Jimmy Carl Black
James Carl Inkanish, Jr. known professionally as Jimmy Carl Black, was a drummer and vocalist for The Mothers of Invention. Born in El Paso, Black was of mixed Native American heritage, his trademark line was "Hi Boys and Girls, I'm Jimmy Carl Black, I'm the Indian of the group." The line can be heard several times on The Mothers of Invention's album We're Only in It for the Money. The line can be heard in Haskell Wexler's 1969'Medium Cool', he was addressed as such by Theodore Bikel in the film 200 Motels. He has been credited on some Mothers albums as playing "drums and poverty", he appeared in the movie directed by Frank Zappa, 200 Motels, sings the song "Lonesome Cowboy Burt". Black made a few more appearances with Zappa in 1975 and 1980, appeared as guest vocalist on "Harder Than Your Husband" on the Zappa album You Are What You Is; the same year, 1981, he performed the same song at the discothèque Aladdin, Bergen, Norway, as part of The Grandmothers, after their release Grandmothers, an anthology of unreleased recordings by ex-members of The Mothers of Invention.
Jimmy Carl Black on Frank Zappa: I would have told him that I appreciated his friendship through the years and that I had learned a lot from him. I loved Frank like you do a brother. In 1972, he played with the band he founded with Mothers wind player Bunk Gardner. In the summer of 1975 he played drums for Captain Beefheart & the Magic Band under the stage name Indian Ink, notably at the band's appearance at the Knebworth Festival. In the eighties Jimmy and Bunk and Don Preston performed under the name "The Grandmothers" along with a bunch of other ex-Zappa musicians, but the band soon disbanded. Jimmy moved to Austin, where he met English singer Arthur Brown; the duo recorded an album of classic R&B songs, Black and Blue, performed live together. After the death of his first wife, Jimmy moved to Italy in 1992 and to Germany in 1995, where he reformed The Grandmothers with original members Don and Bunk and with Dutch bass player Ener Bladezipper and Italian guitar player Sandro Oliva. Black performed as a guest vocalist with the Muffin Men, a Frank Zappa tribute band based in Liverpool and with Jon Larsen, on the surrealistic Strange News From Mars project, featuring several other Zappa alumni, such as Tommy Mars, Bruce Fowler, Arthur Barrow.
Black toured around Europe with Muffin Men between 1993-2007 playing hundreds of gigs, appearing on many of the CDs and DVDs. Black and Eugene Chadbourne played as "the Jack and Jim Show" around Europe and US between 1992 and 2003, they performed many Beefheart compositions alongside other material. At Steely Dan's 2001 Rock and Roll Hall of Fame induction, Walter Becker asked the assembled if they remembered who the original Mothers of Invention drummer was. Becker unsuccessfully lobbied the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame for Black's inclusion as a founding member of The Mothers of Invention. An autobiographical audio production with Jimmy Carl Black was recorded in 2007, called The Jimmy Carl Black Story, produced by Jon Larsen. Black was diagnosed with lung cancer in August 2008, died on November 1, 2008 in Siegsdorf, Germany. Benefits were held on November 9, 2008 at the Bridgehouse II in London and December 7, 2008 in Crown Valley, California, he is survived by three sons and two daughters. In 2013, the documentary Where's the Beer and When Do We Get Paid? about Black began running in Germany.
Black's autobiography For Mother's Sake was published by Black's widow on November 1, 2013 to mark the fifth anniversary of his death. The incomplete manuscript was rounded off using material from the synoptic web-bio Black published on his website, extracts from various interviews Black gave; the main body of text was transcribed from tapes recorded by Roddie Gilliard in the Muffin Men tour bus during 1995-1998. Them 3 Guys The Keys The Squires Soul Giants The Mothers of Invention Geronimo Black Mesilla Valley Lo boys, Captain Beefheart & the Magic Band Big Sonny & The Lo Boys The Grandmothers Captain Glasspack & his Magic Mufflers Pound for Pound, Junior Franklin & The Golden Echoes, Rhythm Rats Jimmy Carl Black and the Mannish Boys Grandmothers The Jack & Jim Show Grandmothers The Farrell and Black Band Muffin Men Sandro Oliva & the Blue Pampurio's, X-Tra Combo, Behind The Mirror, Boogie Stuff, Cosmik Debris, Mick Pini Band, Jimmy Carl Black Band, Tempest Quartet, Happy Metal Band, etc.
