesradar+, another Future publication. Until the closure of CVG, their official YouTube channel provided a variety of video game related content, providing everything from walkthroughs of games to news regarding video game consoles and regarding gaming events, their second longest running series, GTA V O'clock covered news and conspiracy theories regarding Rockstar Games' Grand Theft Auto V and Grand Theft Auto Online. It was one of the few publications invited to see and play Grand Theft Auto V before its release to the public on 17 September 2013 and re-release for PC on 14 April 2015; when the magazine did reappear it was in a new form, titled CVG Presents, on 16 April 2008 with a bi-monthly release schedule. The new format concentrates the whole magazine on a single subject.
The first issue of the new format concentrated on the history of the Grand Theft Auto series of games. CVG Presents has not been published since 2009. CVG hosted the annual Golden Joystick Awards, the longest running gaming ceremony in the world and acknowledged as one of the most prestigious, as they’re voted for by the general gaming public. Created in 1982 as the CVG magazine's annual awards ceremony, the awards moved onto the web with CVG.com in 1999. In April 1983, the magazine published the results of its first Golden Joystick Awards, along with pictures from the ceremony in Berkeley Square. DJ Dave Lee Travis presented the award for best game of the year to Jetpac; the 2006 Golden Joystick awards attracted over 540,000 votes and were webcast for the first time. The Golden Joystick Awards entered their 25th Silver Anniversary year in 2007 and attracted over 750,000 votes from gamers around the world, with Microsoft's Gears of War winning four Joysticks including Ultimate Game of the Year.
Gareth Ramsay Johnny Minkley Stuart Bishop John Houlihan Gavin Ogden Tim Ingham Andy Robinson John Houlihan computerandvideogames.com at the Internet Archive
Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam 50 miles north of London. At the United Kingdom Census 2011, its population was 123,867 including 24,506 students. Cambridge became an important trading centre during the Roman and Viking ages, there is archaeological evidence of settlement in the area as early as the Bronze Age; the first town charters were granted in the 12th century, although modern city status was not conferred until 1951. The world-renowned University of Cambridge was founded in 1209; the buildings of the university include King's College Chapel, Cavendish Laboratory, the Cambridge University Library, one of the largest legal deposit libraries in the world. The city's skyline is dominated by several college buildings, along with the spire of the Our Lady and the English Martyrs Church, the chimney of Addenbrooke's Hospital and St John's College Chapel tower. Anglia Ruskin University, which evolved from the Cambridge School of Art and the Cambridgeshire College of Arts and Technology has its main campus in the city.
Cambridge is at the heart of the high-technology Silicon Fen with industries such as software and bioscience and many start-up companies born out of the university. More than 40% of the workforce have a higher education qualification, more than twice the national average; the Cambridge Biomedical Campus, one of the largest biomedical research clusters in the world, is soon to house premises of AstraZeneca, a hotel and the relocated Papworth Hospital. The first game of association football took place at Parker's Piece; the Strawberry Fair music and arts festival and Midsummer Fair are held on Midsummer Common, the annual Cambridge Beer Festival takes place on Jesus Green. The city is adjacent to the A14 roads. Cambridge station is less than an hour from London King's Cross railway station. Settlements have existed around the Cambridge area since prehistoric times; the earliest clear evidence of occupation is the remains of a 3,500-year-old farmstead discovered at the site of Fitzwilliam College.
Archaeological evidence of occupation through the Iron Age is a settlement on Castle Hill from the 1st century BC relating to wider cultural changes occurring in southeastern Britain linked to the arrival of the Belgae. The principal Roman site is a small fort Duroliponte on Castle Hill, just northwest of the city centre around the location of the earlier British village; the fort was bounded on two sides by the lines formed by the present Mount Pleasant, continuing across Huntingdon Road into Clare Street. The eastern side followed Magrath Avenue, with the southern side running near to Chesterton Lane and Kettle's Yard before turning northwest at Honey Hill, it was converted to civilian use around 50 years later. Evidence of more widespread Roman settlement has been discovered including numerous farmsteads and a village in the Cambridge district of Newnham. Following the Roman withdrawal from Britain around 410, the location may have been abandoned by the Britons, although the site is identified as Cair Grauth listed among the 28 cities of Britain by the History of the Britons.
Evidence exists that the invading Anglo-Saxons had begun occupying the area by the end of the century. Their settlement – on and around Castle Hill – became known as Grantebrycge. Anglo-Saxon grave goods have been found in the area. During this period, Cambridge benefited from good trade links across the hard-to-travel fenlands. By the 7th century, the town was less significant and described by Bede as a "little ruined city" containing the burial site of Etheldreda. Cambridge was on the border between the East and Middle Anglian kingdoms and the settlement expanded on both sides of the river; the arrival of the Vikings was recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 875. Viking rule, the Danelaw, had been imposed by 878 Their vigorous trading habits caused the town to grow rapidly. During this period the centre of the town shifted from Castle Hill on the left bank of the river to the area now known as the Quayside on the right bank. After the Viking period, the Saxons enjoyed a return to power, building churches such as St Bene't's Church, merchant houses and a mint, which produced coins with the town's name abbreviated to "Grant".
In 1068, two years after his conquest of England, William of Normandy built a castle on Castle Hill. Like the rest of the newly conquered kingdom, Cambridge fell under the control of the King and his deputies; the first town charter was granted by Henry I between 1120 and 1131. It recognised the borough court; the distinctive Round Church dates from this period. In 1209, Cambridge University was founded by students escaping from hostile townspeople in Oxford; the oldest existing college, was founded in 1284. In 1349 Cambridge was affected by the Black Death. Few records survive; the town north of the river was affected being wiped out. Following further depopulation after a second national epidemic in 1361, a letter from the Bishop of Ely suggested that two parishes in Cambridge be merged as there were not enough people to fill one church. With more than a third of English clergy dying in the Black Death, four new colleges were established at the university over the following years to train new clergymen, namely Gonville Hall, Trinity Hall, Corpus Christi and Clare.
In 1382 a revised town charter effects a "diminution of the liberties that the community had enjoyed", due to Cambridge's pa