Classic A Lil' Dab'l Do Ya − as Jimmy Carl Black & Mannish Boys Brown, Black & Blue − as Arthur Brown and Jimmy Carl Black When Do We Get Paid? Drummin' the Blues Is Singin' the Blues Hamburger Midnight − as BEP Mercedes Benz − as Jimmy Carl Black & the X-Tra Combo Indian Rock Songs from Jimmy Carl Black − live album How Blue Can You Get? Where's the $%&#@ Beer? I Just Got in from Texas − as Chris Holzhaus, Jimmy Carl Black & Louis Terrazas Can I Borrow a Couple of Bucks Until the end of the Week? I'm Not Living Very Extravagantly, I'll Tell You for Sure... Where's My Waitress? If We'd All Been Living in California... Freedom Jazz Dance – Jimmy Carl Black – Black/Brown/Stone (
A teacher is a person who helps others to acquire knowledge, competences or values. Informally the role of teacher may be taken on by anyone. In some countries, teaching young people of school age may be carried out in an informal setting, such as within the family, rather than in a formal setting such as a school or college; some other professions may involve a significant amount of teaching. In most countries, formal teaching of students is carried out by paid professional teachers; this article focuses on those who are employed, as their main role, to teach others in a formal education context, such as at a school or other place of initial formal education or training. A teacher's role may vary among cultures. Teachers may provide instruction in literacy and numeracy, craftsmanship or vocational training, the arts, civics, community roles, or life skills. Formal teaching tasks include preparing lessons according to agreed curricula, giving lessons, assessing pupil progress. A teacher's professional duties may extend beyond formal teaching.
Outside of the classroom teachers may accompany students on field trips, supervise study halls, help with the organization of school functions, serve as supervisors for extracurricular activities. In some education systems, teachers may have responsibility for student discipline. Teaching is a complex activity; this is in part because teaching is a social practice, that takes place in a specific context and therefore reflects the values of that specific context. Factors that influence what is expected of teachers include history and tradition, social views about the purpose of education, accepted theories about learning, etc; the competencies required by a teacher are affected by the different ways in which the role is understood around the world. Broadly, there seem to be four models: the teacher as manager of instruction; the OECD has argued that it is necessary to develop a shared definition of the skills and knowledge required by teachers, in order to guide teachers' career-long education and professional development.
Some evidence-based international discussions have tried to reach such a common understanding. For example, the European Union has identified three broad areas of competences that teachers require: Working with others Working with knowledge and information, Working in and with society. Scholarly consensus is emerging that what is required of teachers can be grouped under three headings: knowledge craft skills and dispositions, it has been found that teachers who showed enthusiasm towards the course materials and students can create a positive learning experience. These teachers do not teach by rote but attempt to find new invigoration for the course materials on a daily basis. One of the challenges facing teachers is that they may have covered a curriculum until they begin to feel bored with the subject, their attitude may in turn bore the students. Students who had enthusiastic teachers tend to rate them higher than teachers who didn't show much enthusiasm for the course materials. Teachers that exhibit enthusiasm can lead to students who are more to be engaged, interested and curious about learning the subject matter.
Recent research has found a correlation between teacher enthusiasm and students' intrinsic motivation to learn and vitality in the classroom. Controlled, experimental studies exploring intrinsic motivation of college students has shown that nonverbal expressions of enthusiasm, such as demonstrative gesturing, dramatic movements which are varied, emotional facial expressions, result in college students reporting higher levels of intrinsic motivation to learn, but while a teacher's enthusiasm has been shown to improve motivation and increase task engagement, it does not improve learning outcomes or memory for the material. There are various mechanisms by which teacher enthusiasm may facilitate higher levels of intrinsic motivation. Teacher enthusiasm may contribute to a classroom atmosphere of energy and enthusiasm which feeds student interest and excitement in learning the subject matter. Enthusiastic teachers may lead to students becoming more self-determined in their own learning process; the concept of mere exposure indicates that the teacher's enthusiasm may contribute to the student's expectations about intrinsic motivation in the context of learning.
Enthusiasm may act as a "motivational embellishment", increasing a student's interest by the variety and surprise of the enthusiastic teacher's presentation of the material. The concept of emotional contagion, may apply. Research shows that student motivation and attitudes towards school are linked to student-teacher relationships. Enthusiastic teachers are good at creating beneficial relations with their students, their ability to create effective learning environments that foster student achievement depends on the kind of relationship they build with their students. Useful teacher-to-studen
Lick My Decals Off, Baby
Lick My Decals Off, Baby is the fourth studio album by Captain Beefheart and the Magic Band, released in 1970 on Frank Zappa's Straight Records label. The follow-up to Trout Mask Replica, it is regarded by some critics and listeners as superior, was Van Vliet's favorite. Don Van Vliet said that the title is an encouragement to "get rid of the labels", to evaluate things according to their merits rather than according to superficial labels. Musicians on the album were Don Van Vliet, vocals and woodwinds. French had been arranger and musical director on Trout Mask Replica. Van Vliet ejected French from the group—both figuratively and by throwing him down a flight of stairs—shortly after Trout Mask Replica was completed, these roles passed to guitarist Bill Harkleroad. French returned to the group shortly. Most of the songs began as piano improvisations by Van Vliet, he would record extended improvisation sessions on a cassette recorder. Harkleroad listened to these improvisations, picked out the best parts, pieced them into compositions.
The musical lines on Decals tend to be longer and more intricate than the assemblage of short fragments that characterized much of Trout Mask Replica. The album's liner notes contain two poems or lyrics for songs not present, one untitled and the other "You Should Know by the Kindness of uh Dog the Way uh Human Should Be". Critic Robert Christgau said of the record: "Beefheart's famous five-octave range and covert totalitarian structures have taken on a playful undertone and engrossing and slapstick funny." Lester Bangs noted the maturation of Beefheart’s previous musical and lyrical concerns, writing that “even though the sonic textures are sometimes more complex and angular than on Trout Mask... his messages are universal and warm as the hearth of the America we once dreamed of.”Due to John Peel's championing of the work on BBC radio, Lick My Decals Off, Baby spent eleven weeks on the UK Albums Chart, peaking at number twenty. This remains Beefheart's highest-charting album in the UK. An early promotional music video was made of its title song, a bizarre television commercial was filmed that included excerpts from "Woe-Is-uh-Me-Bop", silent footage of masked Magic Band members using kitchen utensils as musical instruments, Beefheart kicking over a bowl of what appears to be porridge onto a dividing stripe in the middle of a road.
The video was played but was accepted into the Museum of Modern Art, where it has been used in several programs. Enigma Retro released a compact disc edition in 1989. In January 2011, shortly after Van Vliet's death, iTunes and Amazon's MP3 store released the album for download. On November 17, 2014, Rhino Records reissued the album as part of a limited-edition four-disc Beefheart box set Sun Zoom Spark: 1970 to 1972, which included The Spotlight Kid, Clear Spot, a disc of outtakes from the three albums; the album was reissued separately, with no bonus tracks, by Rhino on September 25, 2015. All songs composed by Don Van Vliet. Arranged by Bill Harkleroad. Captain Beefheart – vocals, bass clarinet, tenor sax, soprano sax, harmonica Zoot Horn Rollo – electric guitar and glass finger guitar Rockette Morton – bassius-o-pheilius Drumbo – percussion, broom Ed Marimba – marimba, broomProduction Grant Gibb – personal management Peacock Ink – album concept Don Van Vliet – back cover painting Ed Thrasher – photography and art direction
Christopher David Allen, known as Daevid Allen, sometimes credited as Divided Alien, was an Australian poet, singer and performance artist. He was co-founder of the psychedelic rock groups Soft Gong. In 1960, inspired by the Beat Generation writers he had discovered while working in a Melbourne bookshop, Allen travelled to Paris, where he stayed at the Beat Hotel, moving into a room vacated by Allen Ginsberg and Peter Orlovsky. While selling the International Herald Tribune around Le Chat Qui Pêche and the Latin Quarter, he met Terry Riley and gained free access to the jazz clubs in the area. In 1961 Allen travelled to England and rented a room at Lydden, near Dover, where he soon began to look for work as a musician, he first replied to a newspaper advertisement for a guitar player to join Dover-based group the Rolling Stones who had lost singer/guitarist Neil Landon, but did not join them. After meeting up with William S. Burroughs, inspired by philosophies of Sun Ra, he formed free jazz outfit the Daevid Allen Trio, which included his landlord's son, 16-year-old Robert Wyatt.
They performed at Burroughs' theatre pieces based on the novel The Ticket That Exploded. In 1966, together with Kevin Ayers and Mike Ratledge, they formed the band Soft Machine, the name having come from the Burroughs novel The Soft Machine. Ayers and Wyatt had played in Wilde Flowers. Following a tour of Europe in August 1967, Allen was refused re-entry to the UK because he had overstayed his visa on a prior visit, he returned to Paris. They formed the Bananamoon Band. Both projects were cut short as the two took part in the 1968 Paris protests which swept the city, handing out teddy bears to the police and reciting poetry in pidgin French. Allen admitted. Fleeing the police, they made their way to Deià, where they had lived for a time in 1966 and had met the poet Robert Graves, a friend of Robert Wyatt's family. Returning to Paris in August 1969, they were offered the chance to make an album by the BYG Actuel label and so formed a new Gong band and recorded Magick Brother, released in March 1970.
In 1971 Allen released his first solo album, Banana Moon for BYG Actuel. It did not feature his original 1968 Bananamoon Band rhythm section, but did feature Robert Wyatt, Gilli Smyth, Gary Wright, Pip Pyle, Maggie Bell and many others; that year, Gong released their second studio album, Camembert Electrique. In October, Allen and the rest of Gong moved into an abandoned 12-room hunting lodge called Pavilion du Hay, near Voisines and Sens, 120 km south-east Paris, they would be based there until early 1974. In late 1972 they were joined by electronic musician Tim Blake. Steve Hillage and Pierre Moerlen joined to record the Radio Gnome Invisible" trilogy which consisted of Flying Teapot, Angel's Egg and You; the band signed with Virgin Records in 1973 after BYG Records went bankrupt during recording of Flying Teapot at Richard Branson's Manor Studio. Gong was Branson's second Virgin release after Mike Oldfield's Tubular Bells. According to Allen, in his book Gong Dreaming 2, the idea of the flying teapot was influenced by Russell's teapot.
Allen left Gong in April 1975 and went on to record three more solo albums, Good Morning, Now Is the Happiest Time of Your Life and N'existe pas!. During these years, he lived in a hippie collective in Deià and contributed to the production of The Book of Am, an album by the band Can am des puig, loaning them a four-track TEAC reel-to-reel tape recorder. In late May 1977, Allen performed and recorded as Planet Gong reformed the "Radio Gnome Trilogy" version of the group for a one-off show at the Hippodrome, France; the show, the first Gong Reunion, featured Sting, Stewart Copeland and Andy Summers in their first live appearance as part of Mike Howlett's band Strontium 90, before Summers joined both Copeland and Sting in The Police. An edited version of the Gong concert was released in 1977 as the double live album Gong est Mort, Vive Gong. In 1978 Allen moved to New York at the invitation of his old producer Giorgio Gomelsky, was teamed up with the nascent Material to form the punk-influenced New York Gong.
They toured the U. S. in the Spring of 1979, playing the classic Radio Gnome Invisible trilogy, recorded the studio album About Time. In 1981 Allen returned to Australia, taking up residence in Byron Bay where he worked on performance pieces and poetry, he performed with performance artist David Tolley as Ex. In 1989 he formed a new Gong band, which toured and recorded a self-titled album. Reverting to the name Gong, they released Shapeshifter in 1992, which continued the classic Gong mythology of Zero the Hero. A second Gong Reunion event took place in London in 1994 and the "classic" lineup toured between 1996 and 2001, releasing a new studio album, Zero to Infinity in 2000. In 1998 Allen co-founded the San Francisco-based psychedelic rock band University of Errors and the U. K. based jazz rock band Brainville 3, going on to live albums with each. He recorded with Spirits Burning, a space rock supergroup whose members include Alan Davey, Bridget Wishart, Karl E. H. Seigfried, Simon House; some of Daevid Allen's most experimental work was with the long running Los Angeles noise band Big City Orchestra, including live performances and more than a half doze
Rolling Stone is an American monthly magazine that focuses on popular culture. It was founded in San Francisco, California in 1967 by Jann Wenner, still the magazine's publisher, the music critic Ralph J. Gleason, it was first known for political reporting by Hunter S. Thompson. In the 1990s, the magazine shifted focus to a younger readership interested in youth-oriented television shows, film actors, popular music. In recent years, it has resumed its traditional mix of content. Rolling Stone Press is the magazine's associated book publishing imprint. Straight Arrow Press was the magazine's associated book publishing imprint, Straight Arrow Publishing Co. Inc. was the publishing company that published Rolling Stone. Rolling Stone magazine was founded in San Francisco in 1967 by Ralph Gleason. To get it off the ground, Wenner borrowed $7,500 from his own family and from the parents of his soon-to-be wife, Jane Schindelheim; the first issue carried a cover date of November 9, 1967, was in newspaper format with a lead article on the Monterey Pop Festival.
The cover price was 25¢. In the first issue, Wenner explained that the title of the magazine referred to the 1950 blues song "Rollin' Stone", recorded by Muddy Waters, Bob Dylan's hit single "Like a Rolling Stone": You're wondering what we're trying to do. It's hard to say: sort of a sort of a newspaper; the name of it is Rolling Stone which comes from an old saying, "A rolling stone gathers no moss." Muddy Waters used the name for a song. The Rolling Stones took their name from Muddy's song. "Like a Rolling Stone" was the title of Bob Dylan's first rock and roll record. We have begun a new publication reflecting what we see are the changes in rock and roll and the changes related to rock and roll."—Jann Wenner, Rolling Stone, November 9, 1967, p. 2 Some authors have attributed the name to Dylan's hit single: "At Gleason's suggestion, Wenner named his magazine after a Bob Dylan song." Rolling Stone identified with and reported the hippie counterculture of the era. However, it distanced itself from the underground newspapers of the time, such as Berkeley Barb, embracing more traditional journalistic standards and avoiding the radical politics of the underground press.
In the first edition, Wenner wrote that Rolling Stone "is not just about the music, but about the things and attitudes that music embraces". In the 1970s, Rolling Stone began to make a mark with its political coverage, with the likes of gonzo journalist Hunter S. Thompson writing for the magazine's political section. Thompson first published his most famous work Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas within the pages of Rolling Stone, where he remained a contributing editor until his death in 2005. In the 1970s, the magazine helped launch the careers of many prominent authors, including Cameron Crowe, Lester Bangs, Joe Klein, Joe Eszterhas, Ben Fong-Torres, Patti Smith and P. J. O'Rourke, it was at this point that the magazine ran some of its most famous stories, including that of the Patty Hearst abduction odyssey. One interviewer, speaking for a large number of his peers, said that he bought his first copy of the magazine upon initial arrival on his college campus, describing it as a "rite of passage".
In 1977, the magazine moved its headquarters from San Francisco to New York City. Editor Jann Wenner said San Francisco had become "a cultural backwater". During the 1980s, the magazine began to shift towards being a general "entertainment" magazine. Music was still a dominant topic, but there was increasing coverage of celebrities in television and the pop culture of the day; the magazine initiated its annual "Hot Issue" during this time. Rolling Stone was known for its musical coverage and for Thompson's political reporting. In the 1990s, the magazine changed its format to appeal to a younger readership interested in youth-oriented television shows, film actors and popular music; this led to criticism. In recent years, the magazine has resumed its traditional mix of content, including in-depth political stories, it has expanded content to include coverage of financial and banking issues. As a result, the magazine has seen its circulation increase and its reporters invited as experts to network television programs of note.
The printed format has gone through several changes. The first publications, in 1967–72, were in folded tabloid newspaper format, with no staples, black ink text, a single color highlight that changed each edition. From 1973 onwards, editions were produced on a four-color press with a different newsprint paper size. In 1979, the bar code appeared. In 1980, it became a large format magazine; as of edition of October 30, 2008, Rolling Stone has had a smaller, standard-format magazine size. After years of declining readership, the magazine experienced a major resurgence of interest and relevance with the work of two young journalists in the late 2000s, Michael Hastings and Matt Taibbi. In 2005, Dana Leslie Fields, former publisher of Rolling Stone, who had worked at the magazine for 17 years, was an inaugural inductee into the Magazine Hall of Fame. In 2009, Taibbi unleashed an acclaimed series of scathing reports on the financial meltdown of the time, he famously described Goldman Sachs as "a great vampire squid".
Bigger headlines came at the end of June 2010. Rolling Stone caused a controversy in the White House by publishing in the July issue an article by journalist Michael Hastings entitled, "The Runaway General", quoting criticism by General Stanley A. McChrystal, commander of the International Security Assistance Force and U. S. Forces-Afghanistan commander, about Vice President Joe Biden and oth
Eugene is a city in the U. S. state of Oregon. It is at the southern end of the verdant Willamette Valley, near the confluence of the McKenzie and Willamette Rivers, about 50 miles east of the Oregon Coast; as of the 2010 census, Eugene had a population of 156,185. The Eugene-Springfield, Oregon metropolitan statistical area is the 146th largest metropolitan statistical area in the US and the third-largest in the state, behind the Portland Metropolitan Area and the Salem Metropolitan Area; the city's population for 2014 was estimated to be 160,561 by the US Census. Eugene is home to the University of Oregon, Northwest Christian University, Lane Community College; the city is noted for its natural environment, recreational opportunities, focus on the arts. Eugene's official slogan is "A Great City for the Arts and Outdoors", it is referred to as the "Emerald City" and as "Track Town, USA". The Nike corporation had its beginnings in Eugene. In 2021, the city will host the 18th Field World Championships.
The first people to settle in the Eugene area were known as the Kalapuyans written Calapooia or Calapooya. They made "seasonal rounds," moving around the countryside to collect and preserve local foods, including acorns, the bulbs of the wapato and camas plants, berries, they stored these foods in their permanent winter village. When crop activities waned, they returned to their winter villages and took up hunting and trading, they were known as the Chifin Kalapuyans and called the Eugene area where they lived "Chifin", sometimes recorded as "Chafin" or "Chiffin". Other Kalapuyan tribes occupied villages that are now within Eugene city limits. Pee-you or Mohawk Calapooians, Winefelly or Pleasant Hill Calapooians, the Lungtum or Long Tom, they were close-neighbors to the Chifin and were political allies. Some authorities suggest, it is that since the Santiam had an alliance with the Brownsville Kalapuyans that the Santiam influence went as far at Eugene. According to archeological evidence, the ancestors of the Kalapuyans may have been in Eugene for as long as 10,000 years.
In the 1800s their traditional way of life faced significant changes due to devastating epidemics and settlement, first by French fur traders and by an overwhelming number of United States colonists. French fur traders had settled seasonally in the Willamette Valley by the beginning of the 19th century, their settlements were concentrated in the "French Prairie" community in Northern Marion County but may have extended south to the Eugene area. Having developed relationships with Native communities through intermarriage and trade, they negotiated for land from the Kalapuyans. By 1828 to 1830 they and their Native wives began year-round occupation of the land, raising crops and tending animals. In this process, the mixed race families began to impact Native access to land, food supply, traditional materials for trade and religious practices. In July 1830, "intermittent fever" struck the lower Columbia region and a year the Willamette Valley. Natives traced the arrival of the disease new to the Northwest, to the U.
S. ship, captained by John Dominis. "Intermittent fever" is thought by researchers now to be malaria. According to Robert T. Boyd, an anthropologist at Portland State University, the first three years of the epidemic, "probably constitute the single most important epidemiological event in the recorded history of what would become the state of Oregon". In his book The Coming of the Spirit Pestilence Boyd reports there was a 92% population loss for the Kalapuyans between 1830 and 1841; this catastrophic event shattered the social fabric of Kalapuyan society and altered the demographic balance in the Valley. This balance was further altered over the next few years by the arrival of Anglo-American settlers, beginning in 1840 with 13 people and growing each year until within 20 years more than 11,000 US colonists, including Eugene Skinner, had arrived; as the demographic pressure from the colonists grew, the remaining Kalapuyans were forcibly removed to Indian reservations. Though some Natives escaped being swept into the reservation, most were moved to the Grand Ronde reservation in 1856.
Strict racial segregation was enforced and mixed race people, known as Métis in French, had to make a choice between the reservation and Anglo society. Native Americans could not leave the reservation without traveling papers and white people could not enter the reservation. Eugene Franklin Skinner, after whom Eugene is named, arrived in the Willamette Valley in 1846 with 1200 other colonists that year. Advised by the Kalapuyans to build on high ground to avoid flooding, he erected the first Anglo cabin on south or west slope of what the Kalapuyans called Ya-po-ah; the "isolated hill" is now known as Skinner's Butte. The cabin was used as a trading post and was registered as an official post office on January 8, 1850. At this time the settlement was known by Anglos as Skinner's Mudhole, it was relocated in 1853 and named Eugene City in 1853. Formally incorporated as a city in 1862, it was named Eugene in 1889. Skinner ran a ferry service across the Willamette River; the first major educational institution in the area was Columbia College, founded a few years earlier than the University of Oregon.
It fell victim to two major fires in four years, after the second fire, the college decided not to rebuild again. The part of south Eugene known as College Hill was the former location o
Palmdale is a city in northern Los Angeles County in the U. S. state of California. The city lies in the Antelope Valley region of Southern California; the San Gabriel Mountains separate Palmdale from the city of Los Angeles to the south. On August 24, 1962, Palmdale became the first community in the Antelope Valley to incorporate. Forty seven years in November 2009, voters approved making it a charter city. Palmdale's population was 152,750 at the 2010 census, up from 116,670 at the 2000 census. Palmdale is the 33rd most populous city in California. Together with its immediate northern neighbor of the city of Lancaster, the Palmdale/Lancaster urban area had an estimated population of 513,547 as of 2013. Populated by different cultures for an estimated 11,000 years, the Antelope Valley was a trade route for Native Americans traveling from Arizona and New Mexico to California’s coast. "Palmenthal", the first European settlement within the limits of Palmdale, was established as a village on April 20, 1886, by westward Lutheran travelers from the American Midwest of German and Swiss descent.
According to area folklore, the travelers had been told they would know they were close to the ocean when they saw palm trees. Never having seen palm trees before, they mistook the local Joshua trees for palms and so named their settlement after them. According to David L. Durham Joshua trees were sometimes called yucca palms at the time, the reason for the name; the village was established upon the arrival of a post office on June 17, 1888. By the 1890s farming families continued to migrate to Palmenthal and nearby Harold to grow grain and fruit. However, most of these settlers were unfamiliar with farming in a desert climate, so when the drought years occurred, most abandoned their settlement. By 1899, only one family was left in the original village; the rest of the settlers, including the post office, moved closer to the Southern Pacific railroad tracks. This new community was located where the present day civic center is. A railroad station was built along the tracks there; this railroad was traveled between Los Angeles and San Francisco.
The Wells Fargo stagecoach line that ran between San Francisco and New Orleans stopped there as well. The only remaining pieces of evidence of the original settlements of Palmenthal and Harold are the old Palmdale Pioneer cemetery located on the northeast corner of Avenue S and 20th Street East acquired and restored by the city as part of a future historical park, the old schoolhouse now relocated to McAdam Park. Palmdale was first inhabited by Native Americans. Spanish soldier Captain Pedro Fages explored the Antelope Valley in 1772; the opening of California to overland travel through the forbearing desert was due to Captain Juan Bautista de Anza and Father Francisco Garces, a most remarkable Spanish padre. They led a colonizing expedition including 136 settlers across the Mojave Desert from Mexico to Monterey in 1773. In 1776 while exploring the Valley, Garces with several Indian guides from the San Gabriel Mission recorded viewing the vast expanse of what was the El Tejon Rancheria of the Cuabajoy Indians.
After the Shoshone Indians left the valley, immigrants from Spain and Mexico established large cattle ranches there. In the late 1880s, the ranches were broken up into smaller homesteads by farmers from Germany and the state of Nebraska; as the population of Palmdale began to increase after relocation, water became scarce, until November 5, 1913 when the California – Los Angeles Aqueduct system was completed by William Mulholland, bringing water from the Owens Valley into Los Angeles County. During this period, crops of apples and alfalfa became plentiful. In 1915, Palmdale's first newspaper, the Palmdale Post, was published. Today it is called the Antelope Valley Press. In 1921, the first major link between Palmdale and Los Angeles was completed, Mint Canyon/Lancaster Road designated U. S. Route 6. Completion of this road caused the local agricultural industry to flourish and was the first major step towards defining the metropolis that exists today. Presently this road is known as Sierra Highway.
In 1924, the Little Rock Dam and the Harold Reservoir, present day Lake Palmdale, were constructed to assist the agricultural industry and have enough water to serve the growing communities. Agriculture continued to be the foremost industry for Palmdale and its northern neighbor Lancaster until the outbreak of World War II. In 1933, the United States government established Muroc Air Base six miles north of Lancaster in Kern County, now known as Edwards Air Force Base, they bought Palmdale Airport in 1952 and established an aerospace development and testing facility called United States Air Force Plant 42. One year in 1953, Lockheed established a facility at the airport. After this point in time, the aerospace industry took over as the primary local source of employment, where it has remained since. Today the city is referred to as the "Aerospace Capital of America" because of its rich heritage in being the home of many of the aircraft used in the United States military. In August 1956 an unpiloted out of control Navy drone flew over Palmdale while Air Force Interceptor aircraft tried to shoot it down with unguided rockets.
Many rockets landed around the city starting fires and damaging property. In 1957, Palmdale's first high school, Palmdale High School, was established, making it easier for youths to not have to travel to Antelope Valley High School in nearb